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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease associated with aberrant trafficking of IL-10R1 and cure by T cell replete haploidentical bone marrow transplantation.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Loss-of-function mutations in IL10 and IL10R cause very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD). Here, we investigated the molecular pathomechanism of a novel intronic IL10RA mutation and describe a new therapeutic approach of T cell replete haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
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Reduced-intensity conditioning and HLA-matched haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation in patients with chronic granulomatous disease: a prospective multicentre study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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In chronic granulomatous disease allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) in adolescents and young adults and patients with high-risk disease is complicated by graft-failure, graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), and transplant-related mortality. We examined the effect of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen designed to enhance myeloid engraftment and reduce organ toxicity in these patients.
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Lung parenchyma surgery in autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
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Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) due to heterozygous STAT3 mutation is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by eczema, elevated serum IgE, recurrent infections, and connective tissue and skeletal findings. Healing of pneumonias is often abnormal with formation of pneumatoceles and bronchiectasis. We aimed to explore whether healing after lung surgery is also aberrant.
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Defective actin accumulation impairs human natural killer cell function in patients with dedicator of cytokinesis 8 deficiency.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) mutations are responsible for a rare primary combined immunodeficiency syndrome associated with severe cutaneous viral infections, increased IgE levels, autoimmunity, and malignancy. Natural killer (NK) cells are essential for tumor surveillance and defense against virally infected cells. NK cell function relies on Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein for filamentous actin (F-actin) accumulation at the lytic NK cell immunologic synapse. DOCK8 activates cell division cycle 42, which, together with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein, coordinates F-actin reorganization. Although abnormalities in T- and B-cell function have been described in DOCK8-deficient patients, the role of NK cells in this disease is unclear.
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A novel gain-of-function IKBA mutation underlies ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency and polyendocrinopathy.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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This study reports the identification of a novel heterozygous IKBA missense mutation (p.M37K) in a boy presenting with ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) who had wild type IKBKG gene encoding NEMO. Our aim was to characterize the clinical course of this I?B-? gain-of-function mutant and to investigate if the p.M37K substitution affects NF-?B activation by interfering with I?B-? degradation, thus impairing NF-?B signaling and causing the EDA-ID phenotype.
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Hematologically important mutations: leukocyte adhesion deficiency (first update).
Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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Leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) is an immunodeficiency caused by defects in the adhesion of leukocytes (especially neutrophils) to the blood vessel wall. As a result, patients with LAD suffer from severe bacterial infections and impaired wound healing, accompanied by neutrophilia. In LAD-I, mutations are found in ITGB2, the gene that encodes the ? subunit of the ?(2) integrins. This syndrome is characterized directly after birth by delayed separation of the umbilical cord. In the rare LAD-II disease, the fucosylation of selectin ligands is disturbed, caused by mutations in SLC35C1, the gene that encodes a GDP-fucose transporter of the Golgi system. LAD-II patients lack the H and Lewis Le(a) and Le(b) blood group antigens. Finally, in LAD-III (also called LAD-I/variant) the conformational activation of the hematopoietically expressed ? integrins is disturbed, leading to leukocyte and platelet dysfunction. This last syndrome is caused by mutations in FERMT3, encoding the kindlin-3 protein in all blood cells that is involved in the regulation of ? integrin conformation.
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Gain-of-function human STAT1 mutations impair IL-17 immunity and underlie chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2011
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Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis disease (CMCD) may be caused by autosomal dominant (AD) IL-17F deficiency or autosomal recessive (AR) IL-17RA deficiency. Here, using whole-exome sequencing, we identified heterozygous germline mutations in STAT1 in 47 patients from 20 kindreds with AD CMCD. Previously described heterozygous STAT1 mutant alleles are loss-of-function and cause AD predisposition to mycobacterial disease caused by impaired STAT1-dependent cellular responses to IFN-?. Other loss-of-function STAT1 alleles cause AR predisposition to intracellular bacterial and viral diseases, caused by impaired STAT1-dependent responses to IFN-?/?, IFN-?, IFN-?, and IL-27. In contrast, the 12 AD CMCD-inducing STAT1 mutant alleles described here are gain-of-function and increase STAT1-dependent cellular responses to these cytokines, and to cytokines that predominantly activate STAT3, such as IL-6 and IL-21. All of these mutations affect the coiled-coil domain and impair the nuclear dephosphorylation of activated STAT1, accounting for their gain-of-function and dominance. Stronger cellular responses to the STAT1-dependent IL-17 inhibitors IFN-?/?, IFN-?, and IL-27, and stronger STAT1 activation in response to the STAT3-dependent IL-17 inducers IL-6 and IL-21, hinder the development of T cells producing IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22. Gain-of-function STAT1 alleles therefore cause AD CMCD by impairing IL-17 immunity.
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Efficacy and safety of hizentra®, a new 20% immunoglobulin preparation for subcutaneous administration, in pediatric patients with primary immunodeficiency.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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Subcutaneous IgG treatment for primary immunodeficiencies (PI) is particularly well suited for children because it does not require venous access and is mostly free of systemic adverse events (AEs). In a prospective, open-label, multicenter, single-arm, Phase III study, 18 children and five adolescents with PI were switched from previous intravenous (IVIG) or subcutaneous (SCIG) IgG treatment to receive dose-equivalent, weekly subcutaneous infusions of Hizentra(®) for 40 weeks. Mean IgG trough levels were maintained in patients previously on SCIG, or increased in those previously on IVIG, regardless of age. No serious bacterial infections were reported during the efficacy period of the study. The rates of non-serious infections were 4.77 (children) and 5.18 (adolescents) infections per patient per year. Related AEs were observed in seven children (38.9%) and two adolescents (40%). Three serious AEs and two AEs leading to discontinuation (all unrelated) were reported in children. Hizentra(®) is an effective and well-tolerated treatment for pediatric patients.
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Impaired cellular immune response to diphtheria and tetanus vaccines in children after thoracic transplantation.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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Safety and immunogenicity of diphtheria and tetanus booster vaccination were evaluated in 28 children after thoracic transplantation. Adverse events were documented in a patient diary. Blood was collected prior to and four wk after vaccination. Specific antibody concentrations were measured by ELISA. Lymphocytes were investigated for expression of activation markers (CD25, HLA-DR) by flow cytometry and proliferation assays with and without stimulation. Post-vaccination antibody titers were higher than prevaccination (p < 0.001), with more patients having protective antibody levels against diphtheria (p < 0.02) and tetanus (p < 0.001). There was no increased proliferation in non-stimulated or stimulated cultures after vaccination. The number of T-lymphocytes activated by the vaccination antigens was similar pre- and post-vaccination, whereas HLA-DR-expression on stimulated and non-stimulated CD4(+) T-cells increased significantly. Increase in antibodies was negatively correlated with tacrolimus dose, and impaired cellular immunity was associated with higher tacrolimus dose and steroid use. Adverse events were similar to the general population; serious adverse events and rejection did not occur. Vaccination with inactivated vaccines can be performed safely in immunosuppressed children after thoracic transplantation and induces protective antibody levels in the majority of patients. Impaired induction of specific cellular immunity is correlated with intensity of immunosuppression and may explain reduced sustainability of antibodies.
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Acellular pertussis booster in adolescents induces Th1 and memory CD8+ T cell immune response.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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In a number of countries, whole cell pertussis vaccines (wcP) were replaced by acellular vaccines (aP) due to an improved reactogenicity profile. Pertussis immunization leads to specific antibody production with the help of CD4(+) T cells. In earlier studies in infants and young children, wcP vaccines selectively induced a Th1 dominated immune response, whereas aP vaccines led to a Th2 biased response. To obtain data on Th1 or Th2 dominance of the immune response in adolescents receiving an aP booster immunization after a wcP or aP primary immunization, we analyzed the concentration of Th1 (IL-2, TNF-?, INF-?) and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10) cytokines in supernatants of lymphocyte cultures specifically stimulated with pertussis antigens. We also investigated the presence of cytotoxic T cell responses against the facultative intracellular bacterium Bordetella pertussis by quantifying pertussis-specific CD8(+) T cell activation following the aP booster immunization. Here we show that the adolescent aP booster vaccination predominantly leads to a Th1 immune response based on IFNgamma secretion upon stimulation with pertussis antigen, irrespective of a prior whole cell or acellular primary vaccination. The vaccination also induces an increase in peripheral CD8(+)CD69(+) activated pertussis-specific memory T cells four weeks after vaccination. The Th1 bias of this immune response could play a role for the decreased local reactogenicity of this adolescent aP booster immunization when compared to the preceding childhood acellular pertussis booster. Pertussis-specific CD8(+) memory T cells may contribute to protection against clinical pertussis.
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Efficacy of gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
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The outcomes of gene therapy to correct congenital immunodeficiencies are unknown. We reviewed long-term outcomes after gene therapy in nine patients with X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1), which is characterized by the absence of the cytokine receptor common gamma chain.
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Diagnostic approach to the hyper-IgE syndromes: immunologic and clinical key findings to differentiate hyper-IgE syndromes from atopic dermatitis.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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Hyper-IgE syndromes (HIES) are primary immunodeficiency disorders characterized by Staphylococcus aureus abscesses, recurrent pneumonia, increased serum IgE levels, and eczema. The association of heterozygous signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) mutations with autosomal dominant (AD)-HIES allows the differentiation of AD-HIES from disorders associated with eczema and increased serum IgE levels, such as other primary immunodeficiencies and atopic dermatitis.
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CXCR2 mediates NADPH oxidase-independent neutrophil extracellular trap formation in cystic fibrosis airway inflammation.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2010
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Upon activation, neutrophils release DNA fibers decorated with antimicrobial proteins, forming neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Although NETs are bactericidal and contribute to innate host defense, excessive NET formation has been linked to the pathogenesis of autoinflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms regulating NET formation, particularly during chronic inflammation, are poorly understood. Here we show that the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) CXCR2 mediates NET formation. Downstream analyses showed that CXCR2-mediated NET formation was independent of NADPH oxidase and involved Src family kinases. We show the pathophysiological relevance of this mechanism in cystic fibrosis lung disease, characterized by chronic neutrophilic inflammation. We found abundant NETs in airway fluids of individuals with cystic fibrosis and mouse cystic fibrosis lung disease, and NET amounts correlated with impaired obstructive lung function. Pulmonary blockade of CXCR2 by intra-airway delivery of small-molecule antagonists inhibited NET formation and improved lung function in vivo without affecting neutrophil recruitment, proteolytic activity or antibacterial host defense. These studies establish CXCR2 as a receptor mediating NADPH oxidase-independent NET formation and provide evidence that this GPCR pathway is operative and druggable in cystic fibrosis lung disease.
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X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT) due to WAS mutations: clinical characteristics, long-term outcome, and treatment options.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2010
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A large proportion of patients with mutations in the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) protein gene exhibit the milder phenotype termed X-linked thrombocytopenia (XLT). Whereas stem cell transplantation at an early age is the treatment of choice for patients with WAS, therapeutic options for patients with XLT are controversial. In a retrospective multicenter study we defined the clinical phenotype of XLT and determined the probability of severe disease-related complications in patients older than 2 years with documented WAS gene mutations and mild-to-moderate eczema or mild, infrequent infections. Enrolled were 173 patients (median age, 11.5 years) from 12 countries spanning 2830 patient-years. Serious bleeding episodes occurred in 13.9%, life-threatening infections in 6.9%, autoimmunity in 12.1%, and malignancy in 5.2% of patients. Overall and event-free survival probabilities were not significantly influenced by the type of mutation or intravenous immunoglobulin or antibiotic prophylaxis. Splenectomy resulted in increased risk of severe infections. This analysis of the clinical outcome and molecular basis of patients with XLT shows excellent long-term survival but also a high probability of severe disease-related complications. These observations will allow better decision making when considering treatment options for individual patients with XLT.
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Lack of serologic immunity against vaccine-preventable diseases in children after thoracic transplantation.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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We investigated whether children after heart- (HTx) or heart-lung transplantation (HLTx) show protective antibody levels against recommended vaccinations, whether vaccination schedules are completed and which factors influence serologic immunity. We performed a cross sectional ELISA - quantification of specific antibodies in 46 patients after pediatric thoracic Tx. Findings were correlated to vaccination history, age at Tx, clinical course and immunosuppressive regimen. We found protective antibody levels against diphtheria in 74% of patients, against tetanus in 22%, against Haemophilus influenzae type b in 30% and against Streptococcus pneumoniae in 59%. Antibody concentrations against live attenuated vaccines were significantly lower in children transplanted in the first 2 years of life. Antibodies were absent for measles in 55% of late - and 81% of early transplanted children, for mumps in 66%/94%, for rubella in 30%/56% and for Varicella in 34%/63%. We found significant correlation of low antibody concentrations and age at Tx. Patients without protective antibody concentrations had significantly longer use of steroids. Vaccination schedules were incomplete or delayed in the majority of patients associated with more days in hospital pre-Tx. Our study shows that closer adherence to pretransplantation vaccination schedules and also post-transplantation monitoring of antibody levels are required in transplant patients.
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AHR activation by tryptophan--pathogenic hallmark of Th17-mediated inflammation in eosinophilic fasciitis, eosinophilia-myalgia-syndrome and toxic oil syndrome?
Immunol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2009
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The aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor (AHR) is involved as receptor and transcription factor in dioxin toxicity. Recently, its role in Th17-mediated autoimmunity and autoinflammation has been described, yet a disease-associated AHR ligand is still elusive. L-tryptophan and its metabolites are assumed to trigger the autoinflammatory disorders eosinophilic fasciitis, eosinophilia-myalgia-syndrome and toxic oil syndrome. Since L-tryptophan and metabolites are well known as AHR ligands we hypothesize that it is their interaction with AHR that induces Th17 cell differentiation and autoinflammation in these disorders. This, for the first time would link disease-causing environmental factors to a well-defined cellular receptor and the subsequent pathogenic pathway.
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ORAI1 deficiency and lack of store-operated Ca2+ entry cause immunodeficiency, myopathy, and ectodermal dysplasia.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2009
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Defects in the development or activation of T cells result in immunodeficiency associated with severe infections early in life. T-cell activation requires Ca2+ influx through Ca2+-release activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels encoded by the gene ORAI1.
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Comèl-Netherton syndrome defined as primary immunodeficiency.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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Mutations in serine protease inhibitor Kazal-type 5 (SPINK5), encoding the serine protease inhibitor lympho-epithelial Kazal-type 5 related inhibitor (LEKTI), cause Comèl-Netherton syndrome, an autosomal-recessive disease characterized by congenital ichthyosis, bamboo hair, and atopic diathesis. Despite increased frequency of infections, the immunocompetence of patients with Comèl-Netherton syndrome has not been extensively investigated.
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Chronic granulomatous disease: the European experience.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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CGD is an immunodeficiency caused by deletions or mutations in genes that encode subunits of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase complex. Normally, assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex in phagosomes of certain phagocytic cells leads to a "respiratory burst", essential for the clearance of phagocytosed micro-organisms. CGD patients lack this mechanism, which leads to life-threatening infections and granuloma formation. However, a clear picture of the clinical course of CGD is hampered by its low prevalence (approximately 1:250,000). Therefore, extensive clinical data from 429 European patients were collected and analyzed. Of these patients 351 were males and 78 were females. X-linked (XL) CGD (gp91(phox) deficient) accounted for 67% of the cases, autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance for 33%. AR-CGD was diagnosed later in life, and the mean survival time was significantly better in AR patients (49.6 years) than in XL CGD (37.8 years), suggesting a milder disease course in AR patients. The disease manifested itself most frequently in the lungs (66% of patients), skin (53%), lymph nodes (50%), gastrointestinal tract (48%) and liver (32%). The most frequently cultured micro-organisms per episode were Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Aspergillus spp. (26%), and Salmonella spp. (16%). Surprisingly, Pseudomonas spp. (2%) and Burkholderia cepacia (<1%) were found only sporadically. Lesions induced by inoculation with BCG occurred in 8% of the patients. Only 71% of the patients received antibiotic maintenance therapy, and 53% antifungal prophylaxis. 33% were treated with gamma-interferon. 24 patients (6%) had received a stem cell transplantation. The most prominent reason of death was pneumonia and pulmonary abscess (18/84 cases), septicemia (16/84) and brain abscess (4/84). These data provide further insight in the clinical course of CGD in Europe and hopefully can help to increase awareness and optimize the treatment of these patients.
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Relevance of biallelic versus monoallelic TNFRSF13B mutations in distinguishing disease-causing from risk-increasing TNFRSF13B variants in antibody deficiency syndromes.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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TNFRSF13B encodes transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI), a B cell- specific tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor superfamily member. Both biallelic and monoallelic TNFRSF13B mutations were identified in patients with common variable immunodeficiency disorders. The genetic complexity and variable clinical presentation of TACI deficiency prompted us to evaluate the genetic, immunologic, and clinical condition in 50 individuals with TNFRSF13B alterations, following screening of 564 unrelated patients with hypogammaglobulinemia. We identified 13 new sequence variants. The most frequent TNFRSF13B variants (C104R and A181E; n=39; 6.9%) were also present in a heterozygous state in 2% of 675 controls. All patients with biallelic mutations had hypogammaglobulinemia and nearly all showed impaired binding to a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL). However, the majority (n=41; 82%) of the pa-tients carried monoallelic changes in TNFRSF13B. Presence of a heterozygous mutation was associated with antibody deficiency (P< .001, relative risk 3.6). Heterozygosity for the most common mutation, C104R, was associated with disease (P< .001, relative risk 4.2). Furthermore, heterozygosity for C104R was associated with low numbers of IgD(-)CD27(+) B cells (P= .019), benign lymphoproliferation (P< .001), and autoimmune complications (P= .001). These associations indicate that C104R heterozygosity increases the risk for common variable immunodeficiency disorders and influences clinical presentation.
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Clinical score for nonbacterial osteitis in children and adults.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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To accurately differentiate nonbacterial osteitis (NBO) from other bone lesions by applying a clinical score through the use of validated diagnostic criteria.
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Common variable immunodeficiency disorders in children: delayed diagnosis despite typical clinical presentation.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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To characterize common variable immunodeficiency disorder (CVID) in childhood.
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Novel mutation in Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 with mild immunological phenotype.
Platelets
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Patients with Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome type 2 (HPS2) present with oculocutaneous albinism, nystagmus, prolonged bleeding time, and increased susceptibility to infections. Twelve HPS2 patients with mutations in the ?3A-subunit of the cytosolic adaptor-related protein complex 3 (AP3B1, also called HPS2) have been described so far. Here, we report on a patient with oculocutaneous albinism who developed a life-threatening bleeding after tonsillectomy. She presented with moderate neutropenia and reduced granulopoiesis. Analyzing patients impaired platelet function using electron microscopy and flow cytometry led to the diagnosis of HPS2. Flow cytometric analysis of the patients platelets showed already elevated CD63 expression on resting platelets with no further increase after thrombin stimulation. Natural killer (NK) cell degranulation was partially impaired but target cell lysis of NK cells and cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs) were normal and the patient did not develop signs of hemophagocytic syndrome. Molecular genetic analyses revealed a novel 2?bp-deletion (c.3222_3223delTG) in the last exon of AP3B1 causing a frameshift and a prolonged altered protein. The location of the deletion at the very C-terminal end may prevent a complete loss of the HPS2 protein leading to a less pronounced severity of immunodeficiency than in other HPS2 patients.
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Clinical and immunological correction of DOCK8 deficiency by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation following a reduced toxicity conditioning regimen.
Pediatr Hematol Oncol
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Dedicator of cytokinesis 8 protein (DOCK8) deficiency is a combined immunodeficiency disorder characterized by an expanding clinical picture with typical features of recurrent respiratory or gastrointestinal tract infections, atopic eczema, food allergies, chronic viral infections of the skin, and blood eosinophilia often accompanied by elevated serum IgE levels. The only definitive treatment option is allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). We report a patient with early severe manifestation of DOCK8 deficiency, who underwent unrelated allogeneic HSCT at the age of 3 years following a reduced toxicity conditioning regimen. The transplant course was complicated by pulmonary aspergilloma pretransplantation, adenovirus (ADV) reactivation, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonitis 4 weeks after transplantation. With antifungal and antiviral treatment the patient recovered. Seven months after transplantation the patient is in excellent clinical condition. Eczematous rash, chronic viral skin infections, and food allergies have subsided, associated with normalization of IgE levels and absolute numbers of eosinophils. Chimerism analysis shows stable full donor chimerism. DOCK8 deficiency can be successfully cured by allogeneic HSCT. This treatment option should be considered early after diagnosis, as opportunistic infections and malignancies that occur more frequently during the natural course of the disease are associated with higher morbidity and mortality.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.