Fc receptor-like (FCRL) 5 regulates B cell Ag receptor signaling and has been reported to bind aggregated IgG. Using surface plasmon resonance, we analyzed the interaction of native IgG samples with FCRL5, revealing a complex binding mechanism, where isotype is just one factor. FCRL5 bound IgG1 and IgG4 with ~1 ?M KD, whereas the interaction with IgG3 was a magnitude weaker. However, IgG2 samples displayed a wide range of affinities, indicating that additional factors affect binding. We used a panel of 19 anti-FCRL5 mAbs with defined reactivity to identify domains involved in ligand binding. Six mAbs blocked IgG binding, indicating critical roles of FCRL5 domains 1 and 3, as well as epitopes at the domain 1/2 and domain 2/3 boundaries. We found that only glycosylated IgG containing both Fab arms and the Fc region bound with high affinity. Furthermore, the presence of sialic acid in the IgG carbohydrate altered FCRL5 binding. The interaction of IgG and FCRL5 consisted of two kinetic components, suggesting a complex binding mechanism. We established that the IgG-Fc and IgG-F(ab)2 fragments bind FCRL5 independently but with low affinity, revealing the mechanism behind the two-step binding of whole IgG. This complex binding mechanism is distinct from that of Fc receptors, which bind through the Fc. We propose that FCRL5 is a new type of receptor that recognizes intact IgG, possibly enabling B cells to sense Ig quality. Recognition of undamaged IgG molecules by FCRL5 could allow B cells to engage recently produced Abs.
The biological roles of B cell membrane proteins in the FCRL family are enigmatic. FCRL proteins, including FCRL5, were shown to modulate early BCR signaling, although the subsequent, functional consequences of receptor engagement are poorly understood. We found that FCRL5 surface protein itself was induced temporarily upon BCR stimulation of human, naive B cells, indicating precise control over timing of FCRL5 engagement. Cross-linking of FCRL5 on cells induced to express FCRL5 enhanced B cell proliferation significantly. This enhancement required costimulation of the BCR and TLR9, two signals required for optimal proliferation of naive B cells, whereas T cell help in the form of anti-CD40 and IL-2 was dispensable. In addition, we found that FCRL5 stimulation generated a high proportion of cells displaying surface IgG and IgA. Optimal development of cells expressing switched isotypes required T cell help, in addition to stimuli found necessary for enhanced proliferation. Surprisingly, cells that developed upon FCRL5 stimulation simultaneously displayed surface IgM, IgG, and IgA. Cells expressing multiple Ig isotypes were described in hairy cell leukemia, a disease in which FCRL5 is overexpressed. Enhanced proliferation and downstream isotype expression upon FCRL5 stimulation could reflect a physiological role for FCRL5 in the expansion and development of antigen-primed B cells. In addition, FCRL5 may promote growth of malignant cells in hairy cell leukemia and other FCRL5-expressing tumors.
Pulmonary metastasis of breast cancer requires recruitment and expansion of T-regulatory cells (Treg) that promote escape from host protective immune cells. However, it remains unclear precisely how tumors recruit Tregs to support metastatic growth. Here we report the mechanistic involvement of a unique and previously undescribed subset of regulatory B cells. These cells, designated tumor-evoked Bregs (tBreg), phenotypically resemble activated but poorly proliferative mature B2 cells (CD19(+) CD25(High) CD69(High)) that express constitutively active Stat3 and B7-H1(High) CD81(High) CD86(High) CD62L(Low) IgM(Int). Our studies with the mouse 4T1 model of breast cancer indicate that the primary role of tBregs in lung metastases is to induce TGF-?-dependent conversion of FoxP3(+) Tregs from resting CD4(+) T cells. In the absence of tBregs, 4T1 tumors cannot metastasize into the lungs efficiently due to poor Treg conversion. Our findings have important clinical implications, as they suggest that tBregs must be controlled to interrupt the initiation of a key cancer-induced immunosuppressive event that is critical to support cancer metastasis.
To simulate transient B cell activation that is the likely initiator of T-dependent responses, we examined the molecular and functional consequences of a single round of immunoglobulin M (IgM) signaling. This form of activation triggered early cytosolic signaling and the transcription factor NF-kappaB activation indistinguishably from conventional continuous IgM crosslinking but did not induce G1 progression. However, single round IgM signaling changed the expression of chemokine and chemokine receptor genes implicated in initiating T-dependent responses, as well as accentuated responsiveness to CD40 signaling. Several features of single-round IgM signaling in vitro were recapitulated in B cells after short-term exposure to antigen in vivo. We propose that transient BCR signals prime B cells to receive T cell help by increasing the probability of B-T encounter and creating a cellular environment that is hyper-responsive to CD40 signaling.
Signaling from the BCR and B cell activating factor receptor (BAFF-R or BR3) differentially regulates apoptosis within early transitional (T1) and late transitional (T2; CD21(int)-T2) B cells during selection processes to generate mature B lymphocytes. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the differential sensitivity of transitional B cells to apoptosis remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that BCR signaling induced more long-term c-Rel activation in T2 and mature than in T1 B cells leading to increased expression of anti-apoptotic genes as well as prosurvival BAFF-R and its downstream substrate p100 (NF-kappaB2). Sustained c-Rel activation required de novo c-Rel gene transcription and translation via Btk-dependent mechanisms. Like T1 cells, mature B cells from Btk- and c-Rel-deficient mice also failed to activate these genes. These findings suggest that the gain of survival potential within transitional B cells is dependent on the ability to produce a long-term c-Rel response, which plays a critical role in T2 B cell survival and differentiation in vivo by inducing anti-apoptotic genes, BAFF-R and NF-kappaB2, an essential component for BAFF-R survival signaling. Thus, acquisition of resistance to apoptosis during transitional B cell maturation is achieved by integration of BCR and BAFF-R signals.
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