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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Engineered zinc finger protein-mediated VEGF-a activation restores deficient VEGF-a in sensory neurons in experimental diabetes.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2009
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The objectives of the study were to evaluate retrograde axonal transport of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) protein to sensory neurons after intramuscular administration of an engineered zinc finger protein activator of endogenous VEGF-A (VZ+434) in an experimental model of diabetes, and to characterize the VEGF-A target neurons.
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Advanced glycation end products in extracellular matrix proteins contribute to the failure of sensory nerve regeneration in diabetes.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2009
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The goal of this study was to characterize glycation adducts formed in both in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins of endoneurium from streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats and in vitro by glycation of laminin and fibronectin with methylglyoxal and glucose. We also investigated the impact of advanced glycation end product (AGE) residue content of ECM on neurite outgrowth from sensory neurons.
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Post-translational regulation of cathepsin B, but not of other cysteine cathepsins, contributes to increased glioblastoma cell invasiveness in vitro.
Pathol. Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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Cells that migrate away from a central tumour into brain tissue are responsible for inefficient glioblastoma treatment. This migratory behaviour depends partially on lysosomal cysteine cathepsins. Reportedly, the expression of cathepsins B, L and S gradually increases in the progression from benign astrocytoma to the malignant glioblastoma, although their specific roles in glioma progression have not been revealed. The aim of this study was to clarify their specific contribution to glioblastoma cell invasion. The differences between the matrix invading cells and non-invading core cells from spheroids derived from glioblastoma cell culture and from glioblastoma patients biopsies, and embedded in type I collagen, have been studied at the mRNA, protein and cathepsin activity levels. Analyses of the two types of cells showed that the three cathepsins were up-regulated post-translationally, their specific activities increasing in the invading cells. The cystatin levels were also differentially altered, resulting in higher ratio of cathepsins B and L to stefin B in the invading cells. However, using specific synthetic inhibitors and silencing strategies revealed that only cathepsin B activity was involved in the invasion of glioblastoma cells, confirming previous notion of cathepsin B as tumour invasiveness biomarker. Our data support the concept of specific roles of cysteine cathepsins in cancer progression. Finally the study points out on the complexity of protease regulation and the need to include functional proteomics in the systems biology approaches to understand the processes associated with glioma invasion and progression.
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Glioblastoma and endothelial cells cross-talk, mediated by SDF-1, enhances tumour invasion and endothelial proliferation by increasing expression of cathepsins B, S, and MMP-9.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2009
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Malignant glioma is characterized by rapid proliferation, high invasiveness into the surrounding brain and increased vascularity. The aim of the study was to explain the observation that glioblastoma invasion often occurs along existing vasculature, suggesting interactions between the two types of cells. Using the in vitro model, we demonstrate that co-culturing of U87 (human glioblastoma) cells with HMEC-1 (human microvascular endothelial) cells increases the invasiveness of the U87 cells. The enhanced invasiveness correlates with increased expression of MMP-9 in both U87 and HMEC-1 cells, increased expression of cysteine cathepsins B and S and down-regulation of endogenous cell adhesion molecule NCAM in U87 cells. On the other hand, U87 tumour cells significantly enhance the proliferation of co-cultured endothelial cells by a mechanism involving cathepsin B, but not cathepsin S. Furthermore, we demonstrated that increased cell expression and activity of MMP-9 in cell microenvironment is mediated via secretion of SDF-1 by HMEC-1 cells. Selective SDF-1 inhibition impaired the enhanced U87 cell invasion, mostly via down-regulation of MMP-9, but did not alter cathepsin B, although the latter is more relevant for the invasion of U87 cells in mono-culture. Taken together, our study suggests that glioblastoma cells may be attracted by endothelial cells, enhancing their proliferation and underlines the importance of SDF-1, cathepsin B and MMP-9 in the cross-talk between these cells in normoxic conditions. This notion contributes to better understanding and suggests further investigations of the paracrine mechanisms, regulating glioma angiogenesis.
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Roles of Wnt8a during formation and patterning of the mouse inner ear.
Mech. Dev.
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Fgf and Wnt signalling have been shown to be required for formation of the otic placode in vertebrates. Whereas several Fgfs including Fgf3, Fgf8 and Fgf10 have been shown to participate during early placode induction, Wnt signalling is required for specification and maintenance of the otic placode, and dorsal patterning of the otic vesicle. However, the requirement for specific members of the Wnt gene family for otic placode and vesicle formation and their potential interaction with Fgf signalling has been poorly defined. Due to its spatiotemporal expression during placode formation in the hindbrain Wnt8a has been postulated as a potential candidate for its specification. Here we have examined the role of Wnt8a during formation of the otic placode and vesicle in mouse embryos. Wnt8a expression depends on the presence of Fgf3 indicating a serial regulation between Fgf and Wnt signalling during otic placode induction and specification. Wnt8a by itself however is neither essential for placode specification nor redundantly required together with Fgfs for otic placode and vesicle formation. Interestingly however, Wnt8a and Fgf3 are redundantly required for expression of Fgf15 in the hindbrain indicating additional reciprocal interactions between Fgf and Wnt signalling. Further reduction of Wnt signalling by the inactivation of Wnt1 in a Wnt8a mutant background revealed a redundant requirement for both genes during morphogenesis of the dorsal portion of the otic vesicle.
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Generation of inner ear sensory cells from bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells.
Regen Med
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Hearing loss is the most common sensory disorder in humans, its main cause being the loss of cochlear hair cells. We studied the potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to differentiate towards hair cells and auditory neurons.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.