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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Peripapillary rat sclera investigated in vivo with polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Purpose: To demonstrate polarization sensitive (PS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) for non-invasive, volumetric, and quantitative imaging of the birefringent properties of the peripapillary rat sclera. To compare the findings in PS-OCT images to state-of-the-art histomorphometric analysis of the same tissues. Methods: A high-speed PS-OCT prototype operating at 840 nm was modified for imaging the rat eye. Densely sampled PS-OCT raster scans covering an area of ~1.5 mm × 1.5 mm centered at the papilla were acquired in the eyes of anesthetized, male Sprague Dawley rats. Cross-sectional PS-OCT images were computed and fundus maps displaying the birefringent properties of the sclera were analyzed. Post mortem histomorphological analysis was performed. Results: PS-OCT enables the visualization of the polarization properties of ocular tissues in vivo. The birefringent characteristics of the rat sclera were quantitatively assessed. Scleral birefringence formed a donut shaped pattern around the papilla with significantly increased values of 0.703 ± 0.089°/µm (i.e., 1.64×10(-3) ± 0.2×10(-3); mean ± standard deviation) and 0.721 ± 0.084°/µm (i.e., 1.68×10(-3) ± 0.2×10(-3)) at an eccentricity of 0.4 mm for the left and right eyes, respectively. Birefringent axis orientation maps revealed a ring-shaped distribution around the optic nerve. Post mortem PS-OCT micrographs provided access to retinal and scleral microstructure and were compared to standard histomorphological analysis. Conclusion: PS-OCT enables quantitative imaging of tissue polarization properties in addition to conventional OCT imaging based on reflectivity. In the rat sclera, in vivo PS-OCT provides access to volumetric mapping of birefringence. Scleral birefringence is associated with microstructural tissue organization. Therefore, PS-OCT should prove a valuable tool for the in vivo investigation of peripapillary sclera in glaucoma.
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Dual modality optical coherence and whole-body photoacoustic tomography imaging of chick embryos in multiple development stages.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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Chick embryos are an important animal model for biomedical studies. The visualization of chick embryos, however, is limited mostly to postmortem sectional imaging methods. In this work, we present a dual modality optical imaging system that combines swept-source optical coherence tomography and whole-body photoacoustic tomography, and apply it to image chick embryos at three different development stages. The explanted chick embryos were imaged in toto with complementary contrast from both optical scattering and optical absorption. The results serve as a prelude to the use of the dual modality system in longitudinal whole-body monitoring of chick embryos in ovo.
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Single input state polarization sensitive swept source optical coherence tomography based on an all single mode fiber interferometer.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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We present a newly developed single mode fiber based swept source polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography system using a single input state at 1040 nm. Two non-polarizing fiber based beam splitters are combined to form a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, while two polarizing beam splitters are used to obtain a polarization sensitive detection. Both types of beam splitters solely feature conventional single mode fibers. Polarization control paddles are used to set and maintain the polarization states in the fibers of the interferometer and detection unit. By use of a special paddle alignment scheme we are able to eliminate any bulk optic wave plates and polarization maintaining fibers in the interferometer and detection paths while preserving the advantages of a single input state system that illuminates the sample with circularly polarized light. To demonstrate the capabilities of our system, we performed retinal measurements on healthy human volunteers.
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Retinal pigment epithelium findings in patients with albinism using wide-field polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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To investigate pigmentation characteristics of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in patients with albinism using wide-field polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography compared with intensity-based spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus autofluorescence imaging.
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Optical coherence tomography angiography of optic nerve head and parafovea in multiple sclerosis.
Br J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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To investigate swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) angiography in the optic nerve head (ONH) and parafoveal regions in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS).
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Detection and analysis of hard exudates by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography in patients with diabetic maculopathy.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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To image and analyze hard exudates (HEs) and their precursors in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME) by using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT).
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Adaptive optics SLO/OCT for 3D imaging of human photoreceptors in vivo.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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We present a new instrument that is capable of imaging human photoreceptors in three dimensions. To achieve high lateral resolution, the system incorporates an adaptive optics system. The high axial resolution is achieved through the implementation of optical coherence tomography (OCT). The instrument records simultaneously both, scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) and OCT en-face images, with a pixel to pixel correspondence. The information provided by the SLO is used to correct for transverse eye motion in post-processing. In order to correct for axial eye motion, the instrument is equipped with a high speed axial eye tracker. In vivo images of foveal cones as well as images recorded at an eccentricity from the fovea showing cones and rods are presented.
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In vitro and in vivo three-dimensional velocity vector measurement by three-beam spectral-domain Doppler optical coherence tomography.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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We developed a three-beam Doppler optical coherence tomography (OCT) system that enables measurement of the velocity vector of moving particles in three-dimensions (3-D). The spatial orientation as well as the magnitude of motion can be determined without prior knowledge of the geometry of motion. The system combines three spectral-domain OCT interferometers whose sample beams are focused at the sample by a common focusing lens at three different angles. This provides three spatially independent velocity components simultaneously from which the velocity vector can be reconstructed. We demonstrate the system in a simple test object (rotating disc), a flow phantom, and for blood flow measurements in the retina of a healthy human subject. Measurements of blood flow at a venous bifurcation achieve a good agreement between in- and outflow and demonstrate the reliability of the method.
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Lesion size detection in geographic atrophy by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography and correlation to conventional imaging techniques.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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To investigate the reproducibility of automated lesion size detection in patients with geographic atrophy (GA) using polarization-sensitive spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) and to compare findings with scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and intensity-based spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT).
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Imaging retinal pigment epithelial proliferation secondary to PASCAL photocoagulation in vivo by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
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To image the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) after macular laser and to monitor healing responses over time in vivo in patients with diabetic maculopathy using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (OCT).
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Phase-sensitive swept-source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human retina with a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser light source.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Despite the challenges in achieving high phase stability, Doppler swept-source/Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) has advantages of less fringe washout and faster imaging speeds compared to spectral/Fourier-domain detection. This Letter demonstrates swept-source OCT with a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser light source at 400 kHz sweep rate for phase-sensitive Doppler imaging, measuring pulsatile total retinal blood flow with high sensitivity and phase stability. A robust, simple, and computationally efficient phase stabilization approach for phase-sensitive swept-source imaging is also presented.
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Retinal polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography at 1060 nm with 350 kHz A-scan rate using an Fourier domain mode locked laser.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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We present a novel, high-speed, polarization-sensitive, optical coherence tomography set-up for retinal imaging operating at a central wavelength of 1060 nm which was tested for in vivo imaging in healthy human volunteers. We use the system in combination with a Fourier domain mode locked laser with active spectral shaping which enables the use of forward and backward sweep in order to double the imaging speed without a buffering stage. With this approach and with a custom designed data acquisition system, we show polarization-sensitive imaging with an A-scan rate of 350 kHz. The acquired three-dimensional data sets of healthy human volunteers show different polarization characteristics in the eye, such as depolarization in the retinal pigment epithelium and birefringence in retinal nerve fiber layer and sclera. The increased speed allows imaging of large volumes with reduced motion artifacts. Moreover, averaging several two-dimensional frames allows the generation of high-definition B-scans without the use of an eye-tracking system. The increased penetration depth of the system, which is caused by the longer probing beam wavelength, is beneficial for imaging choroidal and scleral structures and allows automated segmentation of these layers based on their polarization characteristics.
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In vivo imaging of the rodent eye with swept source/Fourier domain OCT.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Swept source/Fourier domain OCT is demonstrated for in vivo imaging of the rodent eye. Using commercial swept laser technology, we developed a prototype OCT imaging system for small animal ocular imaging operating in the 1050 nm wavelength range at an axial scan rate of 100 kHz with ~6 µm axial resolution. The high imaging speed enables volumetric imaging with high axial scan densities, measuring high flow velocities in vessels, and repeated volumetric imaging over time. The 1050 nm wavelength light provides increased penetration into tissue compared to standard commercial OCT systems at 850 nm. The long imaging range enables multiple operating modes for imaging the retina, posterior eye, as well as anterior eye and full eye length. A registration algorithm using orthogonally scanned OCT volumetric data sets which can correct motion on a per A-scan basis is applied to compensate motion and merge motion corrected volumetric data for enhanced OCT image quality. Ultrahigh speed swept source OCT is a promising technique for imaging the rodent eye, proving comprehensive information on the cornea, anterior segment, lens, vitreous, posterior segment, retina and choroid.
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Speckle noise reduction in high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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We present a high speed polarization sensitive spectral domain optical coherence tomography system based on polarization maintaining fibers and two high speed CMOS line scan cameras capable of retinal imaging with up to 128 k A-lines/s. This high imaging speed strongly reduces motion artifacts and therefore averaging of several B-scans is possible, which strongly reduces speckle noise and improves image quality. We present several methods for averaging retardation and optic axis orientation, the best one providing a 5 fold noise reduction. Furthermore, a novel scheme of calculating images of degree of polarization uniformity is presented. We quantitatively compare the noise reduction depending on the number of averaged frames and discuss the limits of frame numbers that can usefully be averaged.
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Total retinal blood flow measurement with ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT.
Biomed Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Doppler OCT provides depth-resolved information on flow in biological tissues. In this article, we demonstrate ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT for visualization and quantitative assessment of retinal blood flow. Using swept laser technology, the system operated in the 1050-nm wavelength range at a high axial scan rate of 200 kHz. The rapid imaging speed not only enables volumetric imaging with high axial scan densities, but also enables measurement of high flow velocities in the central retinal vessels. Deep penetration in the optic nerve and lamina cribrosa was achieved by imaging at 1-µm wavelengths. By analyzing en-face images extracted from 3D Doppler data sets, absolute flow in single vessels as well as total retinal blood flow was measured using a simple and robust protocol that does not require measurement of Doppler angles. The results from measurements in healthy eyes suggest that ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain OCT could be a promising technique for volumetric imaging of retinal vasculature and quantitation of retinal blood flow in a wide range of retinal diseases.
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Reproducibility of choroidal thickness measurements across three spectral domain optical coherence tomography systems.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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To investigate the reproducibility of choroidal thickness measurements in normal subjects on 3 spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) instruments: Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec Inc., Dublin, CA), Heidelberg Spectralis (Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and Optovue RTVue (Optovue Inc., Fremont, CA).
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Performance of automated drusen detection by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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To estimate the potential of polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for quantitative assessment of drusen in patients with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD).
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Imaging limbal and scleral vasculature using Swept Source Optical Coherence Tomography.
Photonics Lett Pol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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We demonstrate an application of high-speed swept source optical coherence tomography for vessel visualization in the anterior segment of the human eye. The human corneo-scleral junction and sclera was imaged in vivo. Imaging was performed using a swept source OCT system operating at the 1050nm wavelength range and 100kHz A-scan rate. High imaging speed enables the generation of 3D depth-resolved vasculature maps. The vessel visualization method revealed a rich vascular system in the conjunctiva and episclera.
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Dynamic optical studies in materials testing with spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2010
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By combining dynamic mechanical testing with spectral-domain polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (SD-PS-OCT) performed at 1550 nm we are able to directly investigate for the first time changes within scattering technical materials during tensile and fracture tests. Spatially and temporally varying polarization patterns, due to defects and material inhomogeneities, were observed within bulk polymer samples and used to finally obtain--with the help of advanced image processing algorithms--quantitative maps of the evolving internal stress distribution. Furthermore, locally increased stress within fiber-reinforced composite materials was identified in situ with SD-PS-OCT to cause depolarizing sites of fiber-matrix debonding prior the onset of complete structural failure.
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Polarimetric analysis of the human cornea measured by polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
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Corneal polarimetry measurement has been the object of several papers. The results of techniques like polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT), scanning laser polarimetry, or polarization microscopy are contradictory. Some studies propose a biaxial-like birefringence pattern, while others postulate that birefringence grows at corneal periphery. Several theoretical approaches were proposed for the interpretation of these measurements, but they usually lack accuracy and an adequate consideration of the nonnormal incidence on the tissue. We analyze corneal polarization effects measured by PS-OCT. In vivo and in vitro PS-OCT images of the human cornea are acquired. PS-OCT measurements are apparently not in agreement with the biaxial-like birefringence pattern. We present a polarimetric model of the human cornea based on the extended Jones matrix formalism applied to multilayered systems. We also apply the Poincare? equivalence theorem to extract optic axis orientation and birefringence. The results show that for a fibrils orientation pattern composed by alternating circular and radial fibrils, the birefringence is biaxial-like at the corneal center, and there is an almost circularly symmetric high-birefringence area at corneal periphery. The model could be useful for diagnosis of corneal diseases or corneal compensation in retinal polarimetric imaging.
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Ultrahigh speed 1050nm swept source/Fourier domain OCT retinal and anterior segment imaging at 100,000 to 400,000 axial scans per second.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2010
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We demonstrate ultrahigh speed swept source/Fourier domain ophthalmic OCT imaging using a short cavity swept laser at 100,000 - 400,000 axial scan rates. Several design configurations illustrate tradeoffs in imaging speed, sensitivity, axial resolution, and imaging depth. Variable rate A/D optical clocking is used to acquire linear-in-k OCT fringe data at 100 kHz axial scan rate with 5.3 um axial resolution in tissue. Fixed rate sampling at 1 GSPS achieves a 7.5mm imaging range in tissue with 6.0 um axial resolution at 100 kHz axial scan rate. A 200 kHz axial scan rate with 5.3 um axial resolution over 4mm imaging range is achieved by buffering the laser sweep. Dual spot OCT using two parallel interferometers achieves 400 kHz axial scan rate, almost 2X faster than previous 1050 nm ophthalmic results and 20X faster than current commercial instruments. Superior sensitivity roll-off performance is shown. Imaging is demonstrated in the human retina and anterior segment. Wide field 12x12 mm data sets include the macula and optic nerve head. Small area, high density imaging shows individual cone photoreceptors. The 7.5 mm imaging range configuration can show the cornea, iris, and anterior lens in a single image. These improvements in imaging speed and depth range provide important advantages for ophthalmic imaging. The ability to rapidly acquire 3D-OCT data over a wide field of view promises to simplify examination protocols. The ability to image fine structures can provide detailed information on focal pathologies. The large imaging range and improved image penetration at 1050 m wavelengths promises to improve performance for instrumentation which images both the retina and anterior eye. These advantages suggest that swept source OCT at 1050 nm wavelengths will play an important role in future ophthalmic instrumentation.
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Segmentation and quantification of retinal lesions in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2010
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We present polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) for quantitative assessment of retinal pathologies in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). On the basis of the polarization scrambling characteristics of the retinal pigment epithelium, novel segmentation algorithms were developed that allow one to segment pathologic features such as drusen and atrophic zones in dry AMD as well as to determine their dimensions. Results from measurements in the eyes of AMD patients prove the ability of PS-OCT for quantitative imaging based on the retinal features polarizing properties. Repeatability measurements were performed in retinas diagnosed with drusen and geographic atrophy in order to evaluate the performance of the described methods. PS-OCT appears as a promising imaging modality for three-dimensional retinal imaging and ranging with additional contrast based on the structures tissue-inherent polarization properties.
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Extended in vivo anterior eye-segment imaging with full-range complex spectral domain optical coherence tomography.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2009
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We demonstrate the capability of full-range complex (FRC) spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to image the anterior eye segment from the cornea to the posterior surface of the lens. With an adapted spectrometer design, we developed a SD-OCT system with an extended normal (single half-space) depth range of 7 mm (in air). This OCT-intrinsic depth range was doubled with a FRC technique. We demonstrate the performance of our OCT system by imaging the whole anterior segment of a healthy human eye in vivo.
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Imaging of the retinal pigment epithelium in age-related macular degeneration using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2009
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Purpose. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) provides new insights into the understanding of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) but limited information on the nature of hyperreflective tissue at the level of the retinal pigment epithelium. Therefore, polarization-sensitive (PS) SD-OCT was used to identify and characterize typical RPE findings in AMD. Methods. Forty-four eyes of 44 patients with AMD were included in this prospective case series representing the entire AMD spectrum from drusen (n = 11), geographic atrophy (GA; n = 11), neovascular AMD (nAMD; n = 11) to fibrotic scars (n = 11). Imaging systems were used for comparative imaging. A PS-SD-OCT instrument was developed that was capable of recording intensity and polarization parameters simultaneously during a single scan. Results. In drusen, PS-SD-OCT identified a continuous RPE layer with focal elevations. Discrete RPE atrophy (RA) could be observed in two patients. In GA, the extension of the RA was significantly larger. Residual RPE islands could be detected within the atrophic zone. PS-SD-OCT identified multiple foci of RPE loss in patients with nAMD and allowed recognition of advanced RPE disease associated with choroidal neovascularization. Wide areas of RA containing residual spots of intact retinal pigment epithelium could be identified in fibrotic scars. Conclusions. PS-SD-OCT provided precise identification of retinal pigment epithelium in AMD. Recognition of these disease-specific RA patterns in dry and wet forms of AMD is of particular relevance to identify the status and progression of RPE disease and may help to better estimate the functional prognosis of AMD.
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Phase contrast coherence microscopy based on transverse scanning.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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We present what we believe to be a novel approach to measuring optical path length differences with a precision of a few nanometers. The instrument is based on transverse scanning or en-face optical coherence tomography. Owing to the fast motion of the scanning beam over the sample, excellent phase stability in the transverse direction is achieved. Hence, phase changes caused by the varying optical path lengths within the sample arm occur with high frequency in the fast scanning direction. These changes are well separated from the rather slow phase changes introduced by jitter within the interferometer and can therefore be measured. The en-face imaging speed of the instrument is 40 fps (520 x 200 pixels). The measured precision of the method to detect small changes in optical path lengths was approximately 3 nm.
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Measurements of depolarization distribution in the healthy human macula by polarization sensitive OCT.
J Biophotonics
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) allows for depth resolved imaging of polarization properties of retinal structures. Different layers in the retina can be distinguished not only based on their reflectivity but also due to their birefringent, depolarizing or polarization preserving character. In contrast to other structures in the posterior segment, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is depolarizing, i.e., it scrambles the polarization state of light. A spectral domain (SD) PS-OCT system was used to record 3D data sets of the retina. The depolarizing effect of the RPE was analyzed by quantitative evaluation of the spatial depolarization distribution in the macula regions of healthy eyes. Depolarization in the RPE is most pronounced close to the center of the fovea and decreases with eccentricity.
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Polarization maintaining fiber based ultra-high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2009
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We present a new ultra high resolution spectral domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system based on polarization maintaining (PM) fibers. The method transfers the principles of our previous bulk optic PS-OCT systems to a fiberized setup. The phase shift between the orthogonal polarization states travelling in the two orthogonal modes of the PM fiber is compensated by software in post processing. Thereby, the main advantage of our bulk optics setups, i.e. the use of only a single input polarization state to simultaneously acquire reflectivity, retardation, optic axis orientation, and Stokes vector, is maintained. The use of a broadband light source of 110 nm bandwidth provides improved depth resolution and smaller speckle size. The latter is important for improved resolution of depolarization imaging. We demonstrate our instrument for high-resolution PS-OCT imaging of the healthy human retina.
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Three-dimensional polarization sensitive OCT imaging and interactive display of the human retina.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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Polarization sensitive OCT has recently been shown to provide tissue specific contrast, enabling direct identification of retinal layers based on the intrinsic properties of their interaction with light. However, the capabilities of displaying and analyzing 3D datasets in scientific publications were rather limited. Within the framework of the Interactive Science Publishing project, we present new ways of displaying and analyzing 3D sets of various polarization parameters recorded in healthy and diseased human retinas. These datasets can be interactively explored by the reader. Furthermore, we provide data of the 3D distribution of backscattered Stokes vectors to allow the reader to develop and test their own data processing algorithms.
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Quantitative OCT angiography of optic nerve head blood flow.
Biomed Opt Express
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Optic nerve head (ONH) blood flow may be associated with glaucoma development. A reliable method to quantify ONH blood flow could provide insight into the vascular component of glaucoma pathophysiology. Using ultrahigh-speed optical coherence tomography (OCT), we developed a new 3D angiography algorithm called split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) for imaging ONH microcirculation. In this study, a method to quantify SSADA results was developed and used to detect ONH perfusion changes in early glaucoma. En face maximum projection was used to obtain 2D disc angiograms, from which the average decorrelation values (flow index) and the percentage area occupied by vessels (vessel density) were computed from the optic disc and a selected region within it. Preperimetric glaucoma patients had significant reductions of ONH perfusion compared to normals. This pilot study indicates OCT angiography can detect the abnormalities of ONH perfusion and has the potential to reveal the ONH blood flow mechanism related to glaucoma.
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Extracting and compensating dispersion mismatch in ultrahigh-resolution Fourier domain OCT imaging of the retina.
Opt Express
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We present a numerical approach to extract the dispersion mismatch in ultrahigh-resolution Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the retina. The method draws upon an analogy with a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. By exploiting mathematical similarities between the expressions for aberration in optical imaging and dispersion mismatch in spectral / Fourier domain OCT, Shack-Hartmann principles can be extended from the two-dimensional paraxial wavevector space (or the x-y plane in the spatial domain) to the one-dimensional wavenumber space (or the z-axis in the spatial domain). For OCT imaging of the retina, different retinal layers, such as the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), the photoreceptor inner and outer segment junction (IS/OS), or all the retinal layers near the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) can be used as point source beacons in the axial direction, analogous to point source beacons used in conventional two-dimensional Shack-Hartman wavefront sensors for aberration characterization. Subtleties regarding speckle phenomena in optical imaging, which affect the Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor used in adaptive optics, also occur analogously in this application. Using this approach and carefully suppressing speckle, the dispersion mismatch in spectral / Fourier domain OCT retinal imaging can be successfully extracted numerically and used for numerical dispersion compensation to generate sharper, ultrahigh-resolution OCT images.
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High-speed polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography scan engine based on Fourier domain mode locked laser.
Biomed Opt Express
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We report on a new swept source polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography scan engine that is based on polarization maintaining (PM) fiber technology. The light source is a Fourier domain mode locked laser with a PM cavity that operates in the 1300 nm wavelength regime. It is equipped with a PM buffer stage that doubles the fundamental sweep frequency of 54.5 kHz. The fiberization allows coupling of the scan engine to different delivery probes. In a first demonstration, we use the system for imaging human skin at an A-scan rate of 109 kHz. The system illuminates the sample with circularly polarized light and measures reflectivity, retardation, optic axis orientation, and Stokes vectors simultaneously. Furthermore, depolarization can be quantified by calculating the degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU). The high scanning speed of the system enables dense sampling in both, the x- and y-direction, which provides the opportunity to use 3D evaluation windows for DOPU calculation. This improves the spatial resolution of DOPU images considerably.
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Large-field high-speed polarization sensitive spectral domain OCT and its applications in ophthalmology.
Biomed Opt Express
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We present a novel spectral domain polarization sensitive OCT system (PS-OCT) that operates at an A-scan rate of 70 kHz and supports scan angles of up to 40° × 40°. The high-speed imaging allows the acquisition of up to 1024 × 250 A-scans per 3D scan, which, together with the large field of view, considerably increases the informative value of the images. To demonstrate the excellent performance of the new PS-OCT system, we imaged several healthy volunteers and patients with various diseases such as glaucoma, AMD, Stargardts disease, and albinism. The results are compared with clinically established methods such as scanning laser polarimetry and autofluorescence.
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Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography of melanin provides intrinsic contrast based on depolarization.
Biomed Opt Express
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Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a functional extension of OCT. In addition to imaging based on tissue reflectivity, PS-OCT also enables depth-resolved mapping of sample polarization properties such as phase-retardation, birefringent axis orientation, Stokes vectors, and degree of polarization uniformity (DOPU). In this study, PS-OCT was used to investigate the polarization properties of melanin. In-vitro measurements in samples with varying melanin concentrations revealed polarization scrambling, i.e. depolarization of backscattered light. Polarization scrambling in the PS-OCT images was more pronounced for higher melanin concentrations and correlated with the concentration of the melanin granules in the phantoms. Moreover, in-vivo PS-OCT was performed in the retinas of normal subjects and individuals with albinism. Unlike in the normal eye, polarization scrambling in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) was less pronounced or even not observable in PS-OCT images of albinos. These results indicate that the depolarizing appearance of pigmented structures like, for instance, the RPE is likely to be caused by the melanin granules contained in these cells.
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Motion correction in optical coherence tomography volumes on a per A-scan basis using orthogonal scan patterns.
Biomed Opt Express
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High speed Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) has made it possible to rapidly capture densely sampled 3D volume data. One key application is the acquisition of high quality in vivo volumetric data sets of the human retina. Since the volume is acquired in a few seconds, eye movement during the scan process leads to distortion, which limits the accuracy of quantitative measurements using 3D OCT data. In this paper, we present a novel software based method to correct motion artifacts in OCT raster scans. Motion compensation is performed retrospectively using image registration algorithms on the OCT data sets themselves. Multiple, successively acquired volume scans with orthogonal fast scan directions are registered retrospectively in order to estimate and correct eye motion. Registration is performed by optimizing a large scale numerical problem as given by a global objective function using one dense displacement field for each input volume and special regularization based on the time structure of the acquisition process. After optimization, each volume is undistorted and a single merged volume is constructed that has superior signal quality compared to the input volumes. Experiments were performed using 3D OCT data from the macula and optic nerve head acquired with a high-speed ultra-high resolution 850 nm spectral OCT as well as wide field data acquired with a 1050 nm swept source OCT instrument. Evaluation of registration performance and result stability as well as visual inspection shows that the algorithm can correct for motion in all three dimensions and on a per A-scan basis. Corrected volumes do not show visible motion artifacts. In addition, merging multiple motion corrected and registered volumes leads to improved signal quality. These results demonstrate that motion correction and merging improves image quality and should also improve morphometric measurement accuracy from volumetric OCT data.
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Measurement of pulsatile total blood flow in the human and rat retina with ultrahigh speed spectral/Fourier domain OCT.
Biomed Opt Express
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We present an approach to measure pulsatile total retinal arterial blood flow in humans and rats using ultrahigh speed Doppler OCT. The axial blood velocity is measured in an en face plane by raster scanning and the flow is calculated by integrating over the vessel area, without the need to measure the Doppler angle. By measuring flow at the central retinal artery, the scan area can be very small. Combined with ultrahigh speed, this approach enables high volume acquisition rates necessary for pulsatile total flow measurement without modification in the OCT system optics. A spectral domain OCT system at 840nm with an axial scan rate of 244kHz was used for this study. At 244kHz the nominal axial velocity range that could be measured without phase wrapping was ±37.7mm/s. By repeatedly scanning a small area centered at the central retinal artery with high volume acquisition rates, pulsatile flow characteristics, such as systolic, diastolic, and mean total flow values, were measured. Real-time Doppler C-scan preview is proposed as a guidance tool to enable quick and easy alignment necessary for large scale studies. Data processing for flow calculation can be entirely automatic using this approach because of the simple and robust algorithm. Due to the rapid volume acquisition rate and the fact that the measurement is independent of Doppler angle, this approach is inherently less sensitive to involuntary eye motion. This method should be useful for investigation of small animal models of ocular diseases as well as total blood flow measurements in human patients in the clinic.
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Swept source/Fourier domain polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography with a passive polarization delay unit.
Opt Express
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Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) is a functional imaging method that provides additional contrast using the light polarizing properties of a sample. This manuscript describes PS-OCT based on ultrahigh speed swept source / Fourier domain OCT operating at 1050 nm at 100 kHz axial scan rates using single mode fiber optics and a multiplexing approach. Unlike previously reported PS-OCT multiplexing schemes, the method uses a passive polarization delay unit and does not require active polarization modulating devices. This advance decreases system cost and avoids complex synchronization requirements. The polarization delay unit was implemented in the sample beam path in order to simultaneously illuminate the sample with two different polarization states. The orthogonal polarization components for the depth-multiplexed signals from the two input states were detected using dual balanced detection. PS-OCT images were computed using Jones calculus. 3D PS-OCT imaging was performed in the human and rat retina. In addition to standard OCT images, PS-OCT images were generated using contrast form birefringence and depolarization. Enhanced tissue discrimination as well as quantitative measurements of sample properties was demonstrated using the additional contrast and information contained in the PS-OCT images.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.