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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Epidemiology of Meningitis in an HIV-Infected Ugandan Cohort.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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There is limited understanding of the epidemiology of meningitis among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected populations in sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a prospective cohort study of HIV-infected adults with suspected meningitis in Uganda, to comprehensively evaluate the etiologies of meningitis. Intensive cerebrospiral fluid (CSF) testing was performed to evaluate for bacterial, viral, fungal, and mycobacterial etiologies, including neurosyphilis,16s ribosomal DNA (rDNA) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacteria, Plex-ID broad viral assay, quantitative-PCR for HSV-1/2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and Toxoplasma gondii; reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) for Enteroviruses and arboviruses, and Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Cryptococcal meningitis accounted for 60% (188 of 314) of all causes of meningitis. Of 117 samples sent for viral PCR, 36% were EBV positive. Among cryptococcal antigen negative patients, the yield of Xpert MTB/RIF assay was 22% (8 of 36). After exclusion of cryptococcosis and bacterial meningitis, 61% (43 of 71) with an abnormal CSF profile had no definitive diagnosis. Exploration of new TB diagnostics and diagnostic algorithms for evaluation of meningitis in resource-limited settings remains critical.
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U.S. Food and drug administration approval: obinutuzumab in combination with chlorambucil for the treatment of previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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On November 1, 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved obinutuzumab (GAZYVA; Genentech, Inc.), a CD20-directed cytolytic antibody, for use in combination with chlorambucil for the treatment of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). In stage 1 of the trial supporting approval, patients with previously untreated CD20-positive CLL were randomly allocated (2:2:1) to obinutuzumab + chlorambucil (GClb, n = 238), rituximab + chlorambucil (RClb, n = 233), or chlorambucil alone (Clb, n = 118). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), and secondary endpoints included overall response rate (ORR). Only the comparison of GClb to Clb was relevant to this approval and is described herein. A clinically meaningful and statistically significant improvement in PFS with medians of 23.0 and 11.1 months was observed in the GClb and Clb arms, respectively (HR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.11-0.24; P < 0.0001, log-rank test). The ORRs were 75.9% and 32.1% in the GClb and Clb arms, respectively, and the complete response rates were 27.8% and 0.9% in the GClb and Clb arms, respectively. The most common adverse reactions (?10%) reported in the GClb arm were infusion reactions, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia, pyrexia, cough, and musculoskeletal disorders. Obinutuzumab was the first Breakthrough Therapy-designated drug to receive FDA approval.
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Sunguru virus: a novel virus in the family Rhabdoviridae isolated from a chicken in north-western Uganda.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Sunguru virus (SUNV), a novel virus belonging to the highly diverse Rhabdoviridae family, was isolated from a domestic chicken in the district of Arua, Uganda, in 2011. This is the first documented isolation of a rhabdovirus from a chicken. SUNV is related to, but distinct from, Boteke virus and other members of the unclassified Sandjimba group. The genome is 11056 nt in length and contains the five core rhabdovirus genes plus an additional C gene (within the ORF of a phosphoprotein gene) and a small hydrophobic protein (between the matrix and glycoprotein genes). Inoculation of vertebrate cells with SUNV resulted in significant viral growth, with a peak titre of 7.8 log10 p.f.u. ml(-1) observed in baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. Little to no growth was observed in invertebrate cells and in live mosquitoes, with Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes having a 47.4% infection rate in the body but no dissemination of the virus to the salivary glands; this suggests that this novel virus is not arthropod borne as some other members of the family Rhabdoviridae.
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Ticks and tick-borne viruses from livestock hosts in arid and semiarid regions of the eastern and northeastern parts of Kenya.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Biodiversity and relative abundance of ticks and associated arboviruses in Garissa (northeastern) and Isiolo (eastern) provinces of Kenya were evaluated. Ticks were collected from livestock, identified to species, pooled, and processed for virus isolation. In Garissa, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstacker (57.8%) and Hyalomma truncatum Koch (27.8%) were the most abundant species sampled, whereas R. pulchellus (80.4%) and Amblyomma gemma Donitz (9.6%) were the most abundant in Isiolo. Forty-four virus isolates, comprising Dugbe virus (DUGV; n = 22) and Kupe virus (n = 10; Bunyaviridae: Nirovirus), Dhori virus (DHOV; n = 10; Orthomyxoviridae: Thogotovirus),and Ngari virus (NRIV; n = 2; Bunyaviridae: Orthobunyavirus), were recovered mostly from R. pulchellus sampled in Isiolo. DUGV was mostly recovered from R. pulchellus from sheep and cattle, and DHOV from R. pulchellus from sheep. All Kupe virus isolates were from Isiolo ticks, including R. pulchellus from all the livestock, A. gemma and Amblyomma variegatum F. from cattle, and H. truncatum from goat. NRIV was obtained from R. pulchellus and A. gemma sampled from cattle in Isiolo and Garissa, respectively, while all DHOV and most DUGV (n = 12) were from R. pulchellus sampled from cattle in Garissa. DUGV was also recovered from H. truncatum and Amblyomma hebraeum Koch from cattle and from Rhipicephalus annulatus Say from camel. This surveillance study has demonstrated the circulation of select tick-borne viruses in parts of eastern and northeastern provinces of Kenya, some of which are of public health importance. The isolation of NRIV from ticks is particularly significant because it is usually known to be a mosquito-borne virus affecting humans.
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Deletion of the NSm virulence gene of Rift Valley fever virus inhibits virus replication in and dissemination from the midgut of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Previously, we investigated the role of the Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) virulence genes NSs and NSm in mosquitoes and demonstrated that deletion of NSm significantly reduced the infection, dissemination, and transmission rates of RVFV in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. The specific aim of this study was to further characterize midgut infection and escape barriers of RVFV in Ae. aegypti infected with reverse genetics-generated wild type RVFV (rRVF-wt) or RVFV lacking the NSm virulence gene (rRVF-?NSm) by examining sagittal sections of infected mosquitoes for viral antigen at various time points post-infection.
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On the analysis of cheating.
J Anal Psychol
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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Cheating, as a psychological mechanism, is common to all, weaving through early family dynamics and evolving sexual identities. When it erupts in our love relationships, confusion, destruction, and de-integration of existing psychological states occur for all those affected by the cheating. The eruption of cheating can be viewed as a spontaneous response of the individual to disrupt a state of psychological stagnation and regression that may have no conscious path for dissolution. The transgressive actions bring up the possibility of a secret or separated consciousness, potentially breaking into states of existing merger in the established relationship system. This prior state of adaptation may have provided stability and security, while limiting the development of a separated consciousness with its urge toward acknowledgement. These essential, spontaneous elements in cheating can be found in Jungs later description of the psychology of the transference, where illicit impulses are seen at the foundation of the drive for individuation. The familiar psychological complex of the one betrayed is also explored, highlighting the potential for maturation in the one most wounded by the cheating. Clinical material is utilized here to amplify the relationship between cheating and the need for psychological evolution.
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Isolation and molecular characterization of Fikirini rhabdovirus, a novel virus from a Kenyan bat.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Zoonotic and vector-borne pathogens have comprised a significant component of emerging human infections in recent decades, and bats are increasingly recognized as reservoirs for many of these disease agents. To identify novel pathogens associated with bats, we screened tissues of bats collected in Kenya. Virus isolates were identified by next generation sequencing of viral nucleic acid preparations from the infected cell culture supernatant and characterized. Here we report the identification of Fikirini rhabdovirus, a novel rhabdovirus isolated from a bat, Hipposideros vittatus, captured along the Kenyan coast.
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Search strategy has influenced the discovery rate of human viruses.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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A widely held concern is that the pace of infectious disease emergence has been increasing. We have analyzed the rate of discovery of pathogenic viruses, the preeminent source of newly discovered causes of human disease, from 1897 through 2010. The rate was highest during 1950-1969, after which it moderated. This general picture masks two distinct trends: for arthropod-borne viruses, which comprised 39% of pathogenic viruses, the discovery rate peaked at three per year during 1960-1969, but subsequently fell nearly to zero by 1980; however, the rate of discovery of nonarboviruses remained stable at about two per year from 1950 through 2010. The period of highest arbovirus discovery coincided with a comprehensive program supported by The Rockefeller Foundation of isolating viruses from humans, animals, and arthropod vectors at field stations in Latin America, Africa, and India. The productivity of this strategy illustrates the importance of location, approach, long-term commitment, and sponsorship in the discovery of emerging pathogens.
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Cancer incidence trends among native Hawaiians and other Pacific Islanders in the United States, 1990-2008.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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Lack of annual population estimates for disaggregated Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) populations limits the ability to examine cancer incidence rates and trends to understand the cancer burdens among NHOPIs.
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Cancer incidence trends among Asian American populations in the United States, 1990-2008.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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National cancer incidence trends are presented for eight Asian American groups: Asian Indians/Pakistanis, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Kampucheans, Koreans, Laotians, and Vietnamese.
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Identification of host blood from engorged mosquitoes collected in western Uganda using cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences.
J. Wildl. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Emerging infectious disease events are frequently caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) that are maintained in a zoonotic cycle between arthropod vectors and vertebrate wildlife species, with spillover to humans in areas where human and wildlife populations interface. The greater Congo basin region, including Uganda, has historically been a hot spot for emergence of known and novel arboviruses. Surveillance of arthropod vectors is a critical activity in monitoring and predicting outbreaks of arboviral disease, and identification of blood meals in engorged arthropods collected during surveillance efforts provides insight into the ecology of arboviruses and their vectors. As part of an ongoing arbovirus surveillance project we analyzed blood meals from engorged mosquitoes collected at five sites in western Uganda November 2008-June 2010. We extracted DNA from the dissected and triturated abdomens of engorged mosquito specimens. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene sequence was amplified by PCR and sequenced to identify the source of the mosquito host blood. Blood meals were analyzed from 533 engorged mosquito specimens; 440 of these blood meals were successfully identified from 33 mosquito species. Species identifications were made for 285 of the 440 identified specimens with the remainder identified to genus, family, or order. When combined with published arbovirus isolation and serologic survey data, our results suggest possible vector-reservoir relationships for several arboviruses, including Rift Valley fever virus and West Nile virus.
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Inactivation of infectious virus and serological detection of virus antigen in Rift Valley fever virus-exposed mosquitoes fixed with paraformaldehyde.
J. Virol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Formaldehyde is routinely used to fix tissues in preparation for pathology studies, however concerns remain that treatment of tissues with cellular fixatives may not entirely inactivate infectious virus particles. This concern is of particular regulatory importance for research involving viruses that are classified as select agents such as Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Therefore, the specific aims of this study were to (1) assay RVFV-exposed Aedes aegypti mosquitoes fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde for the presence of infectious RVFV particles at various time points following infection and (2) demonstrate the utility of immunofluorescence assay (IFA) for the detection of RVFV antigen in various tissues of paraformaldehyde-fixed mosquitoes. Mosquitoes were administered an infectious blood meal containing one of two strains of RVFV, harvested at various time points following infection, intrathoracically inoculated with 4% paraformaldehyde, and fixed overnight at 4°C. The infection status of a subset of mosquitoes was verified by IFA on leg tissues prior to fixation, and infectivity of RVFV in fixed mosquito carcasses was determined by Vero cell plaque assay. Paraformaldehyde-fixed mosquitoes harvested 14 days post infection were also paraffin-embedded and sectioned for detection of RVFV antigen to particular tissues by IFA. None of the RVFV-exposed mosquitoes tested by Vero cell plaque assay contained infectious RVFV after fixation. Furthermore, incubation of mosquito sections with trypsin prior to antibody staining is recommended for optimal visualization of RVFV antigen in infected mosquito tissues by IFA.
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Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Hyalommid ticks, northeastern Kenya.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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As part of ongoing arbovirus surveillance, we screened ticks obtained from livestock in northeastern Kenya in 2008 to assess the risk for human exposure to tick-borne viruses. Of 1,144 pools of 8,600 Hyalomma spp. ticks screened for Congo-Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus by reverse transcription PCR, 23 pools were infected, demonstrating a potential for human exposure.
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Preliminary clinical findings on NEUMUNE as a potential treatment for acute radiation syndrome.
J Radiol Prot
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2010
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5-androstenediol (5-AED) has been advanced as a possible countermeasure for treating the haematological component of acute radiation syndrome (ARS). It has been used in animal models to stimulate both innate and adaptive immunity and treat infection and radiation-induced immune suppression. We here report on the safety, tolerability and haematologic activity of 5-AED in four double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled studies on healthy adults including elderly subjects. A 5-AED injectable suspension formulation (NEUMUNE) or placebo was administered intramuscularly as either a single injection, or once daily for five consecutive days at doses of 50, 100, 200 or 400 mg. Subjects (n = 129) were randomized to receive NEUMUNE (n = 95) or the placebo (n = 34). NEUMUNE was generally well-tolerated; the most frequent adverse events were local injection site reactions (n = 104, 81%) that were transient, dose-volume dependent, mild to moderate in severity, and that resolved over the course of the study. Blood chemistries revealed a transient increase (up to 28%) in creatine phosphokinase and C-reactive protein levels consistent with intramuscular injection and injection site irritation. The blood concentration profile of 5-AED is consistent with a depot formulation that increases in disproportionate increments following each dose. NEUMUNE significantly increased circulating neutrophils (p < 0.001) and platelets (p < 0.001) in the peripheral blood of adult and elderly subjects. A dose-response relationship was identified. Findings suggest that parenteral administration of 5-AED in aqueous suspension may be a safe and effective means to stimulate innate immunity and alleviate neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with ARS.
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Rift Valley fever virus epidemic in Kenya, 2006/2007: the entomologic investigations.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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In December 2006, Rift Valley fever (RVF) was diagnosed in humans in Garissa Hospital, Kenya and an outbreak reported affecting 11 districts. Entomologic surveillance was performed in four districts to determine the epidemic/epizootic vectors of RVF virus (RVFV). Approximately 297,000 mosquitoes were collected, 164,626 identified to species, 72,058 sorted into 3,003 pools and tested for RVFV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Seventy-seven pools representing 10 species tested positive for RVFV, including Aedes mcintoshi/circumluteolus (26 pools), Aedes ochraceus (23 pools), Mansonia uniformis (15 pools); Culex poicilipes, Culex bitaeniorhynchus (3 pools each); Anopheles squamosus, Mansonia africana (2 pools each); Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex univittatus, Aedes pembaensis (1 pool each). Positive Ae. pembaensis, Cx. univittatus, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus was a first time observation. Species composition, densities, and infection varied among districts supporting hypothesis that different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVFV in diverse ecologies, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa.
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Expressions of homosexuality and the perspective of analytical psychology.
J Anal Psychol
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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Homosexuality, as a description and category of human experience, has a long, complicated and problematic history. It has been utilized as a carrier of theological, political, and psychological ideologies of all sorts, with varying and contradictory influences into the lives of us all. Analytical psychology, emphasizing the purposiveness found in manifestations of the psyche, offers a unique approach to this subject. The focus moves from causation to the meanings embedded in erotic expressions, fantasies, and dreams. Consequently, homosexuality loses its predetermined meaning and finds its definition in the psychology of the individual. Categories of sexual orientation may defend against personal analysis, deflecting the essential fluidity and mystery of Eros. This is illustrated with samples of the variety found in homosexual material.
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Transmission of West Nile virus by Culex quinquefasciatus say infected with Culex Flavivirus Izabal.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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The natural history and potential impact of mosquito-specific flaviviruses on the transmission efficiency of West Nile virus (WNV) is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not prior infection with Culex flavivirus (CxFV) Izabal altered the vector competence of Cx. quinquefasciatus Say for transmission of a co-circulating strain of West Nile virus (WNV) from Guatemala.
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Arbovirus surveillance of mosquitoes collected at sites of active Rift Valley fever virus transmission: Kenya, 2006-2007.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2009
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Mosquitoes collected during an outbreak of Rift Valley fever in Kenya from December 2006 to February 2007 were tested to isolate other mosquito-borne arboviruses circulating in the region. Twenty-seven virus isolations were made comprising seven viruses from three arbovirus families.
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Impact of socioeconomic status on cancer incidence and stage at diagnosis: selected findings from the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results: National Longitudinal Mortality Study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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Population-based cancer registry data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) are mainly based on medical records and administrative information. Individual-level socioeconomic data are not routinely reported by cancer registries in the United States because they are not available in patient hospital records. The U.S. representative National Longitudinal Mortality Study (NLMS) data provide self-reported, detailed demographic and socioeconomic data from the Social and Economic Supplement to the Census Bureaus Current Population Survey (CPS). In 1999, the NCI initiated the SEER-NLMS study, linking the population-based SEER cancer registry data to NLMS data. The SEER-NLMS data provide a new unique research resource that is valuable for health disparity research on cancer burden. We describe the design, methods, and limitations of this data set. We also present findings on cancer-related health disparities according to individual-level socioeconomic status (SES) and demographic characteristics for all cancers combined and for cancers of the lung, breast, prostate, cervix, and melanoma.
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U.S. Latino population composition change and comprehensive cancer centers.
J Health Care Poor Underserved
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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We describe a typology characterizing population trends of U.S. Latinos/Hispanics from 1990 to 2000 with respect to National Cancer Institute-designated comprehensive cancer centers (CCCs) and corresponding consolidated metropolitan statistical or metropolitan statistical areas (CMSA/MSAs).
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Kupe virus, a new virus in the family bunyaviridae, genus nairovirus, kenya.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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We have previously described isolation and preliminary identification of a virus related to Dugbe virus (DUGV), family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus. Six isolates of the virus were obtained from pools of Amblyomma gemma and Rhipicephalus pulchellus ticks collected from hides of cattle in Nairobi, Kenya, in October 1999. We report results of further characterization of this virus, including growth kinetics in cell culture and full-length genome sequencing and genetic characterization, which show it to be distinct from DUGV. We suggest that this is a new virus in the family Bunyaviridae, genus Nairovirus, and we propose that it be designated Kupe virus.
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Isolation and characterization of a new mosquito flavivirus, Quang Binh virus, from Vietnam.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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In recent years, a number of flaviviruses that replicate only in an arthropod host have been discovered and characterized. We describe here the isolation and characterization of a new mosquito-only flavivirus in this group. The virus was isolated from Culex tritaeniorhyncus mosquitoes collected in Vietnam in 2002 and was found to be genetically different from mosquito flaviviruses described previously. We propose the isolate be named Quang Binh virus.
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Infection and transmission of Rift Valley fever viruses lacking the NSs and/or NSm genes in mosquitoes: potential role for NSm in mosquito infection.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
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Rift Valley fever virus is an arthropod-borne human and animal pathogen responsible for large outbreaks of acute and febrile illness throughout Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Reverse genetics technology has been used to develop deletion mutants of the virus that lack the NSs and/or NSm virulence genes and have been shown to be stable, immunogenic and protective against Rift Valley fever virus infection in animals. We assessed the potential for these deletion mutant viruses to infect and be transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, which are the principal vectors for maintenance of the virus in nature and emergence of virus initiating disease outbreaks, and by Culex mosquitoes which are important amplification vectors.
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Culex flavivirus and West Nile virus in Culex quinquefasciatus populations in the southeastern United States.
J. Med. Entomol.
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Little is known of the interactions between insect-only flaviviruses and other arboviruses in their mosquito hosts, or the potential public health significance of these associations. The specific aims of this study were to describe the geographic distribution, prevalence, and seasonal infection rates of Culex flavivirus (CxFV) and West Nile virus (WNV) in Culex quinquefasciatus Say in the Southeastern United States, investigate the potential association between CxFV and WNV prevalence in Cx. quinquefasciatus and describe the phylogenetic relationship among CxFV and WNV isolates from the Southeastern United States and around the world. Using ArboNET records, 11 locations were selected across Georgia, Mississippi, and Louisiana that represented a range of WNV human case incidence levels. Cx. quinquefasciatus were trapped weekly throughout the summer of 2009 and pools were screened for flavivirus RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Cx. quinquefasciatus from Georgia had significantly higher CxFV infection rates than either Mississippi or Louisiana. CxFV was not detected in Mississippi after July, and no CxFV was detected in Cx. quinquefasciatus in Louisiana. In Georgia, CxFV infection rates were variable between and within counties and over time. WNV infection rates were not significantly different across states or months, and WNV sequences from all three states were identical to each other in the envelope and NS5 gene regions. Phylogenetically, NS5 and E gene sequences from Georgia CxFV isolates clustered with CxFV from Japan, Iowa, and Texas. Multiple CxFV genetic variants were found circulating simultaneously in Georgia. No evidence was found supporting an association between WNV and CxFV infection prevalence in Cx. quinquefasciatus.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.