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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: molecular and genetic decoding.
Trends Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) were first identified in 1996 in the USA. Since then, regional outbreaks of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) have occurred in the USA, and have spread internationally. Dissemination of blaKPC involves both horizontal transfer of blaKPC genes and plasmids, and clonal spread. Of epidemiological significance, the international spread of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is primarily associated with a single multilocus sequence type (ST), ST258, and its related variants. However, the molecular factors contributing to the success of ST258 largely remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the recent progresses in understanding KPC-producing K. pneumoniae that are contributing to our knowledge of plasmid and genome composition and structure among the KPC epidemic clone, and we identify possible factors that influence its epidemiological success.
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Transmission of Tuberculosis in a South African Community With a High Prevalence of HIV Infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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?In settings of high tuberculosis transmission, little is known of the interaction between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive and HIV-negative tuberculosis disease and of the impact of antiretroviral treatment (ART) programs on tuberculosis transmission dynamics.
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Transforming the fight against tuberculosis: targeting catalysts of transmission.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The global tuberculosis control community has committed itself to ambitious 10-year targets. To meet these targets, biomedical advances alone will be insufficient; a more targeted public health tuberculosis strategy is also needed. We highlight the role of "tuberculosis transmission catalysts," defined as variabilities in human behavior, bacillary properties, and host physiology that fuel the propagation of active tuberculosis at the local level. These catalysts can be categorized as factors that increase contact rates, infectiousness, or host susceptibility. Different catalysts predominate in different epidemiological and sociopolitical settings, and public health approaches are likely to succeed only if they are tailored to target the major catalysts driving transmission in the corresponding community. We argue that global tuberculosis policy should move from a country-level focus to a strategy that prioritizes collection of data on key transmission catalysts at the local level followed by deployment of "catalyst-targeted" interventions, supported by strengthened health systems.
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Epidemic Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 is a hybrid strain.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae, pose an urgent threat in health facilities in the United States and worldwide. K. pneumoniae isolates classified as sequence type 258 (ST258) by multilocus sequence typing are largely responsible for the global spread of KPC. A recent comparative genome study revealed that ST258 K. pneumoniae strains are two distinct genetic clades; however, the molecular origin of ST258 largely remains unknown, and our understanding of the evolution of the two genetic clades is incomplete. Here we compared the genetic structures and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) distributions in the core genomes of strains from two ST258 clades and other STs (ST11, ST442, and ST42). We identified an ~1.1-Mbp region on ST258 genomes that is homogeneous to that of ST442, while the rest of the ST258 genome resembles that of ST11. Our results suggest ST258 is a hybrid clone--80% of the genome originated from ST11-like strains and 20% from ST442-like strains. Meanwhile, we sequenced an ST42 strain that carries the same K-antigen-encoding capsule polysaccharide biosynthesis gene (cps) region as ST258 clade I strains. Comparison of the cps-harboring regions between the ST42 and ST258 strains (clades I and II) suggests the ST258 clade I strains evolved from a clade II strain as a result of cps region replacement. Our findings unravel the molecular evolution history of ST258 strains, an important first step toward the development of diagnostic, therapeutic, and vaccine strategies to combat infections caused by multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae.
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Genome Sequence of Bacterial Interference Strain Staphylococcus aureus 502A.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Staphylococcus aureus 502A was a strain used in bacterial interference programs during the 1960s and early 1970s. Infants were deliberately colonized with 502A with the goal of preventing colonization with more invasive strains. We present the completed genome sequence of this organism.
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Molecular dissection of the evolution of carbapenem-resistant multilocus sequence type 258 Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are a major problem worldwide. Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, most notably isolates classified as multilocus sequence type (ST) 258, have emerged as an important cause of hospital deaths. ST258 isolates are predominantly multidrug resistant, and therefore infections caused by them are difficult to treat. It is not known why the ST258 lineage is the most prevalent cause of multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae infections in the United States and other countries. Here we tested the hypothesis that carbapenem-resistant ST258 K. pneumoniae is a single genetic clone that has disseminated worldwide. We sequenced to closure the genomes of two ST258 clinical isolates and used these genomes as references for comparative genome sequencing of 83 additional clinical isolates recovered from patients at diverse geographic locations worldwide. Phylogenetic analysis of the SNPs in the core genome of these isolates revealed that ST258 K. pneumoniae organisms are two distinct genetic clades. This unexpected finding disproves the single-clone hypothesis. Notably, genetic differentiation between the two clades results from an ? 215-kb region of divergence that includes genes involved in capsule polysaccharide biosynthesis. The region of divergence appears to be a hotspot for DNA recombination events, and we suggest that this region has contributed to the success of ST258 K. pneumoniae. Our findings will accelerate research on novel diagnostic, therapeutic, and vaccine strategies designed to prevent and/or treat infections caused by multidrug resistant K. pneumoniae.
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Factors affecting tuberculosis strain success over 10 years in a high TB- and HIV-burdened community.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Factors associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain success over time in high burdened communities are unknown.
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Genetic variation among Panton-Valentine leukocidin-encoding bacteriophages in Staphylococcus aureus clonal complex 30 strains.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Clonal complex 30 (CC30), one of the major Staphylococcus aureus lineages, has caused extensive hospital-acquired and community-acquired infections worldwide. Recent comparative genomics studies have demonstrated that three CC30 clones-phage type 80/81, Southwest Pacific (SWP), and contemporary EMRSA-16 associated (Con) strains-shared a recent common ancestor more than 100 years ago. Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL), a bacteriophage encoded toxin that has been epidemiologically linked with community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA), has frequently been identified in CC30 clones, although the pvl gene variation and distribution of PVL-encoding phages are poorly understood. We determined here the distribution of PVL phages, PVL gene sequences, and chromosomal phage insertion sites in 52 S. aureus CC30 PVL-harboring isolates, collected from four continents over a 75-year period. Our results indicate that PVL phages with icosahedral heads, including ?108PVL and ?PVL, were mainly associated with phage 80/81 strains, whereas phages with elongated heads were predominantly found in SWP (?Sa2958 and ?TCH60) and Con (?Sa2USA) strains. Nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in the lukSF-PV gene, with six isolates harboring the R variant that has been previously associated with CA-MRSA strains. Interestingly, all six R variant strains belonged to the same Con CC30 clone and carried a ?Sa2USA-like phage. Similar chromosomal phage insertion sites were also identified in all 52 PVL-harboring CC30 strains. These analyses provide important insights into the microepidemiology of PVL-harboring CC30 strains, while the discovery of ?Sa2USA-associated R variant strains sheds further light on the evolution of PVL-positive CA-MRSA.
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Molecular differentiation of historic phage-type 80/81 and contemporary epidemic Staphylococcus aureus.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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Staphylococcus aureus is a bacterial pathogen known to cause infections in epidemic waves. One such epidemic was caused by a clone known as phage-type 80/81, a penicillin-resistant strain that rose to world prominence in the late 1950s. The molecular underpinnings of the phage-type 80/81 outbreak have remained unknown for decades, nor is it understood why related S. aureus clones became epidemic in hospitals in the early 1990s. To better understand the molecular basis of these epidemics, we sequenced the genomes of eight S. aureus clinical isolates representative of the phage-type 80/81 clone, the Southwest Pacific clone [a community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) clone], and contemporary S. aureus clones, all of which are genetically related and belong to the same clonal complex (CC30). Genome sequence analysis revealed that there was coincident divergence of these clones from a recent common ancestor, a finding that resolves controversy about the evolutionary history of the lineage. Notably, we identified nonsynonymous SNPs in genes encoding accessory gene regulator C (agrC) and ?-hemolysin (hla)--molecules important for S. aureus virulence--that were present in virtually all contemporary CC30 hospital isolates tested. Compared with the phage-type 80/81 and Southwest Pacific clones, contemporary CC30 hospital isolates had reduced virulence in mouse infection models, the result of SNPs in agrC and hla. We conclude that agr and hla (along with penicillin resistance) were essential for world dominance of phage-type 80/81 S. aureus, whereas key SNPs in contemporary CC30 clones restrict these pathogens to hospital settings in which the host is typically compromised.
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Transmission pattern of drug-resistant tuberculosis and its implication for tuberculosis control in eastern rural China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Transmission patterns of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) may be influenced by differences in socio-demographics, local tuberculosis (TB) endemicity and efficaciousness of TB control programs. This study aimed to investigate the impact of DOTS on the transmission of drug-resistant TB in eastern rural China.
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Experimental tuberculosis in the Wistar rat: a model for protective immunity and control of infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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Despite the availability of many animal models for tuberculosis (TB) research, there still exists a need for better understanding of the quiescent stage of disease observed in many humans. Here, we explored the use of the Wistar rat model for the study of protective immunity and control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection.
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Population-based investigation of fluoroquinolones resistant tuberculosis in rural eastern China.
Tuberculosis (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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Empirical use of fluoroquinolones (FQ) to treat a variety of bacterial infections may inadvertently select for FQ-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis(MTB), especially in rural China where the use of FQ in treating infections has not been standardized. Here we determine the prevalence and describe the transmission of FQ-resistant MTB in two rural counties in eastern China through a combination of conventional epidemiology with IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism(RFLP) analysis and DNA sequencing of drug-resistance determining regions. Phenotypic FQ resistance was detected in 31 of 351(8.8%) isolates. FQ resistance was equally distributed between patient-isolates deemed drug resistant and drug-susceptible, but mostly observed in those with treatment history of respiratory infection. Mutations in gyrA were found in 54.8% of FQ resistant isolates, and one isolate with a gyrB mutation. Despite predominating in entire bacilli population(69.2%), Beijing family strain had similar proportion of FQ resistance to the other(10.3% vs. 4.7%, p = 0.060). IS6110RFLP identified 2 clusters(4 isolates) among FQ resistant isolates and 3 clusters composed of both 4 FQ resistant isolates and 6 FQ susceptible isolates. Our results indicate that FQ-resistant MTB has emerged among the circulating bacillary population in rural eastern China. The relatively low level of clustering among FQ-resistant strains suggests most are acquired de novo, likely due to widespread FQ use.
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Mutations in agr do not persist in natural populations of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2010
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Staphylococcus aureus organisms vary in the function of the staphylococcal virulence regulator gene agr. To test for a relationship between agr and transmission in S. aureus, we determined the prevalence and genetic basis of agr dysfunction among nosocomial methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) in an area of MRSA endemicity. Identical inactivating agr mutations were not detected in epidemiologically unlinked clones within or between hospitals. Additionally, most agr mutants had single mutations, indicating that they were short lived. Collectively, the results suggest that agr dysfunction is adaptive for survival in the infected host but that it may be counteradaptive outside infected host tissues.
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Prevalence and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus colonization among healthcare professionals in an urban teaching hospital.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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To determine the prevalence of asymptomatic carriage of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) among healthcare professionals (HCPs) who experience varying degrees of exposure to ambulatory patients and to genetically characterize isolates.
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Descriptive proteomic analysis shows protein variability between closely related clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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The use of isobaric tags such as iTRAQ allows the relative and absolute quantification of hundreds of proteins in a single experiment for up to eight different samples. More classical techniques such as 2-DE can offer a complimentary approach for the analysis of complex protein samples. In this study, the proteomes of secreted and cytosolic proteins of genetically closely related strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were analyzed. Analysis of 2-D gels afforded 28 spots with variations in protein abundance between strains. These were identified by MS/MS. Meanwhile, a rigorous statistical analysis of iTRAQ data allowed the identification and quantification of 101 and 137 proteins in the secreted and cytosolic fractions, respectively. Interestingly, several differences in protein levels were observed between the closely related strains BE, C28 and H6. Seven proteins related to cell wall and cell processes were more abundant in BE, while enzymes related to metabolic pathways (GltA2, SucC, Gnd1, Eno) presented lower levels in the BE strain. Proteins involved in iron and sulfur acquisition (BfrB, ViuB, TB15.3 and SseC2) were more abundant in C28 and H6. In general, iTRAQ afforded rapid identification of fine differences between protein levels such as those presented between closely related strains. This provides a platform from which the relevance of these differences can be assessed further using complimentary proteomic and biological modeling methods.
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Molecular epidemiology of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a South African community with high HIV prevalence.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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To explore the relationship between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis genotypes, we performed IS6110-based restriction fragment-length polymorphism analysis on M. tuberculosis culture specimens from patients with smear-positive tuberculosis in a periurban community in South Africa from 2001 through 2005. Among 151 isolates, 95 strains were identified within 26 families, with 54% clustering. HIV status was associated with W-Beijing strains (P = .009) but not with clustering per se. The high frequency of clustering suggests ongoing transmission in both HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals in this community. The strong association between W-Beijing and HIV infection may have important implications for tuberculosis control.
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Genotyping of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates using IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2009
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A number of phylogenetic studies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have suggested a highly clonal population structure. Despite the extreme homogeneity of M. tuberculosis strains, the genome is punctuated by a number of polymorphic regions that give rise to sufficient diversity, thus forming the basis for molecular epidemiologic studies of tuberculosis. As such, insertion sequence (IS) 6110, which is unique to members of the M. tuberculosis complex and is present in variable numbers and in discrete genomic locales among strains, has been extensively used in molecular epidemiologic studies. Genotyping, using IS6110-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), was standardized by the international community, and this has facilitated inter- and intralaboratory comparison, thereby serving as a model system for subspeciation of M. tuberculosis. When IS6110-based RFLP was used in conjunction with conventional epidemiologic data, its utility was realized. In this chapter, we discuss the basic methodology for conducting IS6110-based RFLP and analyzing the resulting hybridization profiles.
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Colonization and subsequent skin and soft tissue infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a cohort of otherwise healthy adults infected with HIV type 1.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage and subsequent infection were prospectively compared among a well-defined group of 107 individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) who had no evidence of immune suppression and 52 epidemiologically matched, uninfected individuals. The carriage strains and infecting strains were genetically characterized. The cumulative prevalence of MRSA carriage was significantly higher among HIV-infected individuals (16.8%) than among individuals without HIV infection (5.8%) (P = .04; odds ratio, 3.3 [95% confidence interval, 1.3-14.7]). Fifteen of 21 MRSA isolates recovered from colonized individuals were identified as strain USA300. Of the 10 MRSA skin and soft tissue infections observed in this study, all occurred in HIV-infected individuals who were colonized with the same strain that caused the infection. Previous antibiotic use was the only statistically significant risk factor for MRSA carriage. These data highlight the fact that MRSA colonization and infection are important clinical issues among asymptomatic HIV-1-infected individuals.
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Molecular genetics of para-aminosalicylic acid resistance in clinical isolates and spontaneous mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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The emergence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to first-line antibiotics has renewed interest in second-line antitubercular agents. Here, we aimed to extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) resistance by analysis of six genes of the folate metabolic pathway and biosynthesis of thymine nucleotides (thyA, dfrA, folC, folP1, folP2, and thyX) and three N-acetyltransferase genes [nhoA, aac(1), and aac(2)] among PAS-resistant clinical isolates and spontaneous mutants. Mutations in thyA were identified in only 37% of the clinical isolates and spontaneous mutants. Overall, 24 distinct mutations were identified in the thyA gene and 3 in the dfrA coding region. Based on structural bioinformatics techniques, the altered ThyA proteins were predicted to generate an unfolded or dysfunctional polypeptide. The MIC was determined by Bactec/Alert and dilution assay. Sixty-three percent of the PAS-resistant isolates had no mutations in the nine genes considered in this study, revealing that PAS resistance in M. tuberculosis involves mechanisms or targets other than those pertaining to the biosynthesis of thymine nucleotides. The alternative mechanism(s) or pathway(s) associated with PAS resistance appears to be PAS concentration dependent, in marked contrast to thyA-mutated PAS-resistant isolates.
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Nosocomial transmission of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in a rural hospital in South Africa.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-tuberculosis) is a global public health threat, but few data exist elucidating factors driving this epidemic. The initial XDR-tuberculosis report from South Africa suggested transmission is an important factor, but detailed epidemiologic and molecular analyses were not available for further characterization.
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Global epidemiology of community-associated methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA).
Curr. Opin. Microbiol.
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During the 1990s, various reports of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections appeared in the literature, caused by novel strains genetically distinct from traditional healthcare-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). Numerous lineages of CA-MRSA have since emerged on every continent, several of which have spread internationally, most notably USA300. CA-MRSA strains are increasingly implicated in nosocomial infections, and may eventually displace HA-MRSA strains in hospitals. Consequently, distinctions based on clinical epidemiology and susceptibility are becoming less relevant, arguing in favor of genotypic definitions. We review the current molecular epidemiology of CA-MRSA with respect to genetic diversity, global distribution, and factors related to its emergence and spread.
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the Mycobacterium bovis genome resolve phylogenetic relationships.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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Mycobacterium bovis isolates carry restricted allelic variation yet exhibit a range of disease phenotypes and host preferences. Conventional genotyping methods target small hypervariable regions of the M. bovis genome and provide anonymous biallelic information that is insufficient to develop phylogeny. To resolve phylogeny and establish trait-allele associations, we interrogated 75 M. bovis and 61 M. tuberculosis genomes for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), using iPLEX MassArray (Sequenom Inc., CA) technology. We indexed nucleotide variations in 306 genic and 44 intergenic loci among isolates derived from outbreaks in the United States from 1991 to 2010 and isolated from a variety of mammalian hosts. Two hundred six variant SNPs classified the 136 isolates and 4 previously sequenced strains (AF2122/97, BCG Pasteur, H37Rv, and CDC1551) into 5 major "SNP cluster groups." M. bovis isolates clustered into three major lineages based on 118 variant SNPs, while 84 SNPs differentiated the M. bovis BCG lineage from the virulent isolates. Forty-nine of the 51 human M. tuberculosis isolates were identical at all 350 loci studied. Thus, SNP-based analyses resolved the genotypic differences within M. bovis strains and differentiated these strains from M. tuberculosis strains representing diversity in time and space, providing population genetic frameworks that may aid in identifying factors responsible for the wide host range and disease phenotypes of M. bovis.
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Nasal carriage as a source of agr-defective Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Inactivating mutations in the Staphylococcus aureus virulence regulator agr are associated with worse outcomes in bacteremic patients. However, whether agr dysfunction is primarily a cause or a consequence of early bacteremia is unknown. Analysis of 158 paired S. aureus clones from blood and nasal carriage sites in individual patients revealed that recovery of an agr-defective mutant from blood was usually predicted by the agr functionality of carriage isolates. Many agr-positive blood isolates produced low levels of hemolytic toxins, but levels were similar to those of colonizing strains within patients, suggesting that introduction into the blood did not select for mutations with minor functional effects. Evidently, the transition from commensalism to opportunism in S. aureus does not require full virulence in hospitalized patients. Furthermore, agr-defective mutants were found in uninfected nasal carriers in the same proportion as in carriers who develop bacteremia, suggesting low correlation between virulence and infectivity.
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Epidemiologic consequences of microvariation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
J. Infect. Dis.
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Evidence from genotype-phenotype studies suggests that genetic diversity in pathogens have clinically relevant manifestations that can impact outcome of infection and epidemiologic success. We studied 5 closely related Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains that collectively caused extensive disease (n = 862), particularly among US-born tuberculosis patients.
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Genotype MTBDRplus for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance in strains from gold miners in South Africa.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
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GenoType MTBDRplus is a molecular assay for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and drug resistance. Assay performance as applied directly to consecutive unselected sputum samples has not been established. The objective of this study was to determine the accuracy of the MTBDRplus test for direct detection of M. tuberculosis (in sputum) and for drug resistance in consecutively submitted sputum samples. In this cross-sectional study in South Africa, one sputum specimen from each person suspected of having pulmonary tuberculosis was tested by smear microscopy, direct MTBDRplus, and Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) culture with MGIT drug susceptibility testing. MGIT results were the reference standard. We tested 2,510 sputum samples, and 529 (21.1%) were positive for M. tuberculosis by MGIT. Direct MTBDRplus identified M. tuberculosis in 256 of 529 specimens (sensitivity, 48.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 44.1, 52.7). The sensitivity of MTBDRplus for M. tuberculosis detection by sputum smear status was as follows: smear negative, 13.7% (95% CI, 9.8, 18.4); smear scanty, 46.2% (95% CI, 19.2, 74.9); smear 1+, 69.1% (95% CI, 55.2, 80.9); smear 2+, 86.3% (95% CI, 73.7, 94.3); smear 3+, 89.8% (95% CI, 83.7, 94.2). Direct MTBDRplus testing was negative for 1,594/1,612 sputum samples that were culture negative for M. tuberculosis (specificity, 98.9%; 95% CI, 98.2, 99.3). For specimens positive for M. tuberculosis by MTBDRplus, this assays sensitivity and specificity for rifampin resistance were 85.7% (95% CI, 57.2, 98.2) and 96.6% (95% CI, 93.2, 98.6) and for isoniazid resistance they were 62.1% (95% CI, 42.3, 79.3) and 97.9% (95% CI, 94.8, 99.4). For sputum testing, the sensitivity of MTBDRplus is directly related to the specimens bacillary burden. Our results support recommendations that the MTBDRplus test not be used for direct testing of smear-negative or paucibacillary sputum samples.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.