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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Quantitative monitoring of tamoxifen in human plasma extended to 40 metabolites using liquid-chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry: new investigation capabilities for clinical pharmacology.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Liquid-chromatography (LC) high-resolution (HR) mass spectrometry (MS) analysis can record HR full scans, a technique of detection that shows comparable selectivity and sensitivity to ion transitions (SRM) performed with triple-quadrupole (TQ)-MS but that allows de facto determination of "all" ions including drug metabolites. This could be of potential utility in in vivo drug metabolism and pharmacovigilance studies in order to have a more comprehensive insight in drug biotransformation profile differences in patients. This simultaneous quantitative and qualitative (Quan/Qual) approach has been tested with 20 patients chronically treated with tamoxifen (TAM). The absolute quantification of TAM and three metabolites in plasma was realized using HR- and TQ-MS and compared. The same LC-HR-MS analysis allowed the identification and relative quantification of 37 additional TAM metabolites. A number of new metabolites were detected in patients' plasma including metabolites identified as didemethyl-trihydroxy-TAM-glucoside and didemethyl-tetrahydroxy-TAM-glucoside conjugates corresponding to TAM with six and seven biotransformation steps, respectively. Multivariate analysis allowed relevant patterns of metabolites and ratios to be associated with TAM administration and CYP2D6 genotype. Two hydroxylated metabolites, ?-OH-TAM and 4'-OH-TAM, were newly identified as putative CYP2D6 substrates. The relative quantification was precise (<20 %), and the semiquantitative estimation suggests that metabolite levels are non-negligible. Metabolites could play an important role in drug toxicity, but their impact on drug-related side effects has been partially neglected due to the tremendous effort needed with previous MS technologies. Using present HR-MS, this situation should evolve with the straightforward determination of drug metabolites, enlarging the possibilities in studying inter- and intra-patients drug metabolism variability and related effects.
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Important role of CYP2J2 in protein kinase inhibitor degradation: a possible role in intratumor drug disposition and resistance.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We have investigated in vitro the metabolic capability of 3 extrahepatic cytochromes P-450, CYP1A1, 1B1 and 2J2, known to be over-expressed in various tumors, to biotransform 5 tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI): dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, sorafenib and sunitinib. Moreover, mRNA expression of CYP1A1, 1B1, 2J2 and 3A4 in 6 hepatocellular and 14 renal cell carcinoma tumor tissues and their surrounding healthy tissues, was determined. Our results show that CYP1A1, 1B1 and especially 2J2 can rapidly biotransform the studied TKIs with a metabolic efficiency similar to that of CYP3A4. The mRNA expression of CYP1A1, 1B1, 2J2 and 3A4 in tumor biopsies has shown i) the strong variability of CYP expression and ii) distinct outliers showing high expression levels (esp. CYP2J2) that are compatible with high intratumoral CYP activity and tumor-specific TKI degradation. CYP2J2 inhibition could be a novel clinical strategy to specifically increase the intratumoral rather than plasma TKI levels, improving TKI efficacy and extending the duration before relapse. Such an approach would be akin to beta-lactamase inhibition, a classical strategy to avoid antibiotic degradation and resistance.
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Validation of hepcidin quantification in plasma using LC-HRMS and discovery of a new hepcidin isoform.
Bioanalysis
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Hepcidin, a 25 amino acid peptide, plays an important role in iron homeostasis. Some hepcidin truncated peptides have antibiotic effects.
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Analysis and quantification of vitamin D metabolites in serum by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry--a method comparison and validation.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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The aim of the work was to develop and validate a method for the quantification of vitamin D metabolites in serum using ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC/MS), and to validate a high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS) approach against a tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) approach using a large clinical sample set.
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Generic approach for the sensitive absolute quantification of large undigested peptides in plasma using a particular liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry setup.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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A generic LC-MS approach for the absolute quantification of undigested peptides in plasma at mid-picomolar levels is described. Nine human peptides namely, brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), substance P (SubP), parathyroid hormone 1-34 (PTH), C-peptide, orexines A and B (Orex-A and -B), oxytocin (Oxy), gonadoliberin-1 (gonadothropin releasing-hormone or luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone, LHRH) and ?-melanotropin (?-MSH) were targeted. Plasma samples were extracted via a 2-step procedure: protein precipitation using 1vol of acetonitrile followed by ultrafiltration of supernatants on membranes with a MW cut-off of 30 kDa. By applying a specific LC-MS setup, large volumes of filtrates (e.g., 2×750 ?L) were injected and the peptides were trapped on a 1mm i.d.×10 mm length C8 column using a 10× on-line dilution. Then, the peptides were back-flushed and a second on-line dilution (2×) was applied during the transfer step. The refocalized peptides were resolved on a 0.3mm i.d. C18 analytical column. Extraction recovery, matrix effect and limits of detection were evaluated. Our comprehensive protocol demonstrates a simple and efficient sample preparation procedure followed by the analysis of peptides with limits of detection in the mid-picomolar range. This generic approach can be applied for the determination of most therapeutic peptides and possibly for endogenous peptides with latest state-of-the-art instruments.
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Ultra-performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and sensitive bioassay methods for quantification of posaconazole plasma concentrations after oral dosing.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2010
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Posaconazole (POS) is a new antifungal agent for prevention and therapy of mycoses in immunocompromised patients. Variable POS pharmacokinetics after oral dosing may influence efficacy: a trough threshold of 0.5 ?g/ml has been recently proposed. Measurement of POS plasma concentrations by complex chromatographic techniques may thus contribute to optimize prevention and management of life-threatening infections. No microbiological analytical method is available. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a new simplified ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method and a sensitive bioassay for quantification of POS over the clinical plasma concentration range. The UPLC-MS/MS equipment consisted of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer, an electrospray ionization (ESI) source, and a C(18) analytical column. The Candida albicans POS-hypersusceptible mutant (MIC of 0.002 ?g/ml) ?cdr1 ?cdr2 ?flu ?mdr1 ?can constructed by targeted deletion of multidrug efflux transporters and calcineurin genes was used for the bioassay. POS was extracted from plasma by protein precipitation with acetonitrile-methanol (75%/25%, vol/vol). Reproducible standard curves were obtained over the range 0.014 to 12 (UPLC-MS/MS) and 0.028 to 12 ?g/ml (bioassay). Intra- and interrun accuracy levels were 106% ± 2% and 103% ± 4% for UPLC-MS/MS and 102% ± 8% and 104% ± 1% for bioassay, respectively. The intra- and interrun coefficients of variation were 7% ± 4% and 7% ± 3% for UPLC-MS/MS and 5% ± 3% and 4% ± 2% for bioassay, respectively. An excellent correlation between POS plasma concentrations measured by UPLC-MS/MS and bioassay was found (concordance, 0.96). In 26 hemato-oncological patients receiving oral POS, 27/69 (39%) trough plasma concentrations were lower than 0.5 ?g/ml. The UPLC-MS/MS method and sensitive bioassay offer alternative tools for accurate and precise quantification of the plasma concentrations in patients receiving oral posaconazole.
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Multiplex ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for simultaneous quantification in human plasma of fluconazole, itraconazole, hydroxyitraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, voriconazole-N-oxide, anidulafungin, and caspo
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may contribute to optimizing the efficacy and safety of antifungal therapy because of the large variability in drug pharmacokinetics. Rapid, sensitive, and selective laboratory methods are needed for efficient TDM. Quantification of several antifungals in a single analytical run may best fulfill these requirements. We therefore developed a multiplex ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method requiring 100 ?l of plasma for simultaneous quantification within 7 min of fluconazole, itraconazole, hydroxyitraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, voriconazole-N-oxide, caspofungin, and anidulafungin. Protein precipitation with acetonitrile was used in a single extraction procedure for eight analytes. After reverse-phase chromatographic separation, antifungals were quantified by electrospray ionization-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry by selected reaction monitoring detection using the positive mode. Deuterated isotopic compounds of azole antifungals were used as internal standards. The method was validated based on FDA recommendations, including assessment of extraction yields, matrix effect variability (<9.2%), and analytical recovery (80.1 to 107%). The method is sensitive (lower limits of azole quantification, 0.01 to 0.1 ?g/ml; those of echinocandin quantification, 0.06 to 0.1 ?g/ml), accurate (intra- and interassay biases of -9.9 to +5% and -4.0 to +8.8%, respectively), and precise (intra- and interassay coefficients of variation of 1.2 to 11.1% and 1.2 to 8.9%, respectively) over clinical concentration ranges (upper limits of quantification, 5 to 50 ?g/ml). Thus, we developed a simple, rapid, and robust multiplex UPLC-MS/MS assay for simultaneous quantification of plasma concentrations of six antifungals and two metabolites. This offers, by optimized and cost-effective lab resource utilization, an efficient tool for daily routine TDM aimed at maximizing the real-time efficacy and safety of different recommended single-drug antifungal regimens and combination salvage therapies, as well as a tool for clinical research.
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Comparison between a linear ion trap and a triple quadruple MS in the sensitive detection of large peptides at femtomole amounts on column.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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In addition to the importance of sample preparation and extract separation, MS detection is a key factor in the sensitive quantification of large undigested peptides. In this article, a linear ion trap MS (LIT-MS) and a triple quadrupole MS (TQ-MS) have been compared in the detection of large peptides at subnanomolar concentrations. Natural brain natriuretic peptide, C-peptide, substance P and D-Junk-inhibitor peptide, a full D-amino acid therapeutic peptide, were chosen. They were detected by ESI and simultaneous MS(1) and MS(2) acquisitions. With direct peptide infusion, MS(2) spectra revealed that fragmentation was peptide dependent, milder on the LIT-MS and required high collision energies on the TQ-MS to obtain high-intensity product ions. Peptide adsorption on surfaces was overcome and peptide dilutions ranging from 0.1 to 25 nM were injected onto an ultra high-pressure LC system with a 1 mm id analytical column and coupled with the MS instruments. No difference was observed between the two instruments when recording in LC-MS(1) acquisitions. However, in LC-MS(2) acquisitions, a better sensitivity in the detection of large peptides was observed with the LIT-MS. Indeed, with the three longer peptides, the typical fragmentation in the TQ-MS resulted in a dramatic loss of sensitivity (> or = 10x).
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Kinetic study of neuropeptide Y (NPY) proteolysis in blood and identification of NPY3-35: a new peptide generated by plasma kallikrein.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2009
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There is little information on how neuropeptide Y (NPY) proteolysis by peptidases occurs in serum, in part because reliable techniques are lacking to distinguish different NPY immunoreactive forms and also because the factors affecting the expression of these enzymes have been poorly studied. In the present study, LC-MS/MS was used to identify and quantify NPY fragments resulting from peptidolytic cleavage of NPY(1-36) upon incubation with human serum. Kinetic studies indicated that NPY(1-36) is rapidly cleaved in serum into 3 main fragments with the following order of efficacy: NPY(3-36) > NPY(3-35) > NPY(2-36). Trace amounts of additional NPY forms were identified by accurate mass spectrometry. Specific inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase IV, kallikrein, and aminopeptidase P prevented the production of NPY(3-36), NPY(3-35), and NPY(2-36), respectively. Plasma kallikrein at physiological concentrations converted NPY(3-36) into NPY(3-35). Receptor binding assays revealed that NPY(3-35) is unable to bind to NPY Y1, Y2, and Y5 receptors; thus NPY(3-35) may represent the major metabolic clearance product of the Y2/Y5 agonist, NPY(3-36).
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Effect of RasGAP N2 fragment-derived peptide on tumor growth in mice.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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Peptides that interfere with the natural resistance of cancer cells to genotoxin-induced apoptosis may improve the efficacy of anticancer regimens. We have previously reported that a cell-permeable RasGAP-derived peptide (TAT-RasGAP(317-326)) specifically sensitizes tumor cells to genotoxin-induced apoptosis in vitro. Here, we examined the in vivo stability of a protease-resistant D-form of the peptide, RI.TAT-RasGAP(317-326), and its effect on tumor growth in nude mice bearing subcutaneous human colon cancer HCT116 xenograft tumors. After intraperitoneal injection, RI.TAT-RasGAP(317-326) persisted in the blood of nude mice for more than 1 hour and was detectable in various tissues and subcutaneous tumors. Tumor-bearing mice treated daily for 7 days with RI.TAT-RasGAP(317-326) (1.65 mg/kg body weight) and cisplatin (0.5 mg/kg body weight) or doxorubicin (0.25 mg/kg body weight) displayed reduced tumor growth compared with those treated with either genotoxin alone (n = 5-7 mice per group; P = .004 and P = .005, respectively; repeated measures analysis of variance [ANOVA, two-sided]). This ability of the RI.TAT-RasGAP(317-326) peptide to enhance the tumor growth inhibitory effect of cisplatin was still observed at peptide doses that were at least 150-fold lower than the dose lethal to 50% of mice. These findings provide the proof of principle that RI.TAT-RasGAP(317-326) may be useful for improving the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients.
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Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry for plant metabolomics: a systematic comparison of high-resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight and single stage Orbitrap mass spectrometers.
J Chromatogr A
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The response of Arabidopsis to stress caused by mechanical wounding was chosen as a model to compare the performances of high resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-TOF) and single stage Orbitrap (Exactive Plus) mass spectrometers in untargeted metabolomics. Both instruments were coupled to ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) systems set under identical conditions. The experiment was divided in two steps: the first analyses involved sixteen unwounded plants, half of which were spiked with pure standards that are not present in Arabidopsis. The second analyses compared the metabolomes of mechanically wounded plants to unwounded plants. Data from both systems were extracted using the same feature detection software and submitted to unsupervised and supervised multivariate analysis methods. Both mass spectrometers were compared in terms of number and identity of detected features, capacity to discriminate between samples, repeatability and sensitivity. Although analytical variability was lower for the UHPLC-Q-TOF, generally the results for the two detectors were quite similar, both of them proving to be highly efficient at detecting even subtle differences between plant groups. Overall, sensitivity was found to be comparable, although the Exactive Plus Orbitrap provided slightly lower detection limits for specific compounds. Finally, to evaluate the potential of the two mass spectrometers for the identification of unknown markers, mass and spectral accuracies were calculated on selected identified compounds. While both instruments showed excellent mass accuracy (<2.5ppm for all measured compounds), better spectral accuracy was recorded on the Q-TOF. Taken together, our results demonstrate that comparable performances can be obtained at acquisition frequencies compatible with UHPLC on Q-TOF and Exactive Plus MS, which may thus be equivalently used for plant metabolomics.
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The future key role of LC-high-resolution-MS analyses in clinical laboratories: a focus on quantification.
Bioanalysis
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For the last decade, high-resolution (HR)-MS has been associated with qualitative analyses while triple quadrupole MS has been associated with routine quantitative analyses. However, a shift of this paradigm is taking place: quantitative and qualitative analyses will be increasingly performed by HR-MS, and it will become the common language for most mass spectrometrists. Most analyses will be performed by full-scan acquisitions recording all ions entering the HR-MS with subsequent construction of narrow-width extracted-ion chromatograms. Ions will be available for absolute quantification, profiling and data mining. In parallel to quantification, metabotyping will be the next step in clinical LC-MS analyses because it should help in personalized medicine. This article is aimed to help analytical chemists who perform targeted quantitative acquisitions with triple quadrupole MS make the transition to quantitative and qualitative analyses using HR-MS. Guidelines for the acceptance criteria of mass accuracy and for the determination of mass extraction windows in quantitative analyses are proposed.
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Milbemycins: more than efflux inhibitors for fungal pathogens.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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Existing antifungal agents are still confronted to activities limited to specific fungal species and to the development of resistance. Several improvements are possible either by tackling and overcoming resistance or exacerbating the activity of existing antifungal agents. In Candida glabrata, azole resistance is almost exclusively mediated by ABC transporters (including C. glabrata CDR1 [CgCDR1] and CgCDR2) via gain-of-function mutations in the transcriptional activator CgPDR1 or by mitochondrial dysfunctions. We also observed that azole resistance was correlating with increasing virulence and fitness of C. glabrata in animal models of infection. This observation motivated the re-exploitation of ABC transporter inhibitors as a possible therapeutic intervention to decrease not only the development of azole resistance but also to interfere with the virulence of C. glabrata. Milbemycins are known ABC transporter inhibitors, and here we used commercially available milbemycin A3/A4 oxim derivatives to verify this effect. As expected, the derivatives were inhibiting C. glabrata efflux with the highest activity for A3 oxim below 1 ?g/ml. More surprising was that oxim derivatives had intrinsic fungicidal activity above 3.2 ?g/ml, thus highlighting effects additional to the efflux inhibition. Similar values were obtained with C. albicans. Our data show that the fungicidal activity could be related to reactive oxygen species formation in these species. Transcriptional analysis performed both in C. glabrata and C. albicans exposed to A3 oxim highlighted a core of commonly regulated genes involved in stress responses, including genes involved in oxidoreductive processes, protein ubiquitination, and vesicle trafficking, as well as mitogen-activated protein kinases. However, the transcript profiles contained also species-specific signatures. Following these observations, experimental treatments of invasive infections were performed in mice treated with the commercial A3/A4 oxim preparation alone or in combination with fluconazole. Tissue burden analysis revealed that oxims on their own were able to decrease fungal burdens in both Candida species. In azole-resistant isolates, oxims acted synergistically in vivo with fluconazole to reduce fungal burden to levels of azole-susceptible isolates. In conclusion, we show here the potential of milbemycins not only as drug efflux inhibitors but also as effective fungal growth inhibitors in C. glabrata and C. albicans.
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Comparison between a high-resolution single-stage Orbitrap and a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer for quantitative analyses of drugs.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
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The capabilities of a high-resolution (HR), accurate mass spectrometer (Exactive-MS) operating in full scan MS mode was investigated for the quantitative LC/MS analysis of drugs in patients plasma samples. A mass resolution of 50,000 (FWHM) at m/z 200 and a mass extracted window of 5?ppm around the theoretical m/z of each analyte were used to construct chromatograms for quantitation. The quantitative performance of the Exactive-MS was compared with that of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (TQ-MS), TSQ Quantum Discovery or Quantum Ultra, operating in the conventional selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The study consisted of 17 therapeutic drugs including 8 antifungal agents (anidulafungin, caspofungin, fluconazole, itraconazole, hydroxyitraconazole posaconazole, voriconazole and voriconazole-N-oxide), 4 immunosuppressants (ciclosporine, everolimus, sirolimus and tacrolimus) and 5 protein kinase inhibitors (dasatinib, imatinib, nilotinib, sorafenib and sunitinib). The quantitative results obtained with HR-MS acquisition show comparable detection specificity, assay precision, accuracy, linearity and sensitivity to SRM acquisition. Importantly, HR-MS offers several benefits over TQ-MS technology: absence of SRM optimization, time saving when changing the analysis from one MS to another, more complete information of what is in the samples and easier troubleshooting. Our work demonstrates that U/HPLC coupled to Exactive HR-MS delivers comparable results to TQ-MS in routine quantitative drug analyses. Considering the advantages of HR-MS, these results suggest that, in the near future, there should be a shift in how routine quantitative analyses of small molecules, particularly for therapeutic drugs, are performed.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.