The counterbalancing action of the endocytosis and secretory pathways maintains a dynamic equilibrium that regulates the composition of the plasma membrane, allowing it to maintain homeostasis and to change rapidly in response to alterations in the extracellular environment and/or intracellular metabolism. These pathways are intimately integrated with intercellular signaling systems and play critical roles in all cells. Studies in Caenorhabditis elegans have revealed diverse roles of membrane trafficking in physiology and development and have also provided molecular insight into the fundamental mechanisms that direct cargo sorting, vesicle budding, and membrane fisson and fusion. In this review, we summarize progress in understanding membrane trafficking mechanisms derived from work in C. elegans, focusing mainly on work done in non-neuronal cell-types, especially the germline, early embryo, coelomocytes, and intestine.
The transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) superfamily of signaling pathways, including the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) subfamily of ligands and receptors, controls a myriad of developmental processes across metazoan biology. Transport of the receptors from the plasma membrane to endosomes has been proposed to promote TGF? signal transduction and shape BMP-signaling gradients throughout development. However, how postendocytic trafficking of BMP receptors contributes to the regulation of signal transduction has remained enigmatic. Here we report that the intracellular domain of Caenorhabditis elegans BMP type I receptor SMA-6 (small-6) binds to the retromer complex, and in retromer mutants, SMA-6 is degraded because of its missorting to lysosomes. Surprisingly, we find that the type II BMP receptor, DAF-4 (dauer formation-defective-4), is retromer-independent and recycles via a distinct pathway mediated by ARF-6 (ADP-ribosylation factor-6). Importantly, we find that loss of retromer blocks BMP signaling in multiple tissues. Taken together, our results indicate a mechanism that separates the type I and type II receptors during receptor recycling, potentially terminating signaling while preserving both receptors for further rounds of activation.
The engulfment and subsequent degradation of apoptotic cells by phagocytes is an evolutionarily conserved process that efficiently removes dying cells from animal bodies during development. Here, we report that clathrin heavy chain (CHC-1), a membrane coat protein well known for its role in receptor-mediated endocytosis, and its adaptor epsin (EPN-1) play crucial roles in removing apoptotic cells in Caenorhabditis elegans. Inactivating epn-1 or chc-1 disrupts engulfment by impairing actin polymerization. This defect is partially suppressed by inactivating UNC-60, a cofilin ortholog and actin server/depolymerization protein, further indicating that EPN-1 and CHC-1 regulate actin assembly during pseudopod extension. CHC-1 is enriched on extending pseudopods together with EPN-1, in an EPN-1-dependent manner. Epistasis analysis places epn-1 and chc-1 in the same cell-corpse engulfment pathway as ced-1, ced-6 and dyn-1. CED-1 signaling is necessary for the pseudopod enrichment of EPN-1 and CHC-1. CED-1, CED-6 and DYN-1, like EPN-1 and CHC-1, are essential for the assembly and stability of F-actin underneath pseudopods. We propose that in response to CED-1 signaling, CHC-1 is recruited to the phagocytic cup through EPN-1 and acts as a scaffold protein to organize actin remodeling. Our work reveals novel roles of clathrin and epsin in apoptotic-cell internalization, suggests a Hip1/R-independent mechanism linking clathrin to actin assembly, and ties the CED-1 pathway to cytoskeleton remodeling.
Src homology 3 (SH3) domains bind peptides to mediate protein-protein interactions that assemble and regulate dynamic biological processes. We surveyed the repertoire of SH3 binding specificity using peptide phage display in a metazoan, the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, and discovered that it structurally mirrors that of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We then mapped the worm SH3 interactome using stringent yeast two-hybrid and compared it with the equivalent map for yeast. We found that the worm SH3 interactome resembles the analogous yeast network because it is significantly enriched for proteins with roles in endocytosis. Nevertheless, orthologous SH3 domain-mediated interactions are highly rewired. Our results suggest a model of network evolution where general function of the SH3 domain network is conserved over its specific form.
After endocytosis, a selective endocytic recycling process returns many endocytosed molecules back to the plasma membrane. The RAB-10/Rab10 GTPase is known to be a key recycling regulator for specific cargo molecules. New evidence, focused on C. elegans RAB-10 in polarized epithelia, points to a key role of RAB-10 in the regulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) levels. In turn, PI(4,5)P2 levels strongly influence the recruitment of many peripheral membrane proteins, including those important for vesicle budding through their membrane bending activities. Part of the effect of RAB-10 on endosomal PI(4,5)P2 is through its newly identified effector CNT-1, a predicted GTPase activating protein (GAP) of the small GTPase ARF-6/Arf6. In mammals PI(4,5)P2 generating enzymes are known Arf6 effectors. In C. elegans we found that RAB-10, CNT-1 and ARF-6 are present on the same endosomes, that RAB-10 recruits CNT-1 to endosomes, and that loss of CNT-1 or RAB-10 leads to overaccumulation of endosomal PI(4,5)P2, presumably via hyperactivation of endosomal ARF-6. In turn this leads to over-recruitment of PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/PACSIN. Conversely, in arf-6 mutants, endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels were reduced and endosomal recruitment of RME-1 and SDPN-1 failed. This work makes an unexpected link between distinct classes of small GTPases that control endocytic recycling, and provides insight into how this interaction affects endosome function at the level of lipid phosphorylation.
The clathrin adaptor complex AP2 is thought to be an obligate heterotetramer. We identify null mutations in the ? subunit of AP2 in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. ?-adaptin mutants are viable and the remaining ?2/? hemicomplex retains some function. Conversely, in ?2 mutants, the alpha/sigma2 hemicomplex is localized and is partially functional. ?-?2 double mutants disrupt both halves of the complex and are lethal. The lethality can be rescued by expression of AP2 components in the skin, which allowed us to evaluate the requirement for AP2 subunits at synapses. Mutations in either ? or ?2 subunits alone reduce the number of synaptic vesicles by about 30%; however, simultaneous loss of both ? and ?2 subunits leads to a 70% reduction in synaptic vesicles and the presence of large vacuoles. These data suggest that AP2 may function as two partially independent hemicomplexes. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00190.001.
Cells release extracellular vesicles (ECVs) that can influence differentiation, modulate the immune response, promote coagulation, and induce metastasis. Many ECVs form by budding outwards from the plasma membrane, but the molecules that regulate budding are unknown. In ECVs, the outer leaflet of the membrane bilayer contains aminophospholipids that are normally sequestered to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, suggesting a role for lipid asymmetry in ECV budding.
Autophagy and endocytosis are dynamic and tightly regulated processes that contribute to many fundamental aspects of biology including survival, longevity, and development. However, the molecular links between autophagy and endocytosis are not well understood. Here, we report that BEC-1, the C. elegans ortholog of Atg6/Vps30/Beclin1, a key regulator of the autophagic machinery, also contributes to endosome function. In particular we identify a defect in retrograde transport from endosomes to the Golgi in bec-1 mutants. MIG-14/Wntless is normally recycled from endosomes to the Golgi through the action of the retromer complex and its associated factor RME-8. Lack of retromer or RME-8 activity results in the aberrant transport of MIG-14/Wntless to the lysosome where it is degraded. Similarly, we find that lack of bec-1 also results in mislocalization and degradation of MIG-14::GFP, reduced levels of RME-8 on endosomal membranes, and the accumulation of morphologically abnormal endosomes. A similar phenotype was observed in animals treated with dsRNA against vps-34. We further identify a requirement for BEC-1 in the clearance of apoptotic corpses in the hermaphrodite gonad, suggesting a role for BEC-1 in phagosome maturation, a process that appears to depend upon retrograde transport. In addition, autophagy genes may also be required for cell corpse clearance, as we find that RNAi against atg-18 or unc-51 also results in a lack of cell corpse clearance.
SNARE domain proteins are key molecules mediating intracellular fusion events. SNAP25 family proteins are unique target-SNAREs possessing two SNARE domains. Here we report the genetic, molecular, and cell biological characterization of C. elegans SNAP-29. We found that snap-29 is an essential gene required throughout the life-cycle. Depletion of snap-29 by RNAi in adults results in sterility associated with endomitotic oocytes and pre-meiotic maturation of the oocytes. Many of the embryos that are produced are multinucleated, indicating a defect in embryonic cytokinesis. A profound defect in secretion by oocytes and early embryos in animals lacking SNAP-29 appears to be the underlying defect connecting these phenotypes. Further analysis revealed defects in basolateral and apical secretion by intestinal epithelial cells in animals lacking SNAP-29, indicating a broad requirement for this protein in the secretory pathway. A SNAP-29-GFP fusion protein was enriched on recycling endosomes, and loss of SNAP-29 disrupted recycling endosome morphology. Taken together these results suggest a requirement for SNAP-29 in the fusion of post-Golgi vesicles with the recycling endosome for cargo to reach the cell surface.
Caenorhabditis elegans RAB-10 functions in endocytic recycling in polarized cells, regulating basolateral cargo transport in the intestinal epithelia and postsynaptic cargo transport in interneurons. A similar role was found for mammalian Rab10 in MDCK cells, suggesting that a conserved mechanism regulates these related pathways in metazoans. In a yeast two-hybrid screen for binding partners of RAB-10 we identified EHBP-1, a calponin homology domain (CH) protein, whose mammalian homolog Ehbp1 was previously shown to function during endocytic transport of GLUT4 in adipocytes. In vivo we find that EHBP-1-GFP colocalizes with RFP-RAB-10 on endosomal structures of the intestine and interneurons and that ehbp-1 loss-of-function mutants share with rab-10 mutants specific endosome morphology and cargo localization defects. We also show that loss of EHBP-1 disrupts transport of membrane proteins to the plasma membrane of the nonpolarized germline cells, a defect that can be phenocopied by codepletion of RAB-10 and its closest paralog RAB-8. These results indicate that RAB-10 and EHBP-1 function together in many cell types and suggests that there are differences in the level of redundancy among Rab family members in polarized versus nonpolarized cells.
GABA(A) receptor plasticity is important for both normal brain function and disease progression. We are studying GABA(A) receptor plasticity in Caenorhabditis elegans using a genetic approach. Acute exposure of worms to the GABA(A) agonist muscimol hyperpolarizes postsynaptic cells, causing paralysis. Worms adapt after several hours, but show uncoordinated locomotion consistent with decreased GABA signaling. Using patch-clamp and immunofluorescence approaches, we show that GABA(A) receptors are selectively removed from synapses during adaptation. Subunit mRNA levels were unchanged, suggesting a post-transcriptional mechanism. Mutants with defective lysosome function (cup-5) show elevated GABA(A) receptor levels at synapses prior to muscimol exposure. During adaptation, these receptors are removed more slowly, and accumulate in intracellular organelles positive for the late endosome marker GFP-RAB-7. These findings suggest that chronic agonist exposure increases endocytosis and lysosomal trafficking of GABA(A) receptors, leading to reduced levels of synaptic GABA(A) receptors and reduced postsynaptic GABA sensitivity.
Clathrin and retromer have key functions for retrograde trafficking between early endosomes and the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Previous studies on Shiga toxin suggested that these two coat complexes operate in a sequential manner. Here, we show that the curvature recognition subunit component sorting nexin 1 (SNX1) of retromer interacts with receptor-mediated endocytosis-8 (RME-8) protein, and that RME-8 and SNX1 colocalize on early endosomes together with a model cargo of the retrograde route, the receptor-binding B-subunit of Shiga toxin (STxB). RME-8 has previously been found to bind to the clathrin uncoating adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) Hsc70, and we now report that depletion of RME-8 or Hsc70 affects retrograde trafficking at the early endosomes-TGN interface of STxB and the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor, an endogenous retrograde cargo protein. We also provide evidence that retromer interacts with the clathrin-binding protein hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (Hrs) not only via SNX1, as previously published (Chin Raynor MC, Wei X, Chen HQ, Li L. Hrs interacts with sorting nexin 1 and regulates degradation of epidermal growth factor receptor. J Biol Chem 2001;276:7069-7078), but also via the core complex component Vps35. Hrs codistributes at the ultrastructural level with STxB on early endosomes, and interfering with Hrs function using antibodies or mild overexpression inhibits retrograde transport. Our combined data suggest a model according to which the functions in retrograde sorting on early endosomes of SNX1/retromer and clathrin are articulated by RME-8, and possibly also by Hrs.
The molecular underpinnings of the oocyte-to-embryo transition are poorly understood. Here we show that two protein tyrosine phosphatase-like (PTPL) family proteins, EGG-4 and EGG-5, are required for key events of the oocyte-to-embryo transition in Caenorhabditis elegans. The predicted EGG-4 and EGG-5 amino acid sequences are 99% identical and their functions are redundant. In embryos lacking EGG-4 and EGG-5, we observe defects in meiosis, polar body formation, the block to polyspermy, F-actin dynamics, and eggshell deposition. During oogenesis, EGG-4 and EGG-5 assemble at the oocyte cortex with the previously identified regulators or effectors of the oocyte-to-embryo transition EGG-3, CHS-1, and MBK-2 [1, 2]. All of these molecules share a complex interdependence with regards to their dynamics and subcellular localization. Shortly after fertilization, EGG-4 and EGG-5 are required to properly coordinate a redistribution of CHS-1 and EGG-3 away from the cortex during meiotic anaphase I. Therefore, EGG-4 and EGG-5 are not only required for critical events of the oocyte-to-embryo transition but also link the dynamics of the regulatory machinery with the advancing cell cycle.
Endocytic recycling is coordinated with endocytic uptake to control the composition of the plasma membrane. Although much of our understanding of endocytic recycling has come from studies on the transferrin receptor, a protein internalized through clathrin-dependent endocytosis, increased interest in clathrin-independent endocytosis has led to the discovery of new endocytic recycling systems. Recent insights into the regulatory mechanisms that control endocytic recycling have focused on recycling through tubular carriers and the return to the cell surface of cargoes that enter cells through clathrin-independent mechanisms. Recent work emphasizes the importance of regulated recycling in processes as diverse as cytokinesis, cell adhesion, morphogenesis, cell fusion, learning and memory.
RME-1/EHD1 (receptor mediated endocytosis/Eps15 homology-domain containing 1) family proteins are key residents of the recycling endosome, which are required for endosome-to-plasma membrane transport in Caenorhabditis elegans and mammals. Recent studies suggest similarities between the RME-1/EHD proteins and the Dynamin GTPase superfamily of mechanochemical pinchases, which promote membrane fission. Here we show that endogenous C. elegans AMPH-1, the only C. elegans member of the Amphiphysin/BIN1 family of BAR (Bin1-Amphiphysin-Rvs161p/167p)-domain-containing proteins, colocalizes with RME-1 on recycling endosomes in vivo, that amph-1-deletion mutants are defective in recycling endosome morphology and function, and that binding of AMPH-1 Asn-Pro-Phe(Asp/Glu) sequences to the RME-1 EH-domain promotes the recycling of transmembrane cargo. We also show a requirement for human BIN1 (also known as Amphiphysin 2) in EHD1-regulated endocytic recycling. In vitro, we find that purified recombinant AMPH-1-RME-1 complexes produce short, coated membrane tubules that are qualitatively distinct from those produced by either protein alone. Our results indicate that AMPH-1 and RME-1 cooperatively regulate endocytic recycling, probably through functions required for the production of cargo carriers that exit the recycling endosome for the cell surface.
The TOCA family of F-BAR-containing proteins bind to and remodel lipid bilayers via their conserved F-BAR domains, and regulate actin dynamics via their N-Wasp binding SH3 domains. Thus, these proteins are predicted to play a pivotal role in coordinating membrane traffic with actin dynamics during cell migration and tissue morphogenesis. By combining genetic analysis in Caenorhabditis elegans with cellular biochemical experiments in mammalian cells, we showed that: i) loss of CeTOCA proteins reduced the efficiency of Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in oocytes. Genetic interference with CeTOCAs interacting proteins WSP-1 and WVE-1, and other components of the WVE-1 complex, produced a similar effect. Oocyte endocytosis defects correlated well with reduced egg production in these mutants. ii) CeTOCA proteins localize to cell-cell junctions and are required for proper embryonic morphogenesis, to position hypodermal cells and to organize junctional actin and the junction-associated protein AJM-1. iii) Double mutant analysis indicated that the toca genes act in the same pathway as the nematode homologue of N-WASP/WASP, wsp-1. Furthermore, mammalian TOCA-1 and C. elegans CeTOCAs physically associated with N-WASP and WSP-1 directly, or WAVE2 indirectly via ABI-1. Thus, we propose that TOCA proteins control tissues morphogenesis by coordinating Clathrin-dependent membrane trafficking with WAVE and N-WASP-dependent actin-dynamics.
How endosomes contribute to the maintenance of vesicular structures at presynaptic terminals remains controversial and poorly understood. Here, we have investigated synaptic endosomal compartments in the presynaptic terminals of C. elegans GABAergic motor neurons. Using RAB reporters, we find that several subsynaptic compartments reside in, or near, presynaptic regions. Loss of function in the C. elegans JIP3 protein, UNC-16, causes a RAB-5-containing compartment to accumulate abnormally at presynaptic terminals. Ultrastructural analysis shows that synapses in unc-16 mutants contain reduced number of synaptic vesicles, accompanied by an increase in the size and number of cisternae. FRAP analysis revealed a slow recovery of RAB-5 in unc-16 mutants, suggestive of an impairment of RAB-5 activity state and local vesicular trafficking. Overexpression of RAB-5:GDP partially suppresses, whereas overexpression of RAB-5:GTP enhances, the synaptic defects of unc-16 mutants. Our data demonstrate a novel function of UNC-16 in the regulation of synaptic membrane trafficking and suggest that the synaptic RAB-5 compartment contributes to synaptic vesicle biogenesis or maintenance.
After endocytosis, most cargo enters the pleiomorphic early endosomes in which sorting occurs. As endosomes mature, transmembrane cargo can be sequestered into inwardly budding vesicles for degradation, or can exit the endosome in membrane tubules for recycling to the plasma membrane, the recycling endosome, or the Golgi apparatus. Endosome to Golgi transport requires the retromer complex. Without retromer, recycling cargo such as the MIG-14/Wntless protein aberrantly enters the degradative pathway and is depleted from the Golgi. Endosome-associated clathrin also affects the recycling of retrograde cargo and has been shown to function in the formation of endosomal subdomains. Here, we find that the Caemorhabditis elegans endosomal J-domain protein RME-8 associates with the retromer component SNX-1. Loss of SNX-1, RME-8, or the clathrin chaperone Hsc70/HSP-1 leads to over-accumulation of endosomal clathrin, reduced clathrin dynamics, and missorting of MIG-14 to the lysosome. Our results indicate a mechanism, whereby retromer can regulate endosomal clathrin dynamics through RME-8 and Hsc70, promoting the sorting of recycling cargo into the retrograde pathway.
Clathrin is a coat protein involved in vesicle budding from several membrane-bound compartments within the cell. Here we present an analysis of a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of clathrin heavy chain (CHC) in a multicellular animal. As expected Caenorhabditis elegans chc-1(b1025ts) mutant animals are defective in receptor-mediated endocytosis and arrest development soon after being shifted to the restrictive temperature. Steady-state clathrin levels in these mutants are reduced by more than 95% at all temperatures. Hub interactions and membrane associations are lost at the restrictive temperature. chc-1(b1025ts) animals become paralyzed within minutes of exposure to the restrictive temperature because of a defect in the nervous system. Surprisingly synaptic vesicle number is not reduced in chc-1(b1025ts) animals. Consistent with the normal number of vesicles, postsynaptic miniature currents occur at normal frequencies. Taken together, these results indicate that a high level of CHC activity is required for receptor-mediated endocytosis in nonneuronal cells but is largely dispensable for maintenance of synaptic vesicle pools.
Neurons secrete neuropeptides from dense core vesicles (DCVs) to modulate neuronal activity. Little is known about how neurons manage to differentially regulate the release of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and DCVs. To analyze this, we screened all Caenorhabditis elegans Rab GTPases and Tre2/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC) domain containing GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) for defects in DCV release from C. elegans motoneurons. rab-5 and rab-10 mutants show severe defects in DCV secretion, whereas SV exocytosis is unaffected. We identified TBC-2 and TBC-4 as putative GAPs for RAB-5 and RAB-10, respectively. Multiple Rabs and RabGAPs are typically organized in cascades that confer directionality to membrane-trafficking processes. We show here that the formation of release-competent DCVs requires a reciprocal exclusion cascade coupling RAB-5 and RAB-10, in which each of the two Rabs recruits the others GAP molecule. This contributes to a separation of RAB-5 and RAB-10 domains at the Golgi-endosomal interface, which is lost when either of the two GAPs is inactivated. Taken together, our data suggest that RAB-5 and RAB-10 cooperate to locally exclude each other at an essential stage during DCV sorting.
Caenorhabditis elegans RAB-10 and mammalian Rab10 are key regulators of endocytic recycling, especially in the basolateral recycling pathways of polarized epithelial cells. To understand better how RAB-10 contributes to recycling endosome function, we sought to identify RAB-10 effectors. One RAB-10-binding partner that we identified, CNT-1, is the only C. elegans homolog of the mammalian Arf6 GTPase-activating proteins ACAP1 and ACAP2. Arf6 is known to regulate endosome-to-plasma membrane transport, in part through activation of type I phophatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5 kinase. Here we show that CNT-1 binds to RAB-10 through its C-terminal ankyrin repeats and colocalizes with RAB-10 and ARF-6 on recycling endosomes in vivo. Furthermore, we find that RAB-10 is required for the recruitment of CNT-1 to endosomal membranes in the intestinal epithelium. Consistent with negative regulation of ARF-6 by RAB-10 and CNT-1, we found overaccumulation of endosomal phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] in cnt-1 and rab-10 mutants and reduced endosomal PI(4,5)P2 levels in arf-6 mutants. These mutants produced similar effects on endosomal recruitment of the PI(4,5)P2-dependent membrane-bending proteins RME-1/Ehd and SDPN-1/Syndapin/Pacsin and resulted in endosomal trapping of specific recycling cargo. Our studies identify a RAB-10-to-ARF-6 regulatory loop required to regulate endosomal PI(4,5)P2, a key phosphoinositide in membrane traffic.
Rac1 is a founding member of the Rho-GTPase family and a key regulator of membrane remodeling. In the context of apoptotic cell corpse engulfment, CED-10/Rac1 acts with its bipartite guanine nucleotide exchange factor, CED-5/Dock180-CED-12/ELMO, in an evolutionarily conserved pathway to promote phagocytosis. Here we show that in the context of the Caenorhabditis elegans intestinal epithelium CED-10/Rac1, CED-5/Dock180, and CED-12/ELMO promote basolateral recycling. Furthermore, we show that CED-10 binds to the RAB-5 GTPase activating protein TBC-2, that CED-10 contributes to recruitment of TBC-2 to endosomes, and that recycling cargo is trapped in recycling endosomes in ced-12, ced-10, and tbc-2 mutants. Expression of GTPase defective RAB-5(Q78L) also traps recycling cargo. Our results indicate that down-regulation of early endosome regulator RAB-5/Rab5 by a CED-5, CED-12, CED-10, TBC-2 cascade is an important step in the transport of cargo through the basolateral recycling endosome for delivery to the plasma membrane.
In all organisms, cell polarity is fundamental for most aspects of cell physiology. In many species and cell types, it is controlled by the evolutionarily conserved PAR-3, PAR-6 and aPKC proteins, which are asymmetrically localized at the cell cortex where they define specific domains. While PAR proteins define the antero-posterior axis of the early C. elegans embryo, the mechanism controlling their asymmetric localization is not fully understood. Here we studied the role of endocytic regulators in embryonic polarization and asymmetric division. We found that depleting the early endosome regulator RAB-5 results in polarity-related phenotypes in the early embryo. Using Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, we observed that PAR-6 is localized at the cell cortex in highly dynamic puncta and depleting RAB-5 decreased PAR-6 cortical dynamics during the polarity maintenance phase. Depletion of RAB-5 also increased PAR-6 association with clathrin heavy chain (CHC-1) and this increase depended on the presence of the GTPase dynamin, an upstream regulator of endocytosis. Interestingly, further analysis indicated that loss of RAB-5 leads to a disorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and that this occurs independently of dynamin activity. Our results indicate that RAB-5 promotes C. elegans embryonic polarity in both dynamin-dependent and -independent manners, by controlling PAR-6 localization and cortical dynamics through the regulation of its association with the cell cortex and the organization of the actin cytoskeleton.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.