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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Obesity accelerates epigenetic aging of human liver.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Because of the dearth of biomarkers of aging, it has been difficult to test the hypothesis that obesity increases tissue age. Here we use a novel epigenetic biomarker of aging (referred to as an "epigenetic clock") to study the relationship between high body mass index (BMI) and the DNA methylation ages of human blood, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. A significant correlation between BMI and epigenetic age acceleration could only be observed for liver (r = 0.42, P = 6.8 × 10(-4) in dataset 1 and r = 0.42, P = 1.2 × 10(-4) in dataset 2). On average, epigenetic age increased by 3.3 y for each 10 BMI units. The detected age acceleration in liver is not associated with the Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score or any of its component traits after adjustment for BMI. The 279 genes that are underexpressed in older liver samples are highly enriched (1.2 × 10(-9)) with nuclear mitochondrial genes that play a role in oxidative phosphorylation and electron transport. The epigenetic age acceleration, which is not reversible in the short term after rapid weight loss induced by bariatric surgery, may play a role in liver-related comorbidities of obesity, such as insulin resistance and liver cancer.
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CUX1: a modulator of tumour aggressiveness in pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs) constitute a rare tumour entity, and prognosis and treatment options depend on tumour-mediating hallmarks such as angiogenesis, proliferation rate and resistance to apoptosis. The molecular pathways that determine the malignant phenotype are still insufficiently understood and this has limited the use of effective combination therapies in the past. In this study, we aimed to characterise the effect of the oncogenic transcription factor Cut homeobox 1 (CUX1) on proliferation, resistance to apoptosis and angiogenesis in murine and human PNENs. The expression and function of CUX1 were analysed using knockdown and overexpression strategies in Ins-1 and Bon-1 cells, xenograft models and a genetically engineered mouse model of insulinoma (RIP1Tag2). Regulation of angiogenesis was assessed using RNA profiling and functional tube-formation assays in HMEC-1 cells. Finally, CUX1 expression was assessed in a tissue microarray of 59 human insulinomas and correlated with clinicopathological data. CUX1 expression was upregulated during tumour progression in a time- and stage-dependent manner in the RIP1Tag2 model, and associated with pro-invasive and metastatic features of human insulinomas. Endogenous and recombinant CUX1 expression increased tumour cell proliferation, tumour growth, resistance to apoptosis, and angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, the pro-angiogenic effect of CUX1 was mediated via upregulation of effectors such as HIF1? and MMP9. CUX1 mediates an invasive pro-angiogenic phenotype and is associated with malignant behaviour in human insulinomas.
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?v?3, ?v?5 and ?v?6 integrins in brain metastases of lung cancer.
Clin. Exp. Metastasis
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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Integrins are transmembranous adhesion molecules postulated to be involved in the brain metastatic cascade. We investigated the correlation of alpha v beta 3 (?v?3), alpha v beta 5 (?v?5) and alpha v beta 6 (?v?6) integrin isoform expression with clinical characteristics including survival times in lung cancer patients with brain metastases (BM). All BM from lung cancer operated at our institution between 1990 and 2011, were identified; where available, primary tumors were retrieved as well. Immunohistochemical analysis for ?v?3, ?v?5 and ?v?6 integrin subunits was performed and correlated with Ki67 and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1? indexes. Clinical data including survival data were obtained by chart review. 191 BM specimens of 191 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer (172 non-small cell lung cancer and 19 small cell lung cancer) were included. In 18 patients matched primary tumor samples were available. ?v?6 expression was commonly found on BM tumor cells (103/191; 53.9 %) and showed a significant association with low Ki67 proliferation indices (46 vs. 36 %, p = 0.001, Mann-Whitney U test) and favorable survival times (p = 0.020; log rank test) in patients with non-squamous NSCLC BM. ?v?5 expression was highly expressed on vascular structures (167/191; 87.4 %) and tumor stroma in BM (151/191; 79.1 %) and associated with high HIF-1? indices (60 vs. 90, p = 0.007, Mann-Whitney U test). ?v?3 expression was more frequently found on vascular structures in BM than in primary tumors (68.1 vs. 5.6 %; p = 0.645; Chi square test) and its expression in BM tumor cells correlated with low Ki67 indices (41 vs. 28 %; p = 0.046, Mann-Whitney U test). Expression of ?v integrin subunits seem to be of pathobiological and clinical relevance in patients with NSCLC BM. Further investigations of their involvement in the brain metastatic cascade and their role as biomarkers are warranted.
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Acinar cell carcinomas of the pancreas: a molecular analysis in a series of 57 cases.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Pancreatic acinar cell carcinomas (PACs) are rare but are distinct aggressive neoplasms that phenotypically differ from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) and pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNENs). Despite recent work on the genetic changes of PACs, their molecular pathogenesis is still poorly understood. In this study, we focus on a comparative genomic hybridization analysis. Based on frequent chromosomal imbalances, the involvement of DCC and c-MYC in the pathogenesis of PACs is further investigated. Moreover, we examine markers harboring potential therapeutic relevance (K-RAS, BRAF, EGFR, MGMT, HSP90, L1CAM, Her2). PACs revealed a microsatellite stable, chromosomal unstable genotype, defined by recurrent chromosomal losses of 1p, 3p, 4q, 5q, 6q, 8p, 9p, 11q, 13q, 16q, and 18, as well as gains of 1q, 7, 8q, 12, 17q, and 20q. Subsets of PAC displayed reduction/loss of DCC (79 %) and c-MYC-amplification (17 %). Significant EGFR expression occurred in 42 %, HSP90 expression in 98 %, L1CAM expression in 72 %, and loss of MGMT in 26 %. Two cases carried a K-RAS mutation. Mutations of EGFR or BRAF were not detected. All cases were Her2/neu-negative. PACs display characteristic chromosomal imbalances which are distinctly different from those in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms. Our findings suggest that DCC and c-MYC alterations may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PACs. Furthermore, EGFR, MGMT, HSP90, and L1CAM may be useful as therapeutic markers and predictors of response to therapy in a subset of PACs.
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In vivo RNAi screening identifies a mechanism of sorafenib resistance in liver cancer.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
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In solid tumors, resistance to therapy inevitably develops upon treatment with cytotoxic drugs or molecularly targeted therapies. Here, we describe a system that enables pooled shRNA screening directly in mouse hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) in vivo to identify genes likely to be involved in therapy resistance. Using a focused shRNA library targeting genes located within focal genomic amplifications of human HCC, we screened for genes whose inhibition increased the therapeutic efficacy of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib. Both shRNA-mediated and pharmacological silencing of Mapk14 (p38?) were found to sensitize mouse HCC to sorafenib therapy and prolong survival by abrogating Mapk14-dependent activation of Mek-Erk and Atf2 signaling. Elevated Mapk14-Atf2 signaling predicted poor response to sorafenib therapy in human HCC, and sorafenib resistance of p-Mapk14-expressing HCC cells could be reverted by silencing Mapk14. Our results suggest that a combination of sorafenib and Mapk14 blockade is a promising approach to overcoming therapy resistance of human HCC.
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Hyperplasia to neoplasia sequence of duodenal and pancreatic neuroendocrine diseases and pseudohyperplasia of the PP-cells in the pancreas.
Endocr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Hyperplastic changes of the neuroendocrine cell system may have the potential to evolve into neoplastic diseases. This is particularly the case in the setting of genetically determined and hereditary neuroendocrine tumor syndromes such as MEN1. The review discusses the MEN1-associated hyperplasia-neoplasia sequence in the development of gastrinomas in the duodenum and glucagon-producing tumors in the pancreas. It also presents other newly described diseases (e.g., glucagon cell adenomatosis and insulinomatosis) in which the tumors are (or most likely) also preceded by islet cell hyperplasia. Finally, the pseudohyperplasia of PP-rich islets in the pancreatic head is defined as a physiologic condition clearly differing from other hyperplastic-neoplastic neuroendocrine diseases.
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Evaluation of genome-wide loci of iron metabolism in hereditary hemochromatosis identifies PCSK7 as a host risk factor of liver cirrhosis.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed genetic determinants of iron metabolism, but correlation of these with clinical phenotypes is pending. Homozygosity for HFE C282Y is the predominant genetic risk factor for hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) and may cause liver cirrhosis. However, this genotype has a low penetrance. Thus, detection of yet unknown genetic markers that identify patients at risk of developing severe liver disease is necessary for better prevention. Genetic loci associated with iron metabolism (TF, TMPRSS6, PCSK7, TFR2 and Chr2p14) in recent GWAS and liver fibrosis (PNPLA3) in recent meta-analysis were analyzed for association with either liver cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis in 148 German HFE C282Y homozygotes. Replication of associations was sought in additional 499 Austrian/Swiss and 112 HFE C282Y homozygotes from Sweden. Only variant rs236918 in the PCSK7 gene (proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 7) was associated with cirrhosis or advanced fibrosis (P = 1.02 × 10(-5)) in the German cohort with genotypic odds ratios of 3.56 (95% CI 1.29-9.77) for CG heterozygotes and 5.38 (95% CI 2.39-12.10) for C allele carriers. Association between rs236918 and cirrhosis was confirmed in Austrian/Swiss HFE C282Y homozygotes (P = 0.014; ORallelic = 1.82 (95% CI 1.12-2.95) but not in Swedish patients. Post hoc combined analyses of German/Swiss/Austrian patients with available liver histology (N = 244, P = 0.00014, ORallelic = 2.84) and of males only (N = 431, P = 2.17 × 10(-5), ORallelic = 2.54) were consistent with the premier finding. Association between rs236918 and cirrhosis was not confirmed in alcoholic cirrhotics, suggesting specificity of this genetic risk factor for HH. PCSK7 variant rs236918 is a risk factor for cirrhosis in HH patients homozygous for the HFE C282Y mutation.
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Metabolomic tissue signature in human non-alcoholic fatty liver disease identifies protective candidate metabolites.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder in industrialized countries, yet its pathophysiology is incompletely understood. Small-molecule metabolite screens may offer new insights into disease mechanisms and reveal new treatment targets.
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Novel prognostic markers revealed by a proteomic approach separating benign from malignant insulinomas.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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The prognosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is related to size, histology and proliferation rate. However, this stratification needs to be refined further. We conducted a proteome study on insulinomas, a well-defined pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor entity, in order to identify proteins that can be used as biomarkers for malignancy. Based on a long follow-up, insulinomas were divided into those with metastases (malignant) and those without (benign). Microdissected cells from six benign and six malignant insulinomas were subjected to a procedure combining fluorescence dye saturation labeling with high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Differentially expressed proteins were identified using nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/multi-stage mass spectrometry and validated by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing 62 insulinomas. Sixteen differentially regulated proteins were identified among 3000 protein spots. Immunohistochemical validation revealed that aldehyde dehydrogenase 1A1 and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 showed significantly stronger expression in malignant insulinomas than in benign insulinomas, whereas tumor protein D52 (TPD52) binding protein was expressed less strongly in malignant insulinomas than in benign insulinomas. Using multivariate analysis, low TPD52 expression was identified as a strong independent prognostic factor for both recurrence-free and overall disease-related survival.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 20 June 2014; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2014.82.
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Combined inhibition of Notch and JAK/STAT is superior to monotherapies and impairs pancreatic cancer progression.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive disease with a high rate of metastasis. Recent studies have indicated that Notch and janus kinase 2 (JAK2)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathways are both important for the initiation and progression of PDAC. The purpose of this study was to determine the outcome of targeting these two tumor signaling pathways simultaneously both in vitro and in vivo. We assessed the combinational effects of the ?-secretase inhibitor IX (GSI IX) and JAK2 inhibitor (AG-490) on growth and epithelial plasticity of human pancreatic cancer cell lines, and in a genetically engineered mouse model (Pdx1-Cre, LSL-KrasG12D, p53(lox/+)) of PDAC. Dual treatment with GSI IX and AG-490 significantly impaired cell proliferation, migration, invasion, soft agar growth and apoptosis when compared with monotherapies. Most importantly, combinational treatment significantly attenuates tumor progression in vivo and suppresses conversion from acinar-ductal-metaplasia to PDAC. Our results suggest that targeting Notch and JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathways simultaneously is superior to single inhibitions, supporting combined treatment by GSI IX and AG-490 as a potential therapeutic approach for PDAC. However, the study design limits the direct transfer into the clinic and the impact of dual treatment in patients with PDAC remains still to be determined.
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Comparative characterization of stroma cells and ductal epithelium in chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by an extensive stroma being also present in chronic pancreatitis (CP). Using immunohistochemistry, the stroma of CP and PDAC was comprehensively analyzed and correlated with epithelial/carcinoma-related alterations and clinicopathological patient characteristics. While there were no significant differences between CP and PDAC regarding the distribution of CD3+ T cells and ?-SMA+ fibroblasts, proportions of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were significantly lower and numbers of CD25+(CD4+) and FoxP3+(CD4+) regulatory T cells were greater in PDAC compared with CP. Macrophages were more prevalent in CP, but localized more closely to carcinoma cells in PDAC, as were ??-T cells. Duct-related FoxP3 and L1CAM expression increased from CP to PDAC, while vimentin expression was similarly abundant in both diseases. Moreover, stromal and epithelial compartments of well-differentiated tumors and CPs shared considerable similarities, while moderately and poorly differentiated tumors significantly differed from CP tissues. Analysis of 27 parameters within each pancreatic disease revealed a significant correlation of i) CD4+ and FoxP3+CD4+ T cells with FoxP3 expression in PDAC cells, ii) ?-SMA+ fibroblasts with L1CAM expression and proliferation in PDAC cells, iii) CD3 and CD8 expression with ??-TCR expression in both pancreatic diseases and iv) CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages with vimentin expression in PDAC cells. High expression of FoxP3, vimentin and L1CAM in PDAC cells as well as a tumor-related localization of macrophages each tended to correlate with higher tumor grade. Multivariate survival analysis revealed a younger age at time of surgery as a positive prognostic marker for PDAC patients with the most frequently operated disease stage T3N1M0. Overall this study identified several interrelationships between stroma and epithelial/carcinoma cells in PDACs but also in CP, which in light of previous experimental data strongly support the view that the inflammatory stroma contributes to malignancy-associated alterations already in precursor cells during CP.
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Differential induction of apoptosis and senescence by the DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine in solid tumor cells.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of cancer that govern the silencing of genes. Up to now, 5-azacytidine (5-aza-CR, Vidaza) and 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC, Dacogen) are the only clinically approved DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi). Current effort tries to exploit DNMTi application beyond acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, especially to solid tumors. Although both drugs only differ by a minimal structural difference, they trigger distinct molecular mechanisms that are highly relevant for a rational choice of new combination therapies. Therefore, we investigated cell death pathways in vitro in human hepatoma, colon, renal, and lung cancer cells and in vivo in chorioallantoic membrane and xenograft models. Real-time cancer cell monitoring and cytokine profiling revealed a profoundly distinct response pattern to both drugs. 5-aza-dC induced p53-dependent tumor cell senescence and a high number of DNA double-strand breaks. In contrast, 5-aza-CR downregulated p53, induced caspase activation and apoptosis. These individual response patterns of tumor cells could be verified in vivo in chorioallantoic membrane assays and in a hepatoma xenograft model. Although 5-aza-CR and 5-aza-dC are viewed as drugs with similar therapeutic activity, they induce a diverse molecular response in tumor cells. These findings together with other reported differences enable and facilitate a rational design of new combination strategies to further exploit the epigenetic mode of action of these two drugs in different areas of clinical oncology.
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DNA methylation analysis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease suggests distinct disease-specific and remodeling signatures after bariatric surgery.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder in industrialized countries. Liver samples from morbidly obese patients (n = 45) with all stages of NAFLD and controls (n = 18) were analyzed by array-based DNA methylation and mRNA expression profiling. NAFLD-specific expression and methylation differences were seen for nine genes coding for key enzymes in intermediate metabolism (including PC, ACLY, and PLCG1) and insulin/insulin-like signaling (including IGF1, IGFBP2, and PRKCE) and replicated by bisulfite pyrosequening (independent n = 39). Transcription factor binding sites at NAFLD-specific CpG sites were >1,000-fold enriched for ZNF274, PGC1A, and SREBP2. Intraindividual comparison of liver biopsies before and after bariatric surgery showed NAFLD-associated methylation changes to be partially reversible. Postbariatric and NAFLD-specific methylation signatures were clearly distinct both in gene ontology and transcription factor binding site analyses, with >400-fold enrichment of NRF1, HSF1, and ESRRA sites. Our findings provide an example of treatment-induced epigenetic organ remodeling in humans.
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Identification and manipulation of biliary metaplasia in pancreatic tumors.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Metaplasias often have characteristics of developmentally related tissues. Pancreatic metaplastic ducts are usually associated with pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. The tuft cell is a chemosensory cell that responds to signals in the extracellular environment via effector molecules. Commonly found in the biliary tract, tuft cells are absent from normal murine pancreas. Using the aberrant appearance of tuft cells as an indicator, we tested if pancreatic metaplasia represents transdifferentiation to a biliary phenotype and what effect this has on pancreatic tumorigenesis.
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Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 as a promoter of metastasis in colon cancer.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Oxidative stress due to intratumoral hypoxia in solid cancer has been shown to be associated with increased mortality. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) is an enzyme of the glycolytic pathway, which is regulated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and has been described for its role in tumor progression and metastasis in several malignancies. We investigated whether the expression of PGK1 varies between metastatic and non-metastatic colon cancer. We compared PGK1 expression in colon cancer patients either with or without metastasis via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Microarray analysis was performed to test altered gene expression after PGK1 silencing, using isolates from HCT116 cell lines. PCR results showed an increased expression of PGK1 in colon cancer tissue from metastatic patients in comparison to patients with no metastasis (fold change 2.6, p<0.001). Immunohistochemical staining of PGK1 showed stronger staining in metastatic tissue in comparison to non-metastatic cancer tissue according to a semi-quantitative evaluation. Microarray and subsequent pathway analysis provided 4 genes of interest (CYR61, FOS, JUN and EGR1) used for pathway proposal. The results indicate that increased expression of PGK1 in colon cancer tissue is associated with metastasis. Furthermore, we propose several genes induced by PGK1 that could account for cell migration, mainly EGR1 and CYR61 together with the transcription factors FOS and JUN.
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Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct: stepwise progression to carcinoma involves common molecular pathways.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct are still poorly characterized regarding (1) their molecular alterations during the development to invasive carcinomas, (2) their subtype stratification and (3) their biological behavior. We performed a multicenter study that analyzed these issues in a large European cohort. Intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct from 45 patients were graded and subtyped using mucin markers and CDX2. In addition, tumors were analyzed for common oncogenic pathways, and the findings were correlated with subtype and grade. Data were compared with those from 22 extra- and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas. Intraductal papillary neoplasms showed a development from preinvasive low- to high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia to invasive carcinoma. Molecular and immunohistochemical analysis revealed mutated KRAS, overexpression of TP53 and loss of p16 in low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia, whereas loss of SMAD4 was found in late phases of tumor development. Alterations of HER2, EGFR, ?-catenin and GNAS were rare events. Among the subtypes, pancreato-biliary (36%) and intestinal (29%) were the most common, followed by gastric (18%) and oncocytic (13%) subtypes. Patients with intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct showed a slightly better overall survival than patients with cholangiocarcinoma (hazard ratio (cholangiocarcinoma versus intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct): 1.40; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-4.30; P=0.552). The development of biliary intraductal papillary neoplasms of the bile duct follows an adenoma-carcinoma sequence that correlates with the stepwise activation of common oncogenic pathways. Further large trials are needed to investigate and verify the finding of a better prognosis of intraductal papillary neoplasms compared with conventional cholangiocarcinoma.
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Longitudinal expression analysis of ?v integrins in human gliomas reveals upregulation of integrin ?v?3 as a negative prognostic factor.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Integrin inhibitors targeting ?v series integrins are being tested for their therapeutic potential in patients with brain tumors, but pathologic studies have been limited by lack of antibodies suitable for immunohistochemistry (IHC) on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens. We compared the expression of ?v integrins by IHC in brain tumor and normal human brain samples with gene expression data in a public database using new rabbit monoclonal antibodies against ?v?3, ?v?5, ?v?6, and ?v?8 complexes using both manual and automated microscopy analyses. Glial tumors usually shared an ?v?3-positive/?v?5-positive/?v?8-positive/?v?6-negative phenotype. In 94 WHO (World Health Organization) grade II astrocytomas, 85 anaplastic astrocytomas WHO grade III, and 324 glioblastomas from archival sources, expression of integrins generally increased with grade of malignancy. Integrins ?v?3 and ?v?5 were expressed in many glioma vessels; the intensity of vascular expression of ?v?3 increased with grade of malignancy, whereas ?v?8 was absent. Analysis of gene expression in an independent cohort showed a similar increase in integrin expression with tumor grade, particularly of ITGB3 and ITGB8; ITGB6 was not expressed, consistent with the IHC data. Parenchymal ?v?3 expression and ITGB3 gene overexpression in glioblastomas were associated with a poor prognosis, as revealed by survival analysis (Kaplan-Meier logrank, p = 0.016). Together, these data strengthen the rationale for anti-integrin treatment of glial tumors.
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Comparing the expression of integrins ?v?3, ?v?5, ?v?6, ?v?8, fibronectin and fibrinogen in human brain metastases and their corresponding primary tumors.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To evaluate the expression of ?v-series integrins in brain metastases. Inhibitors targeting these integrins are being tested for their therapeutic potential.
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Metabolic signature of electrosurgical liver dissection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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High frequency electrosurgery has a key role in the broadening application of liver surgery. Its molecular signature, i.e. the metabolites evolving from electrocauterization which may inhibit hepatic wound healing, have not been systematically studied.
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Differentiation of multiple types of pancreatico-biliary tumors by molecular analysis of clinical specimens.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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Timely and accurate diagnosis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is critical in order to provide adequate treatment to patients. However, the clinical signs and symptoms of PDAC are shared by several types of malignant or benign tumors which may be difficult to differentiate from PDAC with conventional diagnostic procedures. Among others, these include ampullary cancers, solid pseudopapillary tumors, and adenocarcinomas of the distant bile duct, as well as inflammatory masses developing in chronic pancreatitis. Here, we report an approach to accurately differentiate between these different types of pancreatic masses based on molecular analysis of biopsy material. A total of 156 bulk tissue and fine needle aspiration biopsy samples were analyzed using a dedicated diagnostic cDNA array and a composite classification algorithm developed based on linear support vector machines. All five histological subtypes of pancreatic masses were clearly separable with 100% accuracy when using all 156 individual samples for classification. Generalized performance of the classification system was tested by 10?×?10-fold cross validation (100 test runs). Correct classification into the five diagnostic groups was demonstrated for 81.5% of 1,560 test set predictions. Performance increased to 85.3% accuracy when PDAC and distant bile duct carcinomas were combined in a single diagnostic class. Importantly, overall sensitivity of detection of malignant disease was 92.2%. The molecular diagnostic approach presented here is suitable to significantly aid in the differential diagnosis of undetermined pancreatic masses. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting accurate differentiation between several types of pancreatico-biliary tumors in a single molecular analytical procedure.
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Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Erythropoietin (Epo) administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
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Distinct DNA methylation patterns in cirrhotic liver and hepatocellular carcinoma.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Abberrant DNA methylation is one of the hallmarks of cancerogenesis. Our study aims to delineate differential DNA methylation in cirrhosis and hepatic cancerogenesis. Patterns of methylation of 27,578 individual CpG loci in 12 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), 15 cirrhotic controls and 12 normal liver samples were investigated using an array-based technology. A supervised principal component analysis (PCA) revealed 167 hypomethylated loci and 100 hypermethylated loci in cirrhosis and HCC as compared to normal controls. Thus, these loci show a "cirrhotic" methylation pattern that is maintained in HCC. In pairwise supervised PCAs between normal liver, cirrhosis and HCC, eight loci were significantly changed in all analyses differentiating the three groups (p < 0.0001). Of these, five loci showed highest methylation levels in HCC and lowest in control tissue (LOC55908, CELSR1, CRMP1, GNRH2, ALOX12 and ANGPTL7), whereas two loci showed the opposite direction of change (SPRR3 and TNFSF15). Genes hypermethylated between normal liver to cirrhosis, which maintain this methylation pattern during the development of HCC, are depleted for CpG islands, high CpG content promoters and polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) targets in embryonic stem cells. In contrast, genes selectively hypermethylated in HCC as compared to nonmalignant samples showed an enrichment of CpG islands, high CpG content promoters and PRC2 target genes (p < 0.0001). Cirrhosis and HCC show distinct patterns of differential methylation with regards to promoter structure, PRC2 targets and CpG islands.
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Early requirement of Rac1 in a mouse model of pancreatic cancer.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a fatal disease without effective chemopreventive or therapeutic approaches. Although the role of oncogenic Kras in initiating development of PDAC is well established, downstream targets of aberrant Ras signaling are poorly understood. Acinar-ductal metaplasia (ADM) appears to be an important prerequisite for development of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), a common precursor to PDAC. RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 1 (Rac1), which controls actin reorganization, can be activated by Ras, is up-regulated in several human cancers, and is required for cerulein-induced morphologic changes in acini. We investigated effects of loss of Rac1 in Kras-induced pancreatic carcinogenesis in mice.
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Stat3/Socs3 activation by IL-6 transsignaling promotes progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and development of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Physiological levels of Kras(G12D) are sufficient to induce pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs); the mechanisms that drive PanIN progression are unknown. Here, we establish that, in addition to oncogenic Kras(G12D), IL-6 transsignaling-dependent activation of Stat3/Socs3 is required to promote PanIN progression and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Myeloid compartment induces Stat3 activation by secreting IL-6; consequently, IL-6 transsignaling activates Stat3 in the pancreas. Using genetic tools, we show that inactivation of IL-6 transsignaling or Stat3 inhibits PanIN progression and reduces the development of PDAC. Aberrant activation of Stat3 through homozygous deletion of Socs3 in the pancreas accelerates PanIN progression and PDAC development. Our data describe the involvement of IL-6 transsignaling/Stat3/Socs3 in PanIN progression and PDAC development.
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Chronic portal vein thrombosis: transcapsular hepatic collateral vessels and communicating ectopic varices.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2010
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To assess patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis (PVT) with respect to transcapsular collateral veins, the communication between these veins and ectopic varices, and the cause of PVT.
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Elevated L1CAM expression in precursor lesions and primary and metastastic tissues of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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The promigratory molecule L1CAM is overexpressed in various tumors, often representing an unfavorable prognostic marker. Recently, we identified L1CAM expression in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells accounting for chemoresistance and increased cell migration. Thus, the present study aims at further elucidating the role of L1CAM in a larger cohort of PDAC specimens including precursor lesions and metastasis. L1CAM expression was determined by immunohistochemistry in tissues of 123 patients including tissues of 110 primary PDACs, 15 lymph node metastases and 14 liver metastases. The immunohistochemical analyses revealed L1CAM expression in 92.7% of primary PDACs, 80% of lymph node metastases and 100% of liver metastases. Furthermore, we have investigated PDAC precursors, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions, revealing a significant increase of L1CAM expression with the PanIN grade (6.4 and 6.8% in PanIN 1A and B, 35% in PanIN 2 and 20% in PanIN 3). The elevated expression of L1CAM already found in PanINs points to a role of L1CAM quite early in tumorigenesis of PDAC. Furthermore, its broad expression in primary tumors as well as in metastases of PDAC patients provide a rationale to further explore the value of L1CAM as a therapeutic target in the treatment of this highly malignant tumor.
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Notch2 is required for progression of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2010
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Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal malignancies lacking effective therapies. Notch signaling is a key regulator of cell fate specification and pancreatic cancer development; however, the role of individual Notch receptors and downstream signaling is largely unknown. Here, we show that Notch2 is predominantly expressed in ductal cells and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions. Using genetically engineered mice, we demonstrate the effect of conditional Notch receptor ablation in KrasG12D-driven pancreatic carcinogenesis. Deficiency of Notch2 but not Notch1 stops PanIN progression, prolongs survival, and leads to a phenotypical switch toward anaplastic pancreatic cancer with epithelial-mesenchymal transition. By expression profiling, we identified increased Myc signaling regulated by Notch2 during tumor development, placing Notch2 as a central regulator of PanIN progression and malignant transformation. Our study supports the concept of distinctive roles of individual Notch receptors in cancer development.
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Examination of apoptosis signaling in pancreatic cancer by computational signal transduction analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) remains an important cause of cancer death. Changes in apoptosis signaling in pancreatic cancer result in chemotherapy resistance and aggressive growth and metastasizing. The aim of this study was to characterize the apoptosis pathway in pancreatic cancer computationally by evaluation of experimental data from high-throughput technologies and public data bases. Therefore, gene expression analysis of microdissected pancreatic tumor tissue was implemented in a model of the apoptosis pathway obtained by computational protein interaction prediction.
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Identification of epidermal Pdx1 expression discloses different roles of Notch1 and Notch2 in murine Kras(G12D)-induced skin carcinogenesis in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2010
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The Ras and Notch signaling pathways are frequently activated during development to control many diverse cellular processes and are often dysregulated during tumorigenesis. To study the role of Notch and oncogenic Kras signaling in a progenitor cell population, Pdx1-Cre mice were utilized to generate conditional oncogenic Kras(G12D) mice with ablation of Notch1 and/or Notch2.
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Analysis of the pancreatic tumor progression by a quantitative proteomic approach and immunhistochemical validation.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2009
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To increase the knowledge about the development of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, (PDAC) detailed analysis of the tumor progression is required. To identify proteins differentially expressed in the pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN), the precursor lesions of PDAC, we conducted a quantitative proteome study on microdissected PanIN cells. Proteins from 1000 microdissected cells were subjected to a procedure combining fluorescence dye saturation labeling with high resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). Differentially regulated protein spots were identified using protein lysates from PDAC tissues as a reference proteome followed by nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS. Thirty-seven single lesions of different PanIN grade (PanIN 1A/B, PanIN 2, PanIN 3) from nine patients were analyzed. Their protein expression was compared with each other, with PDAC cells and with normal ductal cells. The differential expression of differentially regulated protein spots was validated by means of immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays. Of 2500 protein spots, 86 were found to be significantly regulated (p < 0.05, ratio > 1.6) during PanIN progression. Thirty-one nonredundant proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the differential expression of the selected candidate proteins major vault protein (MVP), anterior gradient 2 (AGR 2) and 14-3-3 sigma, annexin A4, and S100A10 could be successfully validated in PanIN lesions. The highly sensitive and robust proteome analysis revealed differentially regulated proteins involved in pancreatic tumor progression. The analysis of normal preneoplastic and neoplastic pancreatic tissue establishes a basis for identification of candidate biomarkers in PanIN progression that can be detected in pancreatic juice and in serum or are candidates for in vivo imaging approaches.
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Cell-based proteome analysis: the first stage in the pipeline for biomarker discovery.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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The early detection of a distinct disease is crucial for a successful treatment and depends on a sensitive as well as specific diagnosis. In last years tremendous attempts were undertaken to identify new biomarker applying proteomics, but no relevant candidate has been identified for clinical application. Although proteomics is enabling quantitative and qualitative analysis of proteins within complex mixtures it could not significantly contribute to this field. Therefore, different proteomics approaches have been established focusing on the direct analysis of cell populations involved in pathogenic processes to identify candidate biomarkers even for in vitro diagnosis. Here, we will outline approaches applying cell- and tissue based proteome analysis as the first decisive step in the pipeline for the discovery of new diagnostic biomarkers. We will show examples for analysing precursor lesions of the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), nephron glomeruli and fibrotic and non-fibrotic liver tissue. This article provides also an overview about currently available techniques in the field of cell enrichment and quantitative proteome analysis of lowest amounts of sample.
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Up-regulation of L1CAM in pancreatic duct cells is transforming growth factor beta1- and slug-dependent: role in malignant transformation of pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is thought to originate from ductal structures, exhibiting strong desmoplastic reaction with stromal pancreatic myofibroblasts (PMF), which are supposed to drive PDAC tumorigenesis. Previously, we observed high expression of the adhesion molecule L1CAM (CD171) in PDAC cells accounting for chemoresistance. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether PMFs are involved in the induction of tumoral L1CAM and whether this contributes to malignant transformation of pancreatic ductal cells and PDAC tumorigenesis. Immunohistochemistry of tissues from chronic pancreatitis specimens revealed considerable L1CAM expression in ductal structures surrounded by dense fibrotic tissue, whereas no L1CAM staining was seen in normal pancreatic tissues. Using the human pancreatic duct cell line H6c7, we show that coculture with PMFs led to a transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1)-dependent up-regulation of L1CAM expression. Similarly, L1CAM expression increased in monocultured H6c7 cells after administration of exogenous TGF-beta1. Both TGF-beta1- and PMF-induced L1CAM expression were independent of Smad proteins but required c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation leading to the induction of the transcription factor Slug. Moreover, Slug interacted with the L1CAM promoter, and its knockdown abrogated the TGF-beta1- and PMF-induced L1CAM expression. As a result of L1CAM expression, H6c7 cells acquired a chemoresistant and migratory phenotype. This mechanism of TGF-beta1-induced L1CAM expression and the resulting phenotype could be verified in the TGF-beta1-responsive PDAC cell lines Colo357 and Panc1. Our data provide new insights into the mechanisms of tumoral L1CAM induction and how PMFs contribute to malignant transformation of pancreatic duct cells early in PDAC tumorigenesis.
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Investigation of innate immunity genes CARD4, CARD8 and CARD15 as germline susceptibility factors for colorectal cancer.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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Variation in genes involved in the innate immune response may play a role in the predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC). Several polymorphisms of the CARD15 gene (caspase activating recruitment domain, member 15) have been reported to be associated with an increased susceptibility to Crohn disease. Since the CARD15 gene product and other CARD proteins function in innate immunity, we investigated the impact of germline variation at the CARD4, CARD8 and CARD15 loci on the risk for sporadic CRC, using a large patient sample from Northern Germany.
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Lymphatic spread in squamous cell carcinoma of the penis is independent of elevated lymph vessel density.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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To examine the potential effect of tumour-induced lymphangiogenesis in squamous cell carcinoma of the penis as a possible mechanism responsible for lymphatic spread.
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Detection of novel biomarkers of liver cirrhosis by proteomic analysis.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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Hepatic cirrhosis is a life-threatening disease arising from different chronic liver disorders. One major cause for hepatic cirrhosis is chronic hepatitis C. Chronic hepatitis C is characterized by a highly variable clinical course, with at least 20% developing liver cirrhosis within 40 years. Only liver biopsy allows a reliable evaluation of the course of hepatitis C by grading inflammation and staging fibrosis, and thus serum biomarkers for hepatic fibrosis with high sensitivity and specificity are needed. To identify new candidate biomarkers for hepatic fibrosis, we performed a proteomic approach of microdissected cirrhotic septa and liver parenchyma cells. In cirrhotic septa, we detected an increasing expression of cell structure associated proteins, including actin, prolyl 4-hydroxylase, tropomyosin, calponin, transgelin, and human microfibril-associated protein 4 (MFAP-4). Tropomyosin, calponin, and transgelin reflect a contribution of activated stellate cells/myofibroblasts to chronic liver injury. The expression of tropomyosin, transgelin, and MFAP-4, an extracellular matrix associated protein, were further evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Tropomyosin and MFAP-4 demonstrated high serum levels in patients with hepatic cirrhosis of different causes.
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Identification of proteomic differences between squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and bronchial epithelium.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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Proteins that exhibit different expression levels in normal and malignant lung cells are good candidate biomarkers to improve early diagnosis and intervention. We used a quantitative approach and compared the proteome of microdissected cells from normal human bronchial epithelium and squamous cell carcinoma tumors of histopathological grades G2 and G3. DIGE analysis and subsequent MS-based protein identification revealed that 32 non-redundant proteins were differentially regulated between the respective tissue types. These proteins are mainly involved in energy pathways, cell growth or maintenance mechanisms, protein metabolism, and the regulation of DNA and RNA metabolism. The expression of some of these proteins was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using tissue microarrays containing tissue specimen of 55 patients, including normal bronchial epithelium, squamous cell carcinomas, adenocarcinomas, and large cell carcinomas. The results of the immunohistochemical studies correlated with the proteome study data and revealed that particularly HSP47 and a group of cytokeratins (i.e. cytokeratins 6a, 16, and 17) are significantly co-regulated in squamous cell carcinoma. Furthermore cytokeratin 17 showed significantly higher abundance in G2 grade compared with G3 grade squamous cell carcinomas in both the gel-based and the immunohistochemical analysis. Therefore this protein might be used as a marker for stratification between different tumor grades.
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Investigation of the colorectal cancer susceptibility region on chromosome 8q24.21 in a large German case-control sample.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2009
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Human chromosome 8q24.21 has been implicated as a susceptibility region for colorectal cancer (CRC) as a result of genome-wide association and candidate gene studies. To assess the impact of molecular variants at 8q24.21 upon the CRC risk of German individuals and to refine the disease-associated region, a total of 2,713 patients with operated CRC (median age at diagnosis: 63 years) were compared with 2,718 sex-matched control individuals (median age at inclusion: 65 years). Information on microsatellite instability in tumors was available for 901 patients. Association analysis of SNPs rs10505477 and rs6983267 yielded allelic p-values of 1.42 x 10(-7) and 2.57 x 10(-7), respectively. For both polymorphisms, the odds ratio was estimated to be 1.50 (95% CI: 1.29-1.75) under a recessive disease model. The strongest candidate interval, outside of which significance dropped by more than 4 orders of magnitude, was delineated by SNPs rs10505477 and rs7014346 and comprised 17 kb. In a subgroup analysis, the disease association was found to be more pronounced in MSI-stable tumors (odds ratio: 1.71). Our study confirms the role of genetic variation at 8q24.21 as a risk factor for CRC and localizes the corresponding susceptibility gene to a 17 kb candidate region.
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EGF receptor is required for KRAS-induced pancreatic tumorigenesis.
Cancer Cell
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Initiation of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) is definitively linked to activating mutations in the KRAS oncogene. However, PDA mouse models show that mutant Kras expression early in development gives rise to a normal pancreas, with tumors forming only after a long latency or pancreatitis induction. Here, we show that oncogenic KRAS upregulates endogenous EGFR expression and activation, the latter being dependent on the EGFR ligand sheddase, ADAM17. Genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of EGFR or ADAM17 effectively eliminates KRAS-driven tumorigenesis in vivo. Without EGFR activity, active RAS levels are not sufficient to induce robust MEK/ERK activity, a requirement for epithelial transformation.
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Claudin-4-targeted optical imaging detects pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions.
Gut
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Novel imaging methods based on specific molecular targets to detect both established neoplasms and their precursor lesions are highly desirable in cancer medicine. Previously, we identified claudin-4, an integral constituent of tight junctions, as highly expressed in various gastrointestinal tumours including pancreatic cancer. Here, we investigate the potential of targeting claudin-4 with a naturally occurring ligand to visualise pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions in vitro and in vivo by near-infrared imaging approaches.
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Characterisation of the cell line HC-AFW1 derived from a pediatric hepatocellular carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
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Current treatment of paediatric hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often inefficient due to advanced disease at diagnosis and resistance to common drugs. The aim of this study was to generate a cell line derived from a paediatric HCC in order to expand research in this field. We established the HC-AFW1 cell line from a liver neoplasm of a 4-year-old boy through culturing of primary tumor specimens. The cell line has been stable for over one year of culturing and has a doubling time of 40 h. The tumour cells have an epithelial histology and express HCC-associated proteins such as Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), Glypican 3, E-cadherin, CD10, CD326, HepPar1 and Vimentin. Forty-nine amino acids in exon 3 of ?-Catenin that involve the phosphorylation sites of GSK3 were absent and ?-Catenin is detectable in the cell nuclei. Cytogenetic analysis revealed large anomalies in the chromosomal map. Several alterations of gene copy numbers were detected by genome-wide SNP array. Among the different drugs tested, cisplatin and irinotecan showed effective inhibition of tumour cell growth in a proliferation assay at concentrations below 5 µg/ml. Subcutaneous xenotransplantation of HC-AFW1 cells into NOD/SCID mice resulted in fast growing dedifferentiated tumours with high levels of serum AFP. Histological analyses of the primary tumour and xenografts included national and international expert pathological review. Consensus reading characterised the primary tumour and the HC-AFW1-derived tumours as HCC. HC-AFW1 is the first cell line derived from a paediatric HCC without a background of viral hepatitis or cirrhosis and represents a valuable tool for investigating the biology of and therapeutic strategies for childhood HCC.
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Establishment and characterization of primary cell lines of squamous cell carcinoma of the penis and its metastasis.
J. Urol.
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We established cell lines from penile squamous cell carcinoma and its lymph node metastasis, and investigated the role of chemokines, chemokine receptors and podoplanin in cancer progression.
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Adenocarcinoma arising in a cystic duplication of the small bowel: case report and review of literature.
World J Surg Oncol
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Enteric duplications are rare, but can occur anywhere along the digestive tract. Most of the patients become symptomatic in early childhood and only a few cases of adult patients have been reported in literature. Here we report a unique case of an adenocarcinoma arising in a coincidentally found cystic duplication of the small bowel.
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Application of saturation labeling in lung cancer proteomics.
Methods Mol. Biol.
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Cancer is a quite heterogeneous disease and each cancer type can be divided in different subentities. Normally this is done by pathologist using classical dye-staining protocols or considering specific biomarkers. To identify new biomarkers, allowing a more specific diagnosis clinical tissue specimen is the material of choice. But the amount of clinical material obtained by resection or biopsy is often limited. In order to perform analytical studies with such scarce sample material, a sensitive analysis method is required. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2DE) for the analysis of small protein amounts, protein saturation labeling using fluorescence dyes has been successfully applied. Here, we describe the application of saturation labeling in combination with microdissection for the analysis of lung tumor cells and bronchial epithelium cells. The presented study demonstrates all relevant steps of differential proteome analysis with scarce protein amount: experimental design, manual microdissection, optimization of saturation labeling, 2DE, protein identification and validation. As a result, 32 non-redundant proteins could be identified to be differentially regulated between the respective tissue types and are candidate biomarkers for describing lung cancer in more detail.
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Rac1b negatively regulates TGF-beta1-induced cell motility in pancreatic ductal epithelial cells by suppressing Smad signalling.
Oncotarget
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Transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 promotes progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by enhancing epithelial-mesenchymal transition, cell migration/invasion, and metastasis, in part by cooperating with the small GTPase Rac1. Prompted by the observation of higher expression of Rac1b, an alternatively spliced Rac1 isoform, in pancreatic ductal epithelial cells and in patients with chronic pancreatitis vs. PDAC, as well as in long-time vs. short-time survivors among PDAC patients, we asked whether Rac1b might negatively affect TGF-?1 prometastatic function. Interestingly, the non-malignant pancreatic ductal epithelial cell line H6c7 exhibited a higher ratio of active Rac1b to total Rac1b than the TGF-?1-responsive PDAC cell lines Panc-1 and Colo357. Notably, siRNA-mediated silencing of Rac1b increased TGF-?1/Smad-dependent migratory activities in H6c7, Colo357, and Panc-1 cells, while ectopic overexpression of Rac1b in Panc-1 cells attenuated TGF-?1-induced cell motility. Depletion of Rac1b in Panc-1 cells enhanced TGF-?1/Smad-dependent expression of promoter-reporter genes and of the endogenous Slug gene. Moreover, Rac1b depletion resulted in a higher and more sustained C-terminal phosphorylation of Smad3 and Smad2, suggesting that Rac1b is involved in Smad2/3 dephosphorylation/inactivation. Since pharmacologic or siRNA-mediated inhibition of Smad3 but not Smad2 was able to alleviate the Rac1b siRNA effect on TGF-?1-induced cell migration, our results suggests that Rac1b inhibits TGF-?1-induced cell motility in pancreatic ductal epithelial cells by blocking the function of Smad3. Moreover, Rac1b may act as an endogenous inhibitor of Rac1 in TGF-?1-mediated migration and possibly metastasis. Hence, it could be exploited for diagnostic/prognostic purposes or even therapeutically in late-stage PDAC as an antimetastatic agent.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.