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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Advancing therapeutic discovery through phenotypic screening of the extracellular proteome using hydrodynamic intravascular injection.
Expert Opin. Ther. Targets
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Although the human genome encodes ? 20,000 protein-coding genes, only a very small fraction of these have been explored as potential targets for therapeutic development. The challenge of identifying and validating new protein targets has contributed to the significant reduction in the productivity of the pharmaceutical industry in the recent decade, highlighting the continued need to find new therapeutic targets.
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Reduced genetic distance and high replication levels increase the RNA recombination rate of hepatitis delta virus.
Virus Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) replication is carried out by host RNA polymerases. Since homologous inter-genotypic RNA recombination is known to occur in HDV, possibly via a replication-dependent process, we hypothesized that the degree of sequence homology and the replication level should be related to the recombination frequency in cells co-expressing two HDV sequences. To confirm this, we separately co-transfected cells with three different pairs of HDV genomic RNAs and analyzed the obtained recombinants by RT-PCR followed by restriction fragment length polymorphism and sequencing analyses. The sequence divergence between the clones ranged from 24% to less than 0.1%, and the difference in replication levels was as high as 100-fold. As expected, significant differences were observed in the recombination frequencies, which ranged from 0.5% to 47.5%. Furthermore, varying the relative amounts of parental RNA altered the dominant recombinant species produced, suggesting that template switching occurs frequently during the synthesis of genomic HDV RNA. Taken together, these data suggest that during the host RNA polymerase-driven RNA recombination of HDV, both inter- and intra-genotypic recombination events are important in shaping the genetic diversity of HDV.
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Discovery of 6-phenylpyrimido[4,5-b][1,4]oxazines as potent and selective acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) inhibitors with in vivo efficacy in rodents.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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The discovery and optimization of a series of acyl CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) inhibitors based on a pyrimido[4,5-b][1,4]oxazine scaffold is described. The SAR of a moderately potent HTS hit was investigated resulting in the discovery of phenylcyclohexylacetic acid 1, which displayed good DGAT1 inhibitory activity, selectivity, and PK properties. During preclinical toxicity studies a metabolite of 1 was observed that was responsible for elevating the levels of liver enzymes ALT and AST. Subsequently, analogues were synthesized to preclude the formation of the toxic metabolite. This effort resulted in the discovery of spiroindane 42, which displayed significantly improved DGAT1 inhibition compared to 1. Spiroindane 42 was well tolerated in rodents in vivo, demonstrated efficacy in an oral triglyceride uptake study in mice, and had an acceptable safety profile in preclinical toxicity studies.
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Discovery and optimization of 5-(2-((1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-7-yl)oxy)pyridin-4-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazoles as novel gpr119 agonists.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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We describe the discovery and optimization of 5-(2-((1-(phenylsulfonyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolin-7-yl)oxy)pyridin-4-yl)-1,2,4-oxadiazoles as novel agonists of GPR119. Previously described aniline 2 had suboptimal efficacy in signaling assays using cynomolgus monkey (cyno) GPR119 making evaluation of the target in preclinical models difficult. Replacement of the aniline ring with a tetrahydroquinoline ring constrained the rotation of the aniline C-N bond and gave compounds with increased efficacy on human and cyno receptors. Additional optimization led to the discovery of 10, which possesses higher free fraction in plasma and improved pharmacokinetic properties in rat and cyno compared to 2.
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Discovery and optimization of N-(3-(1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)benzenesulfonamides as novel GPR119 agonists.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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The discovery and optimization of novel N-(3-(1,3-dioxo-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyridin-4-yloxy)phenyl)benzenesulfonamide GPR119 agonists is described. Modification of the pyridylphthalimide motif of the molecule with R(1)=-Me and R(2)=-(i)Pr substituents, incorporated with a 6-fluoro substitution on the central phenyl ring offered a potent and metabolically stable tool compound 22.
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Discovery and optimization of arylsulfonyl 3-(pyridin-2-yloxy)anilines as novel GPR119 agonists.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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We describe the discovery of a series of arylsulfonyl 3-(pyridin-2-yloxy)anilines as GPR119 agonists derived from compound 1. Replacement of the three methyl groups in 1 with metabolically stable moieties led to the identification of compound 34, a potent and efficacious GPR119 agonist with improved pharmacokinetic (PK) properties.
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Optimization of triazoles as novel and potent nonphlorizin SGLT2 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Previous efforts have led to the identification of a potent, selective, and nonphlorizin based SGLT2 inhibitor 1. This Letter describes efforts to further optimize the potency, microsomal stability, solubility and pharmacokinetic properties of this series of SGLT2 inhibitors. From these efforts, compounds 28 and 32 have improved solubility and pharmacokinetic properties compared to compound 1.
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Discovery of pyrrolopyridazines as novel DGAT1 inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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A new structural class of DGAT1 inhibitors was discovered and the structure-activity relationship was explored. The pyrrolotriazine core of the original lead molecule was changed to a pyrrolopyridazine core providing an increase in potency. Further exploration resulted in optimization of the propyl group at C7 and the discovery that the ester at C6 could be replaced by five-membered heterocyclic rings. The analogs prepared have DGAT1 IC(50) values ranging from >10 ?M to 48 nM.
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A proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 neutralizing antibody reduces serum cholesterol in mice and nonhuman primates.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) by interacting with the LDL receptor (LDLR) and is an attractive therapeutic target for LDL-C lowering. We have generated a neutralizing anti-PCSK9 antibody, mAb1, that binds to an epitope on PCSK9 adjacent to the region required for LDLR interaction. In vitro, mAb1 inhibits PCSK9 binding to the LDLR and attenuates PCSK9-mediated reduction in LDLR protein levels, thereby increasing LDL uptake. A combination of mAb1 with a statin increases LDLR levels in HepG2 cells more than either treatment alone. In wild-type mice, mAb1 increases hepatic LDLR protein levels approximately 2-fold and lowers total serum cholesterol by up to 36%: this effect is not observed in LDLR(-/-) mice. In cynomolgus monkeys, a single injection of mAb1 reduces serum LDL-C by 80%, and a significant decrease is maintained for 10 days. We conclude that anti-PCSK9 antibodies may be effective therapeutics for treating hypercholesterolemia.
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Identification and characterization of a non-retinoid ligand for retinol-binding protein 4 which lowers serum retinol-binding protein 4 levels in vivo.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) transports retinol from the liver to extrahepatic tissues, and RBP4 lowering is reported to improve insulin sensitivity in mice. We have identified A1120, a high affinity (K(i) = 8.3 nm) non-retinoid ligand for RBP4, which disrupts the interaction between RBP4 and its binding partner transthyretin. Analysis of the RBP4-A1120 co-crystal structure reveals that A1120 induces critical conformational changes at the RBP4-transthyretin interface. Administration of A1120 to mice lowers serum RBP4 and retinol levels but, unexpectedly, does not improve insulin sensitivity. In addition, we show that Rpb4(-/-) mice display normal insulin sensitivity and are not protected from high fat diet-induced insulin resistance. We conclude that lowering RBP4 levels does not improve insulin sensitivity in mice. Therefore, RBP4 lowering may not be an effective strategy for treating diabetes.
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A potent class of GPR40 full agonists engages the enteroinsular axis to promote glucose control in rodents.
PLoS ONE
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Type 2 diabetes is characterized by impaired glucose homeostasis due to defects in insulin secretion, insulin resistance and the incretin response. GPR40 (FFAR1 or FFA1) is a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), primarily expressed in insulin-producing pancreatic ?-cells and incretin-producing enteroendocrine cells of the small intestine. Several GPR40 agonists, including AMG 837 and TAK-875, have been disclosed, but no GPR40 synthetic agonists have been reported that engage both the insulinogenic and incretinogenic axes. In this report we provide a molecular explanation and describe the discovery of a unique and potent class of GPR40 full agonists that engages the enteroinsular axis to promote dramatic improvement in glucose control in rodents. GPR40 full agonists AM-1638 and AM-6226 stimulate GLP-1 and GIP secretion from intestinal enteroendocrine cells and increase GSIS from pancreatic islets, leading to enhanced glucose control in the high fat fed, streptozotocin treated and NONcNZO10/LtJ mouse models of type 2 diabetes. The improvement in hyperglycemia by AM-1638 was reduced in the presence of the GLP-1 receptor antagonist Ex(9-39)NH(2).
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A comparison of the ultrastructure and composition of fruits cuticular wax from the wild-type Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck cv. Newhall) and its glossy mutant.
Plant Cell Rep.
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The altered ultrastructure and composition of cuticular wax from glossy Newhall (MT) fruits lead to its glossy phenotype. A novel mutant derived from the wild-type (WT) Newhall navel orange (Citrus sinensis [L.] Osbeck cv. Newhall), named glossy Newhall (MT), which produced much more glossy fruits that were easily distinguishable from the WT fruits was characterized in this report. The total wax loads of both WT and MT fruits varied considerably during the fruit development. The most abundant wax fraction of WT mature fruits was triterpenoids, followed by aldehydes, alkanes, fatty acids, primary alcohol and cholesterol. The total wax load in MT mature fruits was reduced by 44.2 % compared with WT. Except for the minor wax components of primary alcohol and cholesterol, the amounts of all major wax fractions in MT mature fruits were decreased in varying degrees. The major reduction occurred in aldehydes that decreased 96.4 % and alkanes that decreased 81.9 %, which was consistent with scanning electron micrographs of MT mature fruit surfaces that showed a severe loss of wax crystals. Hence, aldehydes and alkanes were suggested to be required for wax crystal formation in Newhall navel orange fruits.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.