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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Reduced immune cell infiltration and increased pro-inflammatory mediators in the brain of Type 2 diabetic mouse model infected with West Nile virus.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Diabetes is a significant risk factor for developing West Nile virus (WNV)-associated encephalitis (WNVE) in humans, the leading cause of arboviral encephalitis in the United States. Using a diabetic mouse model (db/db), we recently demonstrated that diabetes enhanced WNV replication and the susceptibility of mice to WNVE. Herein, we have examined immunological events in the brain of wild type (WT) and db/db mice after WNV infection. We hypothesized that WNV-induced migration of protective leukocytes into the brain is attenuated in the presence of diabetes, leading to a high viral load in the brain and severe disease in diabetic mice.
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West Nile virus-induced cell adhesion molecules on human brain microvascular endothelial cells regulate leukocyte adhesion and modulate permeability of the in vitro blood-brain barrier model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Characterizing the mechanisms by which West Nile virus (WNV) causes blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, leukocyte infiltration into the brain and neuroinflammation is important to understand the pathogenesis of WNV encephalitis. Here, we examined the role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in mediating the adhesion and transendothelial migration of leukocytes across human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMVE). Infection with WNV (NY99 strain) significantly induced ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin in human endothelial cells and infected mice brain, although the levels of their ligands on leukocytes (VLA-4, LFA-1and MAC-1) did not alter. The permeability of the in vitro BBB model increased dramatically following the transmigration of monocytes and lymphocytes across the models infected with WNV, which was reversed in the presence of a cocktail of blocking antibodies against ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin. Further, WNV infection of HBMVE significantly increased leukocyte adhesion to the HBMVE monolayer and transmigration across the infected BBB model. The blockade of these CAMs reduced the adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes across the infected BBB model. Further, comparison of infection with highly neuroinvasive NY99 and non-lethal (Eg101) strain of WNV demonstrated similar level of virus replication and fold-increase of CAMs in HBMVE cells suggesting that the non-neuropathogenic response of Eg101 is not because of its inability to infect HBMVE cells. Collectively, these results suggest that increased expression of specific CAMs is a pathological event associated with WNV infection and may contribute to leukocyte infiltration and BBB disruption in vivo. Our data further implicate that strategies to block CAMs to reduce BBB disruption may limit neuroinflammation and virus-CNS entry via 'Trojan horse' route, and improve WNV disease outcome.
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Inflammasome adaptor protein Apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) is critical for the immune response and survival in west Nile virus encephalitis.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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West Nile virus (WNV) is a neurotropic flavivirus that has emerged globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis in humans. The WNV-induced innate immune response, including production of antiviral cytokines, is critical for controlling virus infection. The adaptor protein ASC mediates a critical step in innate immune signaling by bridging the interaction between the pathogen recognition receptors and caspase 1 in inflammasome complexes, but its role in WNV immunopathogenesis is not defined. Here, we demonstrate that ASC is essential for interleukin-1? (IL-1?) production and development of effective host immunity against WNV. ASC-deficient mice exhibited increased susceptibility to WNV infection, and reduced survival was associated with enhanced virus replication in the peripheral tissues and central nervous system (CNS). Infection of cultured bone marrow-derived dendritic cells showed that ASC was essential for the activation of caspase 1, a key component of inflammasome assembly. ASC(-/-) mice exhibited attenuated levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum. Intriguingly, infected ASC(-/-) mice also displayed reduced levels of alpha interferon (IFN-?) and IgM in the serum, indicating the overall protective role of ASC in restricting WNV infection. However, brains from ASC(-/-) mice displayed unrestrained inflammation, including elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, such as IFN-?, CCL2, and CCL5, which correlated with more pronounced activation of the astrocytes, enhanced infiltration of peripheral immune cells in the CNS, and increased neuronal cell death. Collectively, our data provide new insights into the role of ASC as an essential modulator of inflammasome-dependent and -independent immune responses to effectively control WNV infection.
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West Nile virus-induced disruption of the blood-brain barrier in mice is characterized by the degradation of the junctional complex proteins and increase in multiple matrix metalloproteinases.
J. Gen. Virol.
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West Nile virus (WNV) encephalitis is characterized by neuroinflammation, neuronal loss and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. However, the mechanisms associated with the BBB disruption are unclear. Complex interactions between the tight junction proteins (TJP) and the adherens junction proteins (AJP) of the brain microvascular endothelial cells are responsible for maintaining the BBB integrity. Herein, we characterized the relationship between the BBB disruption and expression kinetics of key TJP, AJP and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the mice brain. A dramatic increase in the BBB permeability and extravasation of IgG was observed at later time points of the central nervous system (CNS) infection and did not precede virus-CNS entry. WNV-infected mice exhibited significant reduction in the protein levels of the TJP ZO-1, claudin-1, occludin and JAM-A, and AJP ?-catenin and vascular endothelial cadherin, which correlated with increased levels of MMP-1, -3 and -9 and infiltrated leukocytes in the brain. Further, intracranial inoculation of WNV also demonstrated increased extravasation of IgG in the brain, suggesting the role of virus replication in the CNS in BBB disruption. These data suggest that altered expression of junction proteins is a pathological event associated with WNV infection and may explain the molecular basis of BBB disruption. We propose that WNV initially enters CNS without altering the BBB integrity and later virus replication in the brain initiates BBB disruption, allowing enhanced infiltration of immune cells and contribute to virus neuroinvasion via the Trojan-horse route. These data further implicate roles of multiple MMPs in the BBB disruption and strategies to interrupt this process may influence the WNV disease outcome.
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Impaired virus clearance, compromised immune response and increased mortality in type 2 diabetic mice infected with West Nile virus.
PLoS ONE
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Clinicoepidemiological data suggest that type 2 diabetes is associated with increased risk of West Nile virus encephalitis (WNVE). However, no experimental studies have elucidated the role of diabetes in WNV neuropathogenesis. Herein, we employed the db/db mouse model to understand WNV immunopathogenesis in diabetics. Nine-week old C57BL/6 WT and db/db mice were inoculated with WNV and mortality, virus burden in the periphery and brain, and antiviral defense responses were analyzed. db/db mice were highly susceptible to WNV disease, exhibited increased tissue tropism and mortality than the wild-type mice, and were unable to clear the infection. Increased and sustained WNV replication was observed in the serum, peripheral tissues and brain of db/db mice, and heightened virus replication in the periphery was correlated with enhanced neuroinvasion and replication of WNV in the brain. WNV infection in db/db mice was associated with enhanced inflammatory response and compromised antiviral immune response characterized by delayed induction of IFN-?, and significantly reduced concentrations of WNV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies. The compromised immune response in db/db mice correlated with increased viremia. These data suggest that delayed immune response coupled with failure to clear the virus leads to increased mortality in db/db mice. In conclusion, this study provides unique mechanistic insight into the immunopathogenesis of WNVE observed in diabetics and can be used to develop therapeutics for the management of WNVE among diabetic patients.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.