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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Roma: a comparative health examination survey in Hungary.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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?The objective of our study was to compare the health status of the Roma people with that of the general population in Hungary.? METHODS: ?A health examination survey to define the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components was performed in a representative random sample (n = 646) of the Roma population aged 20-64 years living in segregated colonies, and data were compared with that obtained in a representative random sample (n = 1819) of the Hungarian population.? RESULTS: ?The risks for central obesity, hypertension and raised triglyceride level among Roma adults were not different from the Hungarian references, while raised fasting plasma glucose or known type 2 diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.65, 95%CI 1.90-3.69), reduced HDL cholesterol level or treated lipid disorder (OR = 2.15, 95%CI 1.65-2.79) were significantly more frequent in all age groups in the Roma sample. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (OR = 1.37, 95%CI 1.03-1.83) was also significantly higher among Roma than in the general Hungarian population.? CONCLUSIONS: ?Besides tackling the socio-economic determinants of the poor health of Roma people, specific public health interventions considering increased genetic susceptibility to metabolic disturbances are needed to improve their health status.
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Foregoing medicines in the former Soviet Union: Changes between 2001 and 2010.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Pharmaceutical costs dominate out-of-pocket payments in former Soviet countries, posing a severe threat to financial equity and access to health services. Nationally representative household survey data collected in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine were analysed to compare the level of population having to forego medicines in 2001 and 2010. Subgroup analysis was conducted to assess differences between populations of different economic status, and rural and urban populations. A substantial proportion of the population did forego medicines in 2010, from 29.2% in Belarus to 72.9% in Georgia. There was a decline in people foregoing medicines between 2001 and 2010; the greatest decline was seen in Moldova [rate ratio (RR)=0.67 (0.63; 0.71)] and Kyrgyzstan [RR=0.63 (0.60; 0.67)], while very little improvement took place in countries with a higher Gross National Income (GNI) per capita and greater GNI growth over the decade such as Armenia [RR=0.92 (0.87; 0.96)] and Georgia [RR=0.95 (0.92; 0.98)]. Wealthier, urban populations have benefited more than poorer, rural households in some countries. Countries experiencing the greatest improvement over the study period were those that have implemented policies such as price controls, expanded benefits packages, and encouragement of rational prescribing. Greater commitment to pharmaceutical reform is needed to ensure that people are not forced to forego medicines.
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Perspectives on reproductive healthcare delivered through a basic package of health services in Afghanistan: a qualitative study.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Contracting-out non-state providers to deliver a minimum package of essential health services is an increasingly common health service delivery mechanism in conflict-affected settings, where government capacity and resources are particularly constrained. Afghanistan, the longest-running example of Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) contracting in a conflict-affected setting, enables study of how implementation of a national intervention influences access to prioritised health services. This study explores stakeholder perspectives of sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services delivered through the BPHS in Afghanistan, using Bamyan Province as a case study.
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A systematic review of resilience and mental health outcomes of conflict-driven adult forced migrants.
Confl Health
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The rising global burden of forced migration due to armed conflict is increasingly recognised as an important issue in global health. Forced migrants are at a greater risk of developing mental disorders. However, resilience, defined as the ability of a person to successfully adapt to or recover from stressful and traumatic experiences, has been highlighted as a key potential protective factor. This study aimed to review systematically the global literature on the impact of resilience on the mental health of adult conflict-driven forced migrants.
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Mental disorders and their association with disability among internally displaced persons and returnees in georgia.
J Trauma Stress
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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There remains limited evidence on comorbidity of mental disorders among conflict-affected civilians, particularly internally displaced persons (IDPs) and former IDPs who have returned to their home areas (returnees). The study aim was to compare patterns of mental disorders and their influence on disability between IDPs and returnees in the Republic of Georgia. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted with adult IDPs from the conflicts in the 1990s, the 2008 conflict, and returnees. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and disability were measured using cut scores on Trauma Screening Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire 9, Generalised Anxiety Disorder 7, and the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0. Among the 3,025 respondents, the probable prevalence of PTSD, depression, anxiety, and comorbidity (>1 condition) was 23.3%, 14.0%, 10.4%, 12.4%, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficients (p < .001) were .40 (PTSD with depression), .38 (PTSD with anxiety), and .52 (depression with anxiety). Characteristics associated with mental disorders in regression analyses included displacement (particularly longer-term), cumulative trauma exposure, female gender, older age, poor community conditions, and bad household economic situation; coefficients ranged from 1.50 to 3.79. PTSD, depression, anxiety, and comorbidity were associated with increases in disability of 6.4%, 9.7%, 6.3%, and 15.9%, respectively. A high burden of psychiatric symptoms and disability persist among conflict-affected persons in Georgia.
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Using multi-level data to estimate the effect of an 'alcogenic' environment on hazardous alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union.
Health Place
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The purpose of this study was to assess whether alcohol-related community characteristics act collectively to influence individual-level alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union (fSU).
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Using multi-level data to estimate the effect of social capital on hazardous alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Hazardous alcohol consumption is a leading cause of mortality in the former Soviet Union (fSU), but little is known about the social factors associated with this behaviour. We set out to estimate the association between individual- and community-level social capital and hazardous alcohol consumption in the fSU.
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Acknowledgement of manuscript reviewers 2007-2013.
Confl Health
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The editors of Conflict and Health would like to thank all our reviewers who have contributed to the journal from Volume 1 (2007) to Volume 7 (2013).
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Price elasticities of alcohol demand: evidence from Russia.
Eur J Health Econ
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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In this paper, we estimate price elasticities of demand of several types of alcoholic drinks, using 14 rounds of data from the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey-HSE, collected from 1994 until 2009. We deal with potential confounding problems by taking advantage of a large number of control variables, as well as by estimating community fixed effect models. All in all, although alcohol prices do appear to influence consumption behaviour in Russia, in most cases the size of effect is modest. The finding that two particularly problematic drinks-cheap vodka and fortified wine-are substitute goods also suggests that increasing their prices may not lead to smaller alcohol consumption. Therefore, any alcohol pricing policies in Russia must be supplemented with other measures, such as restrictions on numbers of sales outlets or their opening times.
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User and researcher collaborations in mental health in low and middle income countries: a case study of the EMPOWER project.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Increasing recognition has been given to the interaction of users and researchers in shaping the perspective and practice of mental health care. However, there remains very little evidence exploring how this interaction works, particularly in low and middle income countries. The aim of this study was to explore experiences of how users and researchers worked together to communicate research, using a case study of the EMPOWER project.
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Individual and community level risk-factors for alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in Georgia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The evidence on alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected civilian populations remains extremely weak, despite a number of potential risk-factors. The aim of this study is to examine patterns of alcohol use disorder among conflict-affected persons in the Republic of Georgia.
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An Exploration of the Alcohol Policy Environment in Post-Conflict Countries.
Alcohol Alcohol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Populations in countries emerging from armed conflict may have elevated levels of harmful alcohol use due to risk factors such as trauma exposure, increased daily stressors, elevated levels of mental health disorders, urbanization, and weak alcohol control policies and institutions. This study explores the challenges and opportunities for strengthening alcohol control policies in post-conflict countries.
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Changing patterns of fruit and vegetable intake in countries of the former Soviet Union.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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To assess how the frequency of low fruit and vegetable consumption has changed in countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU) between 2001 and 2010 and to identify factors associated with low consumption.
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Estimating the causal effect of alcohol consumption on well-being for a cross-section of 9 former Soviet Union countries.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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While the adverse health and economic consequences attributable to alcohol consumption are widely acknowledged, its impact on psychological wellbeing is less well understood. This is to a large extent due to the challenge of establishing causal effects of alcohol consumption when using standard single-equation econometric analyses. Using a unique dataset collected in 2010/11 of 18,000 individuals and also community characteristics from nine countries of the former Soviet Union, a region with a major burden of alcohol related ill health, we address this problem by employing an instrumental variable approach to identify any causal effects of alcohol consumption on mental well-being. The availability of 24-h alcohol sales outlets in the neighbourhood of the individuals is used as an instrument, based on theoretical reasoning and statistical testing of its validity. We find that increased alcohol consumption decreases well-being and that ignoring endogeneity leads to underestimation of this effect. This finding adds a further and previously under-appreciated dimension to the expected benefits that could be achieved with more effective alcohol policy in this region.
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Tobacco use and nicotine dependence among conflict-affected men in the Republic of Georgia.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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There is very little evidence globally on tobacco use and nicotine dependence among civilian populations affected by armed conflict, despite key vulnerability factors related to elevated mental disorders and socio-economic stressors. The study aim was to describe patterns of smoking and nicotine dependence among conflict-affected civilian men in the Republic of Georgia and associations with mental disorders.
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Smoking cessation and desire to stop smoking in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Smoking rates and corresponding levels of premature mortality from smoking-related diseases in the former Soviet Union (fSU) are among the highest in the world. To reduce this health burden, greater focus on smoking cessation is needed, but little is currently known about rates and characteristics of cessation in the fSU.
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Health and health systems in the Commonwealth of Independent States.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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The countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States differ substantially in their post-Soviet economic development but face many of the same challenges to health and health systems. Life expectancies dropped steeply in the 1990s, and several countries have yet to recover the levels noted before the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Cardiovascular disease is a much bigger killer in the Commonwealth of Independent States than in western Europe because of hazardous alcohol consumption and high smoking rates in men, the breakdown of social safety nets, rising social inequality, and inadequate health services. These former Soviet countries have embarked on reforms to their health systems, often aiming to strengthen primary care, scale back hospital capacities, reform mechanisms for paying providers and pooling funds, and address the overall shortage of public funding for health. However, major challenges remain, such as frequent private out-of-pocket payments for health care and underdeveloped systems for improvement of quality of care.
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The Arab Spring: confronting the challenge of non-communicable disease.
J Public Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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This Commentary considers the health system and policy challenges of addressing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Egypt, Libya, and Tunisia, countries in the process of re-framing state policies and institutions, including in the health sector. Against this backdrop, a neglected issue of the rapidly rising burden of NCDs threatens both health and economic development. Tackling this worrisome rise in NCDs has been impeded by inadequate policies. Weak health systems, little attention to determinants of health, and limited access to affordable health care complicate effective responses to NCDs, especially in a fragile transitional phase. There remains an opportunity to confront the neglected challenge of NCDs by substantially strengthening policies and scaling up comprehensive health systems to more effectively address the causes and treatment of NCDs, including mental health, ultimately to improve population health overall.
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Prevalence and factors associated with the use of alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Research suggests that since the collapse of the Soviet Union there has been a sharp growth in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in some former Soviet countries. However, as yet, comparatively little is known about the use of CAM in the countries throughout this region. Against this background, the aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of using alternative (folk) medicine practitioners in eight countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) and to examine factors associated with their use.
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Social capital and self-reported general and mental health in nine Former Soviet Union countries.
Health Econ Policy Law
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Social capital has been proposed as a potentially important contributor to health, yet most of the existing research tends to ignore the challenge of assessing causality in this relationship. We deal with this issue by employing various instrumental variable estimation techniques. We apply the analysis to a set of nine former Soviet countries, using a unique multi-country household survey specifically designed for this region. Our results confirm that there appears to be a causal association running from several dimensions of individual social capital to general and mental health. Individual trust appears to be more strongly related to general health, while social isolation- to mental health. In addition, social support and trust seem to be more important determinants of health than the social capital dimensions that facilitate solidarity and collective action. Our findings are remarkably robust to a range of different specifications, including the use of instrumental variables. Certain interaction effects are also found: for instance, untrusting people who live in communities with higher aggregate level of trust are even less likely to experience good health than untrusting people living in the reference communities.
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The comorbidity of hypertension and psychological distress: a study of nine countries in the former Soviet Union.
J Public Health (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Mental health problems in those with physical ailments are often overlooked, especially in the former Soviet Union (fSU) where this comorbidity has received little attention. Our study examines the comorbidity of psychological distress and hypertension in the fSU.
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A country divided? Regional variation in mortality in Ukraine.
Int J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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We set out to identify the contribution of various causes of death to regional differences in life expectancy in Ukraine.
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Public satisfaction as a measure of health system performance: a study of nine countries in the former Soviet Union.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Measurement of health system performance increasingly includes the views of healthcare users, yet little research has focussed on general population satisfaction with health systems. This study is the first to examine public satisfaction with health systems in the former Soviet Union (fSU). Data were derived from two related studies conducted in 2001 and 2010 in nine fSU countries, using nationally representative cross-sectional surveys. The prevalence of health system satisfaction in each country was compared for 2001 and 2010. Patterns of satisfaction were further examined by comparing satisfaction with the health system and other parts of the public sector, and the views of health care users and non-users. Potential determinants of population satisfaction were explored using logistic regression. For all countries combined, the level of satisfaction with health systems increased from 19.4% in 2001 to 40.6% in 2010, but varied considerably by country. Changes in satisfaction with the health system were similar to changes with the public sector, and non-users of healthcare were slightly more likely to report satisfaction than users. Characteristics associated with higher satisfaction include younger age, lower education, higher economic status, rural residency, better health status, and higher levels of political trust. Our results suggest that satisfaction can provide useful insight into public opinion on health system performance, particularly when used in conjunction with other subjective measures of satisfaction with government performance.
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Prevalence and patterns of hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption assessed using the AUDIT among Bhutanese refugees in Nepal.
Alcohol Alcohol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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This study sought to ascertain the prevalence of hazardous and harmful alcohol consumption among Bhutanese refugees in Nepal and to identify predictors of elevated risk in order to better understand intervention need.
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Criminal victimisation and health: examining the relation in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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Previous research suggests that criminal victimisation can impact negatively on both physical and psychological health. However, as yet, little is known about crime and its effects on population health in the former Soviet Union (fSU) - despite a sharp growth in crime rates in the countries in this region after the collapse of the communist system. Given this gap in current knowledge, this study examined two forms of crime, theft and violent victimisation, in nine fSU countries - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia and Ukraine. Using nationally representative data from the Health in Times of Transition (HITT) study collected from 18,000 respondents in 2010/11, the study had two main objectives: (1) to identify which demographic and socioeconomic factors are associated with being a victim of crime; (2) to examine the relation between criminal victimisation and two health outcomes - self-rated health and psychological distress. We found that similar factors were associated with experiencing both forms of crime among respondents. Those who were younger, not married and who consumed alcohol more frequently were at increased risk of victimisation, while greater social capital was associated with lower odds for victimisation. Low education increased the risk of experiencing violence by 1.5 times. Victimisation was strongly associated with poorer health: victims of violence were 2.5 and 2.9 times more likely to report poor self-rated health and psychological distress, respectively, while the corresponding figures for theft victimisation were 1.9 and 1.8. The strong association we observed between criminal victimisation and poorer individual health suggests that, in addition to policies that reduce rates of crime, more research is now urgently needed on victimisation. Specifically, researchers should ascertain whether the association with poor health is causal, determine its potential mechanisms, and evaluate interventions that might mitigate its impact on health that are contextually appropriate in the fSU.
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Peer victimisation and its association with psychological and somatic health problems among adolescents in northern Russia.
Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2013
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A growing body of evidence from countries around the world suggests that school-based peer victimisation is associated with worse health outcomes among adolescents. So far, however, there has been little systematic research on this phenomenon in the countries of the former Soviet Union. The aim of this study was to examine the relation between peer victimisation at school and a range of different psychological and somatic health problems among Russian adolescents.
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A systematic review of the influence of community level social factors on alcohol use.
Health Place
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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To explore evidence on the influence of community level social factors on alcohol use among adults and adolescents.
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The effect of health on labour supply in nine former Soviet Union countries.
Eur J Health Econ
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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This paper examines for the first time the consequences of ill health on labour supply for a sample of nine countries from the former Soviet Union (FSU), using a unique multicountry household survey specifically designed for this region. We control for a wide range of individual, household, and community factors, using both standard regression techniques and instrumental variable estimation to address potential endogeneity. Specifically, we find in our baseline ordinary least squares specification that poor health is associated with a decrease in the probability of working of about 13 %. Controlling for community-level unobserved variables slightly increases the magnitude of this effect, to about 14 %. Controlling for endogeneity with the instrumental variable approach further supports this finding, with the magnitude of the effect ranging from 12 to 35 %. Taken together, our findings confirm the cost that the still considerable adult health burden in the FSU is imposing on its population, not only in terms of the disease burden itself, but also in terms of individuals labour market participation, as well as potentially in terms of increased poverty risk. Other things being equal, this would increase the expected "return on investment" to be had from interventions aimed at improving health in this region.
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Loneliness: its correlates and association with health behaviours and outcomes in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Research suggests that the prevalence of loneliness varies between countries and that feeling lonely may be associated with poorer health behaviours and outcomes. The aim of the current study was to examine the factors associated with loneliness, and the relationship between feeling lonely and health behaviours and outcomes in the countries of the former Soviet Union (FSU)--a region where loneliness has been little studied to date.
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Health care reform in the former Soviet Union: beyond the transition.
Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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To assess accessibility and affordability of health care in eight countries of the former Soviet Union.
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Strengths and weaknesses of the humanitarian Cluster Approach in relation to sexual and reproductive health services in northern Uganda.
Int Health
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Implementation of the Cluster Approach has been a major recent development in the humanitarian system. The aim of this study was to explore the strengths and weaknesses of the humanitarian Cluster Approach in relation to services for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) [including gender-based violence (GBV)] in northern Uganda, which is recovering from over 20 years of armed conflict. Face-to-face and telephone, semistructured, qualitative interviews were conducted in 2009 with purposively selected key informants from governmental, non-governmental, United Nations and donor agencies working in northern Uganda. Respondents noted a number of contributions of the Cluster Approach, including improved co-ordination of SRH services and stronger advocacy. However, concerns were raised about the low prioritisation, limited leadership and capacity, and standard setting for SRH services. Concerns were also raised about limited planning and capacity for dissolution of the Clusters in the transition to recovery and development in northern Uganda. Despite a number of contributions made by the Cluster Approach, particularly for responding to GBV, there were many concerns about its limited influence on SRH services. There were also concerns that the transition to recovery and development in northern Uganda may not result in reproductive health services being sufficiently strengthened.
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A systematic review of factors influencing the psychological health of conflict-affected populations in low- and middle-income countries.
Glob Public Health
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Elevated levels of poor mental health have been recorded amongst populations affected by armed conflict. The aim of this study was to systematically review existing evidence on the factors influencing general psychological health of conflict-affected populations in low- and middle-income countries.
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A systematic review of the influence on alcohol use of community level availability and marketing of alcohol.
Health Place
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Exposure to a high number of alcohol outlets and adverts within a community may lead to higher alcohol use by local residents. The aim of this systematic review was to explore evidence on the influence on alcohol use of community level availability and marketing of alcohol.
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Resilience of refugees displaced in the developing world: a qualitative analysis of strengths and struggles of urban refugees in Nepal.
Confl Health
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Mental health and psychosocial wellbeing are key concerns in displaced populations. Despite urban refugees constituting more than half of the worlds refugees, minimal attention has been paid to their psychosocial wellbeing. The purpose of this study was to assess coping behaviour and aspects of resilience amongst refugees in Kathmandu, Nepal.
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Health insurance coverage and health care access in Moldova.
Health Policy Plan
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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In 2004, the Moldovan government introduced mandatory (social) health insurance (MHI) with the goals of sustainable health financing and improved access to services for poorer sections of the population. The government pays contributions for non-employed groups but the self-employed, which in Moldova include many agricultural workers, must purchase their own cover. This paper describes the extent to which the Moldovan MHI scheme has managed to achieve coverage of its population and the characteristics of those who remain without cover.
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Economic feasibility of a new method to estimate mortality in crisis-affected and resource-poor settings.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Mortality data provide essential evidence on the health status of populations in crisis-affected and resource-poor settings and to guide and assess relief operations. Retrospective surveys are commonly used to collect mortality data in such populations, but require substantial resources and have important methodological limitations. We evaluated the feasibility of an alternative method for rapidly quantifying mortality (the informant method). The study objective was to assess the economic feasibility of the informant method.
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Alcohol disorder amongst forcibly displaced persons in northern Uganda.
Addict Behav
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Alcohol use may be a coping mechanism for the stressors related to forced displacement. The aim of this study was to investigate levels and determinants of alcohol disorder amongst internally displaced persons (IDPs) in northern Uganda.
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Rates and causes of death in Chiradzulu District, Malawi, 2008: a key informant study.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2010
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In September 2008, we measured all-cause mortality in Chiradzulu District, Malawi (population 291, 000) over a 60-day retrospective period, using capture-recapture analysis of three lists of deaths provided by (i) key community informants, (ii) graveyard officials and (iii) health system sources. Estimated crude and under-5-year mortality rates were 18.6 (95% CI 13.9-24.5) and 30.6 (95% CI 17.5-59.9) deaths per 1000 person-years. We also classified causes of death through verbal autopsy interviews on 50 deaths over the previous 40 days. Half of deaths were attributable to infection, and half of deaths among children aged under 5 were attributable to neonatal causes. HIV/AIDS was the leading cause of death (16.6%), with a cause-attributable mortality rate of 1.8 (0.4-3.6) deaths per 1000 person-years.
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Irregular treatment of hypertension in the former Soviet Union.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2010
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The USSR failed to establish a modern pharmaceutical industry and lacked the capacity for reliable distribution of drugs. Patients were required to pay for outpatient drugs and the successor states have inherited this legacy, so that those requiring long-term treatment face considerable barriers in receiving it. It was hypothesised that citizens of former Soviet republics requiring treatment for hypertension may not be receiving regular treatment.
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A new method to estimate mortality in crisis-affected and resource-poor settings: validation study.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2010
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Data on mortality rates are crucial to guide health interventions in crisis-affected and resource-poor settings. The methods currently available to collect mortality data in such settings feature important methodological limitations. We developed and validated a new method to provide near real-time mortality estimates in such settings.
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The influence of concern about crime on levels of psychological distress in the former Soviet Union.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2010
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Previous studies suggest that the fear of crime is associated with worse mental health, with social capital potentially having a mediating influence. However, no studies could be identified on this issue in countries of the former Soviet Union, despite them experiencing increasing rates of crime and profound social change. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between concern about crime and levels of psychological distress in eight countries of the former Soviet Union.
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The influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and trauma exposure on the overall health of a conflict-affected population in Southern Sudan.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2010
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There remains limited evidence on how armed conflict affects overall physical and mental well-being rather than specific physical or mental health conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of demographic characteristics, living conditions, and violent and traumatic events on general physical and mental health in Southern Sudan which is emerging from 20 years of armed conflict.
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Drinking and displacement: a systematic review of the influence of forced displacement on harmful alcohol use.
Subst Use Misuse
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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This paper systematically reviews evidence about factors associated with harmful alcohol use amongst forcibly displaced persons, including refugees and internally displaced persons. Bibliographic and humanitarian-related databases were searched. The number of quantitative and qualitative studies that were screened and reviewed was 1108. Only 10 studies met inclusion criteria. Risk factors identified included gender, age, exposure to traumatic events and resulting posttraumatic stress disorder, prior alcohol consumption-related problems, year of immigration, location of residence, social relations, and postmigration trauma and stress. The evidence base was extremely weak, and there is a need to improve the quantity and quality of research about harmful alcohol use by forcibly displaced persons.
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A review of global mechanisms for tracking official development assistance for health in countries affected by armed conflict.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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Poverty is highly concentrated in countries affected by armed conflict which are the furthest from reaching the Millennium Development Goals. Tracking aid patterns for health is crucial for improving the effectiveness of external aid to countries affected by armed conflict which tend to depend heavily upon external assistance and also have particularly acute health needs.
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An exploration of social determinants of health amongst internally displaced persons in northern Uganda.
Confl Health
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2009
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Social determinants of health describe the conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work and age and their influence on health. These circumstances are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels, which are themselves influenced by policy choices. Armed conflict and forced displacement are important influences on the social determinants of health. There is limited evidence on the social determinants of health of internally displaced persons (IDPs) who have been forced from their homes due to armed conflict but remain within the borders of their country. The aim of this study was to explore the social determinants of overall physical and mental health of IDPs, including the response strategies used by IDPs to support their health needs. Northern Uganda was chosen as a case-study, and 21 face-to-face semi-structured interviews with IDPs were conducted in fifteen IDP camps between November and December 2006.The findings indicated a number of key social determinants. Experiencing traumatic events could cause "over thinking" which in turn could lead to "madness" and physical ailments. Respondents also attributed "over thinking" to the spirit (cen) of a killed person returning to disturb its killer. Other social determinants included overcrowding which affected physical health and contributed to an emotional sense of loss of freedom; and poverty and loss of land which affected physical health from lack of food and income, and mental health because of worry and uncertainty. Respondents also commented on how the conflict and displacement and led to changes in social and cultural norms such as increased "adultery", "defilement", and "thieving". Response strategies included a combination of biopsychosocial health services, traditional practices, religion, family and friends, and isolating.This study supports work exploring the political, environmental, economic, and socio-cultural determinants of health of IDPs. Addressing these determinants is essential to fundamentally improving the overall physical and mental health of IDPs.
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A case study of the provision of antiretroviral therapy for refugees in Tanzania.
Med Confl Surviv
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2009
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Tanzania is host to one of the highest refugee populations in the world, with over half a million refugees in 2006. The purpose of this case study was to explore the application of the UNHCR ART policy for the provision of therapeutic, long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) to refugees in Tanzania. A case study method was used and 18 semistructured key-informants interviews were conducted in July 2007 with a cross-section of stakeholders involved in provision of ART to refugees in Tanzania. The results suggest positive implementation of the key principles of the UNHCR policy. Some differing opinions existed between respondents over the key principles of considering ART provision at earliest possible stage of displacement, and the criteria for repatriation of refugees. The right of refugees to access ART is increasingly accepted and Tanzania provides a positive example of how ART services can be scaled up for refugees.
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Tracking official development assistance for reproductive health in conflict-affected countries.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2009
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Reproductive health needs are particularly acute in countries affected by armed conflict. Reliable information on aid investment for reproductive health in these countries is essential for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of aid. The purpose of this study was to analyse official development assistance (ODA) for reproductive health activities in conflict-affected countries from 2003 to 2006.
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Post-conflict mental health needs: a cross-sectional survey of trauma, depression and associated factors in Juba, Southern Sudan.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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The signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in January 2005 marked the end of the civil conflict in Sudan lasting over 20 years. The conflict was characterised by widespread violence and large-scale forced migration. Mental health is recognised as a key public health issue for conflict-affected populations. Studies revealed high levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) amongst populations from Southern Sudan during the conflict. However, no studies have been conducted on mental health in post-war Southern Sudan. The objective of this study was to measure PTSD and depression in the population in the town of Juba in Southern Sudan; and to investigate the association ofdemographic, displacement, and past and recent trauma exposure variables, on the outcomes of PTSD and depression.
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Binge drinking among adolescents in Russia: prevalence, risk and protective factors.
Addict Behav
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Despite evidence that alcohol misuse has been having an increasingly detrimental effect on adolescent wellbeing in Russia in recent years this phenomenon has been little researched. Using data from 2112 children from the Arkhangelsk Social and Health Assessment (SAHA) 2003, this study examined which factors acted as risk or protective factors for adolescent binge drinking within three domains we termed the family environment, the alcohol environment and deviant behaviour. The results showed that in the presence of comparatively moderate levels of binge drinking among both boys and girls, being able to access alcohol easily, being unaware of the risks of binge drinking and having peers who consumed alcohol increased the risk of adolescent binge drinking - as did playing truant, smoking and marijuana use, while parental warmth was protective against binge drinking for girls. Our finding that risk and protective factors occur across domains suggests that any interventions targeted against adolescent binge drinking may need to simultaneously focus on risk behaviours in different domains, while at the same time, broader social policy should act to limit the availability of alcohol to adolescents in Russia more generally.
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Implementing a Basic Package of Health Services in post-conflict Liberia: perceptions of key stakeholders.
Soc Sci Med
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Recovery of the health sector in post-conflict countries is increasingly initiated through a Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) approach. The country government and partners, including international donors, typically contract international and local NGOs to deliver the BPHS. Evidence from routine data suggests that a BPHS approach results in rapid increases in service coverage, coordination, equity, and efficiency. However, studies also show progress may then slow down, the cause of which is not immediately obvious from routine data. Qualitative research can provide insight into possible barriers in the implementation process, particularly the role of health workers delivering the BPHS services. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions of health service providers and policy makers on the implementation of the BPHS in post-conflict Liberia, using SRH services as a tracer and Lipskys work on "street-level bureaucrats" as a theoretical framework. In July-October 2010, 63 interviews were conducted with midwives, officers-in-charge, and supervisors in two counties of Liberia, and with policy makers in Monrovia. The findings suggest health workers had a limited understanding of the BPHS and associated it with low salaries, difficult working conditions, and limited support from policy makers. Health workers responded by sub-optimal delivery of certain services (such as facility-based deliveries), parallel private services, and leaving their posts. These responses risk distorting and undermining the BPHS implementation. There were also clear differences in the perspectives of health workers and policy makers on the BPHS implementation. The findings suggest the need for greater dialogue between policy makers and health workers to improve understanding of the BPHS and recognition of the working conditions in order to help achieve the potential benefits of the BPHS in Liberia.
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Analysing compliance of cigarette packaging with the FCTC and national legislation in eight former Soviet countries.
Tob Control
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To analyse compliance of cigarette packets with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) and national legislation and the policy actions that are required in eight former Soviet Union countries.
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Social factors associated with alcohol consumption in the former Soviet Union: a systematic review.
Alcohol Alcohol.
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Alcohol consumption is a major cause of premature mortality in countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU). Despite the unique social profile of the region, we could find no published systematic review of studies of social factors and alcohol consumption in formerly Soviet countries. We aim to critically review the current evidence for social factors associated with alcohol consumption in the fSU and to identify key gaps in the literature.
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Knowledge of the health impacts of smoking and public attitudes towards tobacco control in the former Soviet Union.
Tob Control
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To describe levels of knowledge on the harmful effects of tobacco and public support for tobacco control measures in nine countries of the former Soviet Union and to examine the characteristics associated with this knowledge and support.
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Micro- and meso-level influences on obesity in the former Soviet Union: a multi-level analysis.
Eur J Public Health
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Limited evidence exists on obesity in the former Soviet Union (fSU), particularly its micro- and meso-level determinants. The objectives of this study were to determine age- and gender-adjusted prevalence of self-reported overweight and obesity in nine fSU countries; explore the relationship between individual and household (micro-level) factors and obesity; and explore the relationship between features of nutritional and physical environments (meso-level) and obesity.
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Changes in smoking prevalence in 8 countries of the former Soviet Union between 2001 and 2010.
Am J Public Health
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We sought to present new data on smoking prevalence in 8 countries, analyze prevalence changes between 2001 and 2010, and examine trend variance by age, location, education level, and household economic status.
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Patterns of public support for price increases on alcohol in the former Soviet Union.
Alcohol Alcohol.
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To measure levels of public support for price increases on beer and spirits in nine former Soviet Union countries and to examine the characteristics influencing such support.
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Prevalence and psychosocial determinants of nicotine dependence in nine countries of the former Soviet Union.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
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Despite the high prevalence of smoking in the former Soviet Union (fSU), particularly among men, there is very little information on nicotine dependence in the region. The study aim was to describe the prevalence of nicotine dependence in 9 countries of the fSU and to examine the psychosocial factors associated with nicotine dependence.
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The persistence of irregular treatment of hypertension in the former Soviet Union.
J Epidemiol Community Health
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Hypertension is one of the leading causes of avoidable mortality in the former Soviet Union (fSU). In previous work, the authors described patterns of irregular hypertension treatment in eight countries of the fSU in 2001. This paper presents new data on changes in the use of hypertension treatment in the same countries.
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Changes in household access to water in countries of the former Soviet Union.
J Public Health (Oxf)
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Evidence from the Early 2000s quantified limited coverage of household water supplies in countries of the former Soviet Union. The study objectives were to measure changes in access to piped household water in seven of these countries between 2001 and 2010 and examine how these varied by household economic status.
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Treating childhood pneumonia in hard-to-reach areas: a model-based comparison of mobile clinics and community-based care.
BMC Health Serv Res
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Where hard-to-access populations (such as those living in insecure areas) lack access to basic health services, relief agencies, donors, and ministries of health face a dilemma in selecting the most effective intervention strategy. This paper uses a decision mathematical model to estimate the relative effectiveness of two alternative strategies, mobile clinics and fixed community-based health services, for antibiotic treatment of childhood pneumonia, the worlds leading cause of child mortality.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.