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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
ADAPTIVE CONTROL OF PARKINSON'S STATE BASED ON A NONLINEAR COMPUTATIONAL MODEL WITH UNKNOWN PARAMETERS.
Int J Neural Syst
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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The objective here is to explore the use of adaptive input-output feedback linearization method to achieve an improved deep brain stimulation (DBS) algorithm for closed-loop control of Parkinson's state. The control law is based on a highly nonlinear computational model of Parkinson's disease (PD) with unknown parameters. The restoration of thalamic relay reliability is formulated as the desired outcome of the adaptive control methodology, and the DBS waveform is the control input. The control input is adjusted in real time according to estimates of unknown parameters as well as the feedback signal. Simulation results show that the proposed adaptive control algorithm succeeds in restoring the relay reliability of the thalamus, and at the same time achieves accurate estimation of unknown parameters. Our findings point to the potential value of adaptive control approach that could be used to regulate DBS waveform in more effective treatment of PD.
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Decreased coherence and functional connectivity of electroencephalograph in Alzheimer's disease.
Chaos
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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In this paper, we investigate the abnormalities of electroencephalograph (EEG) signals in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) by analyzing 16-scalp electrodes EEG signals and make a comparison with the normal controls. Coherence is introduced to measure the pair-wise normalized linear synchrony and functional correlations between two EEG signals in different frequency domains, and graph analysis is further used to investigate the influence of AD on the functional connectivity of human brain. Data analysis results show that, compared with the control group, the pair-wise coherence of AD group is significantly decreased, especially for the theta and alpha frequency bands in the frontal and parieto-occipital regions. Furthermore, functional connectivity among different brain regions is reconstructed based on EEG, which exhibit obvious small-world properties. Graph analysis demonstrates that the local functional connections between regions for AD decrease. In addition, it is found that small-world properties of AD networks are largely weakened, by calculating its average path lengths, clustering coefficients, global efficiency, local efficiency, and small-worldness. The obtained results show that both pair-wise coherence and functional network can be taken as effective measures to distinguish AD patients from the normal, which may benefit our understanding of the disease.
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Effects of spike-time-dependent plasticity on the stochastic resonance of small-world neuronal networks.
Chaos
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The phenomenon of stochastic resonance in Newman-Watts small-world neuronal networks is investigated when the strength of synaptic connections between neurons is adaptively adjusted by spike-time-dependent plasticity (STDP). It is shown that irrespective of the synaptic connectivity is fixed or adaptive, the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. The efficiency of network stochastic resonance can be largely enhanced by STDP in the coupling process. Particularly, the resonance for adaptive coupling can reach a much larger value than that for fixed one when the noise intensity is small or intermediate. STDP with dominant depression and small temporal window ratio is more efficient for the transmission of weak external signal in small-world neuronal networks. In addition, we demonstrate that the effect of stochastic resonance can be further improved via fine-tuning of the average coupling strength of the adaptive network. Furthermore, the small-world topology can significantly affect stochastic resonance of excitable neuronal networks. It is found that there exists an optimal probability of adding links by which the noise-induced transmission of weak periodic signal peaks.
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Calcium-dependent phosphorylation alters class XIVa myosin function in the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Class XIVa myosins comprise a unique group of myosin motor proteins found in apicomplexan parasites, including those that cause malaria and toxoplasmosis. The founding member of the class XIVa family, Toxoplasma gondii myosin A (TgMyoA), is a monomeric unconventional myosin that functions at the parasite periphery to control gliding motility, host cell invasion, and host cell egress. How the motor activity of TgMyoA is regulated during these critical steps in the parasite's lytic cycle is unknown. We show here that a small-molecule enhancer of T. gondii motility and invasion (compound 130038) causes an increase in parasite intracellular calcium levels, leading to a calcium-dependent increase in TgMyoA phosphorylation. Mutation of the major sites of phosphorylation altered parasite motile behavior upon compound 130038 treatment, and parasites expressing a nonphosphorylatable mutant myosin egressed from host cells more slowly in response to treatment with calcium ionophore. These data demonstrate that TgMyoA undergoes calcium-dependent phosphorylation, which modulates myosin-driven processes in this important human pathogen.
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Assembly of multiple DNA components through target binding toward homogeneous, isothermally amplified, and specific detection of proteins.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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We describe a strategy of utilizing specific target binding to trigger assembly of three DNA components that are otherwise unable to spontaneously assemble with one another. This binding-induced DNA assembly forms a three-arm DNA junction, subsequently initiating nicking endonuclease-assisted isothermal fluorescence signal amplification. Real-time monitoring of fluorescence enables amplified detection of specific protein targets. The implementation of the strategy necessitates the simultaneous binding of a single target molecule with two affinity ligands each conjugated to a DNA motif. Simple alternation of affinity ligands enables different protein targets to induce the formation of the DNA junction and subsequent isothermal amplification. The use of the strategy allowed us to develop a sensitive assay for proteins with three appealing features: homogeneous analysis without the need for separation, isothermal amplification, and high specificity. Streptavidin was chosen as an initial target to establish and optimize the assay. Sensitivity of protein detection was improved by 1000-fold upon the application of isothermal amplification. A limit of detection of 10 pM was achieved for detection of prostate-specific antigen in buffer and diluted serum. The combination of its three appealing features makes the assay attractive for potential applications in molecular diagnosis, point-of-care testing, and on-site analysis.
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Theoretical analysis of vibrational resonance in a neuron model near a bifurcation point.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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The FitzHugh-Nagumo neuron model subject to a biharmonical external force with two different frequencies is used to investigate the underlying mechanism of vibrational resonance in an excitable system in which the time scales between the fast and slow variables are separated clearly. The theoretical analysis is given based on the approximation approach and the concept of the phase-locking ratio instead of the amplification ratio widely used in the investigation of vibrational resonance in bistable oscillators. The result shows that the high-frequency subthreshold force with the frequency close to the natural frequency of the neuron model in the resting state can induce the change of potential shape of the model near the bifurcation point. This gives rise to the different phase-locking modes of the neuron responses to the same low-frequency subthreshold input. It is also shown that besides the parameters of the high-frequency force such as amplitude and frequency, the bifurcation parameter of the model can affect the vibrational resonance notably. Finally, the numerical results have verified the theoretical analysis.
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A compact methodology to understand, evaluate, and predict the performance of automatic target recognition.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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This paper offers a compacted mechanism to carry out the performance evaluation work for an automatic target recognition (ATR) system: (a) a standard description of the ATR system's output is suggested, a quantity to indicate the operating condition is presented based on the principle of feature extraction in pattern recognition, and a series of indexes to assess the output in different aspects are developed with the application of statistics; (b) performance of the ATR system is interpreted by a quality factor based on knowledge of engineering mathematics; (c) through a novel utility called "context-probability" estimation proposed based on probability, performance prediction for an ATR system is realized. The simulation result shows that the performance of an ATR system can be accounted for and forecasted by the above-mentioned measures. Compared to existing technologies, the novel method can offer more objective performance conclusions for an ATR system. These conclusions may be helpful in knowing the practical capability of the tested ATR system. At the same time, the generalization performance of the proposed method is good.
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[Horizontal transmission of Streptococcus mutans in caries-active preschool children].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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To analyze horizontal transmission patterns of Streptococcus mutans among caries-active preschool children for early interventions of dental caries.
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A 3-dimensional finite element analysis of the restoration of the maxillary canine with a complex zirconia post system.
J Prosthet Dent
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Zirconia posts exhibit high strength and toughness, but reliable bonding with the resin core is difficult to attain. The use of a ferrule has been found to improve stress distribution in the root of endodontically treated teeth.
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WLPVG approach to the analysis of EEG-based functional brain network under manual acupuncture.
Cogn Neurodyn
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Functional brain network, one of the main methods for brain functional studies, can provide the connectivity information among brain regions. In this research, EEG-based functional brain network is built and analyzed through a new wavelet limited penetrable visibility graph (WLPVG) approach. This approach first decompose EEG into ?, ?, ?, ? sub-bands, then extracting nonlinear features from single channel signal, in addition forming a functional brain network for each sub-band. Manual acupuncture (MA) as a stimulation to the human nerve system, may evoke varied modulating effects in brain activities. To investigating whether and how this happens, WLPVG approach is used to analyze the EEGs of 15 healthy subjects with MA at acupoint ST36 on the right leg. It is found that MA can influence the complexity of EEG sub-bands in different ways and lead the functional brain networks to obtain higher efficiency and stronger small-world property compared with pre-acupuncture control state.
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An ephaptic transmission model of CA3 pyramidal cells: an investigation into electric field effects.
Cogn Neurodyn
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Extracellular electric fields existing throughout the living brain affect the neural coding and information processing via ephaptic transmission, independent of synapses. A two-compartment whole field effect model (WFEM) of pyramidal neurons embedded within a resistive array which simulates the extracellular medium i.e. ephapse is developed to study the effects of electric field on neuronal behaviors. We derive the two linearized filed effect models (LFEM-1 and LFEM-2) from WFEM at the stable resting state. Through matching these simplified models to the subthreshold membrane response in experiments of the resting pyramidal cells exposed to applied electric fields, we not only verify our proposed model's validity but also found the key parameters which dominate subthreshold frequency response characteristic. Moreover, we find and give its underlying biophysical mechanism that the unsymmetrical properties of active ion channels results in the very different low-frequency response of somatic and dendritic compartments. Following, WFEM is used to investigate both direct-current (DC) and alternating-current field effect on the neural firing patterns by bifurcation analyses. We present that DC electric field could modulate neuronal excitability, with the positive field improving the excitability, the modest negative field suppressing the excitability, but interestingly, the larger negative field re-exciting the neuron back into spiking behavior. The neuron exposed to the sinusoidal electric field exhibits abundant firing patterns sensitive to the input frequency and intensity. In addition, the electrical properties of ephapse can modulate the efficacy of field effect. Our simulated results are qualitatively in line with the relevant experimental results and can explain some experimental phenomena. Furthermore, they are helpful to provide the predictions which can be tested in future experiments.
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Restoration of miR17/20a in solid tumor cells enhances the natural killer cell antitumor activity by targeting Mekk2.
Cancer Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression has been identified in various human solid cancers. However, whether the levels of miRNA expression in tumor cells have any effect on tumor progression has not been determined. In this proof-of-concept study, the restoration of high-level expression of the miR17-92 cluster of miRNAs reveals its function as a tumor suppressor in murine solid cancer cells. Specifically, genetically engineered expression of higher levels of miR17/20a in the miR17-92 cluster in both murine breast cancer and colon cancer cells triggered natural killer (NK)-cell recognition by inhibiting the expression of MHC class I (H-2D) through the Mekk2-Mek5-Erk5 pathway. Results from the mouse tumor studies were recapitulated using samples of human solid tumors. Together, these data indicate that miR17/20a miRNAs function as tumor suppressors by reprogramming tumor cells for NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity.
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Novel N-substituted sophoridinol derivatives as anticancer agents.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Using sophoridine (1) as the lead compound, a series of new N-substituted sophoridinic acid derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxicity. SAR analysis indicated that introduction of a chlorobenzyl on the 12-nitrogen atom of sophoridinol might significantly enhance the antiproliferative activity. Of the newly synthesized compounds, sophoridinol analogue 9k exhibited a potent effect against six human tumor cell lines (liver, colon, breast, lung, glioma and nasopharyngeal). The mode of action of 9k was to inhibit the DNA topoisomerase I activity, followed by the G0/G1 phase arrest. It also showed a moderate oral bioavailability and good safety in vivo. Therefore, compound 9k has been selected as a novel-scaffold lead for further structural optimizations or as a chemical probe for exploring anticancer pathways of this kinds of compounds.
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A combined method to estimate parameters of the thalamocortical model from a heavily noise-corrupted time series of action potential.
Chaos
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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A combined method composing of the unscented Kalman filter (UKF) and the synchronization-based method is proposed for estimating electrophysiological variables and parameters of a thalamocortical (TC) neuron model, which is commonly used for studying Parkinson's disease for its relay role of connecting the basal ganglia and the cortex. In this work, we take into account the condition when only the time series of action potential with heavy noise are available. Numerical results demonstrate that not only this method can estimate model parameters from the extracted time series of action potential successfully but also the effect of its estimation is much better than the only use of the UKF or synchronization-based method, with a higher accuracy and a better robustness against noise, especially under the severe noise conditions. Considering the rather important role of TC neuron in the normal and pathological brain functions, the exploration of the method to estimate the critical parameters could have important implications for the study of its nonlinear dynamics and further treatment of Parkinson's disease.
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Interspecies communication between plant and mouse gut host cells through edible plant derived exosome-like nanoparticles.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Exosomes, small vesicles participating in intercellular communication, have been extensively studied recently; however, the role of edible plant derived exosomes in interspecies communication has not been investigated. Here, we investigate the biological effects of edible plant derived exosome-like nanoparticles (EPDENs) on mammalian cells.
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Mutations of EGFR or KRAS and expression of chemotherapy-related genes based on small biopsy samples in stage IIIB and IV inoperable non-small cell lung cancer.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and KRAS mutations may predict the outcome of targeted drug therapy and also may be associated with the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This report investigated the relation of EGFR or KRAS mutation and expression of chemotherapy-related genes, including excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1), thymidylate synthetase (TYMS), ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1) and class III ?-tubulin (TUBB3), as a potential explanation for these observations.
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Toxoplasma gondii Hsp90: potential roles in essential cellular processes of the parasite.
Parasitology
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Hsp90 is a widely distributed and highly conserved molecular chaperone that is ubiquitously expressed throughout nature, being one of the most abundant proteins within non-stressed cells. This chaperone is up-regulated following stressful events and has been involved in many cellular processes. In Toxoplasma gondii, Hsp90 could be linked with many essential processes of the parasite such as host cell invasion, replication and tachyzoite-bradyzoite interconversion. A Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network approach of TgHsp90 has allowed inferring how these processes may be altered. In addition, data mining of T. gondii phosphoproteome and acetylome has allowed the generation of the phosphorylation and acetylation map of TgHsp90. This review focuses on the potential roles of TgHsp90 in parasite biology and the analysis of experimental data in comparison with its counterparts in yeast and humans.
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Induction of TGF-? and IL-10 production in dendritic cells using astilbin to inhibit dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Astilbin, a major bioactive compound from Rhizoma smilacis glabrae, has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. Our study first evaluated astilbin on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis in mice. By intraperitoneal injection of astilbin, the severity of colitis was attenuated, and the serum levels of IL-10 and TGF-? were increased. Using flow cytometry, a higher number of IL-10(+) dendritic cells (DCs) and TGF-?(+) DCs and a lower number of CD86(+) DCs, IL-12 p40(+) DCs, and IL-1?(+) DCs were detected in the spleen of mice with colitis after astilbin treatment. The administration of astilbin also resulted in the upregulation of CD103(+) expression in colonic DCs. In a coculture system, murine bone marrow-derived DCs pretreated with astilbin resulted in an enhanced production of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. The results of this study show that astilbin could be a candidate drug for inflammatory bowel disease by mediating the regulatory functions of DCs.
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Laminar flow mediated continuous single-cell analysis on a novel poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic chip.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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A novel microfluidic chip with simple design, easy fabrication and low cost, coupled with high-sensitive laser induced fluorescence detection, was developed to provide continuous single-cell analysis based on dynamic cell manipulation in flowing streams. Making use of laminar flows, which formed in microchannels, single cells were aligned and continuously introduced into the sample channel and then detection channel in the chip. In order to rapidly lyse the moving cells and completely transport cellular contents into the detection channel, the angle of the side-flow channels, the asymmetric design of the channels, and the number, shape and layout of micro-obstacles were optimized for effectively redistributing and mixing the laminar flows of single cells suspension, cell lysing reagent and detection buffer. The optimized microfluidic chip was an asymmetric structure of three microchannels, with three microcylinders at the proper positions in the intersections of channels. The microchip was evaluated by detection of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) uptake and membrane surface P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in single leukemia K562 cells. An average throughput of 6-8 cells min(-1) was achieved. The detection results showed the cellular heterogeneity in DOX uptake and surface P-gp expression within K562 cells. Our researches demonstrated the feasibility and simplicity of the newly developed microfluidic chip for chemical single-cell analysis.
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Aptamer binding assays for proteins: the thrombin example--a review.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Experimentally selected single-stranded DNA and RNA aptamers are able to bind to specific target molecules with high affinity and specificity. Many analytical methods make use of affinity binding between the specific targets and their aptamers. In the development of these methods, thrombin is the most frequently used target molecule to demonstrate the proof-of-principle. This paper critically reviews more than one hundred assays that are based on aptamer binding to thrombin. This review focuses on homogeneous binding assays, electrochemical aptasensors, and affinity separation techniques. The emphasis of this review is placed on understanding the principles and unique features of the assays. The principles of most assays for thrombin are applicable to the determination of other molecular targets.
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Inhibition of Myo6 gene expression by co?expression of a mutant of transcription factor POU4F3 (BRN?3C) in hair cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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An eight?base pair (bp) deletion in the Pou4f3 gene in hair cells is associated with DFNA15, a hereditary form of hearing loss. To explore the pathological mechanisms underlying the development of DFNA15, the effect of the mutation in Pou4f3 on the activity of the myosin VI (Myo6) promoter, was investigated. The upstream regulatory sequence of Myo6 (2625 bp), consisting of an 1899 bp upstream sequence and a 727 bp intron 1 sequence, was amplified using polymerase chain reaction and subcloned into the pGL3?Basic vector expressing firefly luciferase. For verification of inserted fragments, plasmids were subjected to restriction analysis and then sequenced. HEK293T human embryonic kidney cells were transiently transfected with renilla luciferase?thymidine kinase vectors expressing Renilla luciferase and the Myo6 promoter?driven firefly luciferase expressing vectors along with pIRES2?enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)?Pou4f3 (expressing wild?type Pou4f3) or pIRES2?EGFP?Pou4f3 (expressing the truncation mutant of Pou4f3). The relative luciferase activities were measured to determine the activity of the Myo6 promoter. The Myo6 promoter activity was not affected by co?expression of wild?type Pou4f3, as indicated by the comparable relative luciferase activities in the presence of the pIRES2?EGFP?Pou4f3 and the empty control vectors. However, co?expression of mutated Pou4f3 significantly inhibited the activity of the Myo6 promoter to almost half of that of the control (P<0.001). The data suggests that mutated Pou4f3 has a negative role in the promoter activity of Myo6, and by extension, the expression of myosin VI, and this may be an underlying mechanism of DFNA15 hearing loss.
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Comparative decellularization and recellularization of normal versus emphysematous human lungs.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Acellular whole human lung scaffolds represent a unique opportunity for ex vivo tissue engineering. However, it remains unclear whether lungs from individuals with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can be appropriately decellularized and recellularized. To assess this, cadaveric human lungs from normal (non-smoking) patients and from patients with COPD (smoking history) were decellularized and found by histochemical and immunohistochemical staining, electron microscopy, and mass spectrometry to retain characteristic histological architecture and extracellular matrix components (ECM) reflecting either normal or COPD, particularly emphysematous, origin. Inoculation of human bronchial epithelial cells, endothelial progenitor cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, and lung fibroblasts via airway or vascular routes into small, excised segments of the decellularized lungs demonstrated that normal lung scaffolds robustly supported initial engraftment and growth of each cell type for up to one month. In contrast, despite initial binding, all cell types inoculated into decellularized emphysematous lungs did not survive beyond one week. However, cell attachment and proliferation on solubilized ECM homogenates of decellularized normal and emphysematous lungs coated onto tissue culture plates was comparable and not impaired, suggesting that the 3-dimensional decellularized emphysematous scaffolds may lack the necessary ECM architecture to support sustained cell growth.
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Effects of noradrenaline and adenosine triphosphate on the degree on contrast enhancement in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis during contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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The aim of the study is to assess the effects of vasoactive agents on the degree of contrast enhancement in experimental atherosclerotic plaque during contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). Abdominal aortic atherosclerosis was induced in 25 New Zealand white rabbits by a combination of cholesterol-rich diet and balloon endothelial denudation. Standard ultrasonography and CEUS were performed at baseline and during intravenous infusion of noradrenaline or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The degree of contrast enhancement of the plaque after injection of contrast material was quantified by calculating the enhanced intensity in the plaque. The infusion of noradrenaline induced significant increase in systolic blood pressure (84 ± 13 mm Hg vs. 112 ± 20 mm Hg, p = 0.011) and significant decrease in the enhanced intensity in the plaque (7.52 ± 1.32 dB vs. 5.88 ± 1.33 dB, p < 0.001) during CEUS. The infusion of ATP resulted in the significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (80 ± 13 mm Hg vs. 65 ± 11 mm Hg, p = 0.005) and increase in the enhanced intensity in the plaque (7.52 ± 1.32 dB vs. 8.84 ± 1.55 dB, p < 0.001) during CEUS. The degree of contrast enhancement within an experimental atherosclerotic plaque during CEUS can be influenced by vasoactive agents and hemodynamic status.
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Myosin light chain kinase regulates hearing in mice by influencing the F-actin cytoskeleton of outer hair cells and cochleae.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates myosin regulatory light chains to facilitate its interaction with actin filaments and produce contractile activity. The outer hair cells (OHCs) in the ear contain large amounts of actin and a variety myosins. The stereociliary and somatic motility of OHCs are closely related to hearing. It appears likely that MLCK may play an important role in acoustic trans-duction. In this study, we analyzed, both in vivo and in vitro, the OHCs of mice bearing a specific deletion of the MLCK gene and the OHCs of control mice. The phenotype was assessed by auditory function [acoustic brainstem responses (ABRs) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs)], inner ear morphology and histology. MLCK-deficient mice aged 6-7 months showed impaired hearing, a 5- to 10-dB sound pressure level (SPL) increase in the ABR thresholds, when responding to clicks and tones of different frequencies (8 and 16 kHz) (P<0.05). The DPOAE amplitudes of 3-month-old MLCK-deficient mice decreased significantly (>10 dB SPL) at low frequencies (4, 5 and 6 kHz). The OHCs in the MLCK-deficient mice increased with abnormal stereocilia. The staining of F-actin and the phosphorylation of the regulatory light chain in MLCK-deficient OHCs was weak. Our results indicate that MLCK may regulate the structure and the motility of stereocilia through F-actin polymerization.
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Effect of photosynthetic bacteria on water quality and microbiota in grass carp culture.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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To investigate the effects of photosynthetic bacteria as additives on water quality, microbial community structure and diversity, a photosynthetic purple non-sulfur bacteria, Rhodopseudamonas palustris, was isolated and used to remove nitrogen in the aquaculture water. The results of water quality showed that the levels of ammonia nitrogen, nitrite nitrogen, total inorganic nitrogen and total nitrogen in the treatment group were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the nitrogen levels of the controls in an extended range. A 454-pyrosequencing analysis revealed that at the level of phylum, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were dominant in the control group respectively, compared to the dominance of the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria in the treatment group. The relative abundance of phyla Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria in treatment witnessed an increase than that in the control. The results also indicated that the treatment group enjoyed a higher microbial diversity than that of the control group. Based on the oxygen requirement and metabolism, the authors observed that the water supplementation with photosynthetic bacteria could significantly decrease (p < 0.05) the number of nitrite reducer and anaerobic bacteria. Therefore, the results suggested that adding photosynthetic bacteria to water improves the water quality as it changes the microbial community structure.
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Cosuppression of RBCS3B in Arabidopsis leads to severe photoinhibition caused by ROS accumulation.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Cosuppression of an Arabidopsis Rubisco small subunit gene RBCS3B at Arabidopsis resulted in albino or pale green phenotypes which were caused by ROS accumulation As the most abundant protein on Earth, Rubisco has received much attention in the past decades. Even so, its function is still not understood thoroughly. In this paper, four Arabidopsis transgenic lines (RBCS3B-7, 18, 33, and 35) with albino or pale green phenotypes were obtained by transformation with a construct driving expression of sense RBCS3B, a Rubisco small subunit gene. The phenotypes produced in these transgenic lines were found to be caused by cosuppression. Among these lines, RBCS3B-7 displayed the most severe phenotypes including reduced height, developmental arrest and plant mortality before flowering when grown under normal light on soil. Chloroplast numbers in mesophyll cells were decreased compared to WT, and stacked thylakoids of chloroplasts were broken down gradually in RBCS3B-7 throughout development. In addition, the RBCS3B-7 line was light sensitive, and PSII activity measurement revealed that RBCS3B-7 suffered severe photoinhibition, even under normal light. We found that photoinhibition was due to accumulation of ROS, which accelerated photodamage of PSII and inhibited the repair of PSII in RBCS3B-7.
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PirB is a novel potential therapeutic target for enhancing axonal regeneration and synaptic plasticity following CNS injury in mammals.
J Drug Target
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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A major barrier to axonal regeneration in mammals is the unfavorable extracellular environment that develops following injury to the central nervous system (CNS). In particular, three myelin-associated inhibitory proteins (MAIs) - Nogo, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) and oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein (OMgp) - are known to inhibit axonal regeneration and functional recovery. These MAIs share a common receptor, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored Nogo receptor (NgR). However, paired immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB) - which was originally identified as a receptor for class I major histocompatibility complex (MHCI) in the immune system - is also expressed in neurones and plays a similarly inhibitory role in axonal regeneration and synaptic plasticity following CNS injury through its association with MAIs. Importantly, suppression of PirB activity through antibody antagonism or genetic means can partially relieve the inhibition of neurite outgrowth in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we present the molecular features, expression patterns and known signaling pathways of PirB, and we specifically focus on putative roles for PirB in the CNS and its potential as a target of molecular therapies for enhancing axonal regeneration and synaptic plasticity following CNS injury.
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Three-dimensional scaffolds of acellular human and porcine lungs for high throughput studies of lung disease and regeneration.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Acellular scaffolds from complex whole organs such as lung are being increasingly studied for ex vivo organ generation and for in vitro studies of cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We have established effective methods for efficient de and recellularization of large animal and human lungs including techniques which allow multiple small segments (? 1-3 cm(3)) to be excised that retain 3-dimensional lung structure. Coupled with the use of a synthetic pleural coating, cells can be selectively physiologically inoculated via preserved vascular and airway conduits. Inoculated segments can be further sliced for high throughput studies. Further, we demonstrate thermography as a powerful noninvasive technique for monitoring perfusion decellularization and for evaluating preservation of vascular and airway networks following human and porcine lung decellularization. Collectively, these techniques are a significant step forward as they allow high throughput in vitro studies from a single lung or lobe in a more biologically relevant, three-dimensional acellular scaffold.
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Quantitative study of cellular heterogeneity in doxorubicin uptake and its pharmacological effect on cancer cells.
Biomed. Chromatogr.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Cellular heterogeneity in doxorubicin (DOX) uptake and its relationship with pharmacological effect on cancer cells were quantitatively investigated for the first time. An in vitro experimental model was established by treating human leukemia K562 and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with different schedules of DOX with or without surface P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor verapamil (VER). The cellular heterogeneity in DOX uptake was quantitatively examined by single-cell analysis using capillary electrophoresis coupled with laser-induced fluorescence detection. The corresponding cytotoxic effect was tested by cellular morphology, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium and flow cytometry assays. The expression of cellular membrane surface P-gp was determined by flow cytometry. Results showed that the cellular heterogeneity exists in DOX uptake. The single-high DOX schedule leads to lower uptake heterogeneity and higher mean drug uptake. The cellular heterogeneity in DOX uptake was found to be negatively correlated with drug cytotoxicity and surface P-gp expression, with r =?-0.7680 to ~?-0.9587. VER reduces the cellular variation in DOX uptake, suggesting that surface P-gp may be one of the causes of the cellular heterogeneity in DOX uptake. This research demonstrates the importance of quantitative study of cellular heterogeneity in drug uptake and its potential application in drug schedule design, response prediction and therapy modulation.
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Maresin biosynthesis and identification of maresin 2, a new anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving mediator from human macrophages.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Maresins are a new family of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving lipid mediators biosynthesized from docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) by macrophages. Here we identified a novel pro-resolving product, 13R,14S-dihydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid (13R,14S-diHDHA), produced by human macrophages. PCR mapping of 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) mRNA sequence in human macrophages and platelet showed that they are identical. This human 12-LOX mRNA and enzyme are expressed in monocyte-derived cell lineage, and enzyme expression levels increase with maturation to macrophages or dendritic cells. Recombinant human 12-LOX gave essentially equivalent catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) with arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA as substrates. Lipid mediator metabololipidomics demonstrated that human macrophages produce a novel bioactive product 13,14-dihydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid in addition to maresin-1, 7R,14S-dihydroxy-4Z,8E,10E,12Z,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoic acid (MaR1). Co-incubations with human recombinant 12-LOX and soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) demonstrated that biosynthesis of 13,14-dihydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid (13,14-diHDHA) involves the 13S,14S-epoxy-maresin intermediate produced from DHA by 12-LOX, followed by conversion via soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). This new 13,14-diHDHA displayed potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions, and at 1 ng reduced neutrophil infiltration in mouse peritonitis by ?40% and at 10 pM enhanced human macrophage phagocytosis of zymosan by ?90%. However, MaR1 proved more potent than the 13R,14S-diHDHA at enhancing efferocytosis with human macrophages. Taken together, the present findings demonstrate that macrophages produced a novel bioactive product identified in the maresin metabolome as 13R,14S-dihydroxy-docosahexaenoic acid, from DHA via conversion by human 12-LOX followed by sEH. Given its potent bioactions, we coined 13R,14S-diHDHA maresin 2 (MaR2).
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The impact of social factors on human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus co-infection in a minority region of Si-chuan, the People's Republic of China: a population-based survey and testing study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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While many human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) studies have been performed in Liangshan, most were focused only on HIV infection and based on a sampling survey. In order to fully understand HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence and related risk factors in this region, this study implemented in 2009, included a survey, physical examination, HIV and HCV test in two towns.
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Differentiation induction of mouse cardiac stem cells into sinus node-like cells by co-culturing with sinus node.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Sinus nodal cells can generate a diastolic or "pacemaker" depolarization at the end of an action potential driving the membrane potential slowly up to the threshold for firing the next action potential. It has been proved that adult cardiac stem cells (CSCs) can differentiate into sinus nodal cells by demethylating agent. However, there is no report about adult CSCs-derived sinus nodal cells with pacemaker current (the funny current, I f). In this study, we isolated the mouse adult CSCs from mouse hearts by the method of tissue explants adherence. The expression of c-kit protein indicated the isolation of CSCs. Then we co-cultured mouse CSCs with mouse sinus node tissue to induce the differentiation of these CSCs into sinus node-like cells, which was proved by identifying the enhanced expression of marker proteins cTnI, cTnT and ?-Actinin with Immunofluorescence staining. At the same time, with whole-cell patch-clamp we detected the I f current, which can be blocked by CsCl, in these differentiated cells. In conclusion, by confirming specific I f current in the induced node-like cells, our work shows a method inducing differentiation of CSCs into sinus node-like cells, which can provide helpful information for the further research on sick sinus syndrome.
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Neuronal spike initiation modulated by extracellular electric fields.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Based on a reduced two-compartment model, the dynamical and biophysical mechanism underlying the spike initiation of the neuron to extracellular electric fields is investigated in this paper. With stability and phase plane analysis, we first investigate in detail the dynamical properties of neuronal spike initiation induced by geometric parameter and internal coupling conductance. The geometric parameter is the ratio between soma area and total membrane area, which describes the proportion of area occupied by somatic chamber. It is found that varying it could qualitatively alter the bifurcation structures of equilibrium as well as neuronal phase portraits, which remain unchanged when varying internal coupling conductance. By analyzing the activating properties of somatic membrane currents at subthreshold potentials, we explore the relevant biophysical basis of spike initiation dynamics induced by these two parameters. It is observed that increasing geometric parameter could greatly decrease the intensity of the internal current flowing from soma to dendrite, which switches spike initiation dynamics from Hopf bifurcation to SNIC bifurcation; increasing internal coupling conductance could lead to the increase of this outward internal current, whereas the increasing range is so small that it could not qualitatively alter the spike initiation dynamics. These results highlight that neuronal geometric parameter is a crucial factor in determining the spike initiation dynamics to electric fields. The finding is useful to interpret the functional significance of neuronal biophysical properties in their encoding dynamics, which could contribute to uncovering how neuron encodes electric field signals.
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Identification of DUOX1-dependent redox signaling through protein S-glutathionylation in airway epithelial cells.
Redox Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The NADPH oxidase homolog dual oxidase 1 (DUOX1) plays an important role in innate airway epithelial responses to infection or injury, but the precise molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood and the cellular redox-sensitive targets for DUOX1-derived H2O2 have not been identified. The aim of the present study was to survey the involvement of DUOX1 in cellular redox signaling by protein S-glutathionylation, a major mode of reversible redox signaling. Using human airway epithelial H292 cells and stable transfection with DUOX1-targeted shRNA as well as primary tracheal epithelial cells from either wild-type or DUOX1-deficient mice, DUOX1 was found to be critical in ATP-stimulated transient production of H2O2 and increased protein S-glutathionylation. Using cell pre-labeling with biotin-tagged GSH and analysis of avidin-purified proteins by global proteomics, 61 S-glutathionylated proteins were identified in ATP-stimulated cells compared to 19 in untreated cells. Based on a previously established role of DUOX1 in cell migration, various redox-sensitive proteins with established roles in cytoskeletal dynamics and/or cell migration were evaluated for S-glutathionylation, indicating a critical role for DUOX1 in ATP-stimulated S-glutathionylation of ?-actin, peroxiredoxin 1, the non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src, and MAPK phosphatase 1. Overall, our studies demonstrate the importance of DUOX1 in epithelial redox signaling through reversible S-glutathionylation of a range of proteins, including proteins involved in cytoskeletal regulation and MAPK signaling pathways involved in cell migration.
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Neuroprotective effects of sevoflurane against electromagnetic pulse-induced brain injury through inhibition of neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) causes central nervous system damage and neurobehavioral disorders, and sevoflurane protects the brain from ischemic injury. We investigated the effects of sevoflurane on EMP-induced brain injury. Rats were exposed to EMP and immediately treated with sevoflurane. The protective effects of sevoflurane were assessed by Nissl staining, Fluoro-Jade C staining and electron microscopy. The neurobehavioral effects were assessed using the open-field test and the Morris water maze. Finally, primary cerebral cortical neurons were exposed to EMP and incubated with different concentration of sevoflurane. The cellular viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were assayed. TUNEL staining was performed, and the expression of apoptotic markers was determined. The cerebral cortexes of EMP-exposed rats presented neuronal abnormalities. Sevoflurane alleviated these effects, as well as the learning and memory deficits caused by EMP exposure. In vitro, cell viability was reduced and LDH release was increased after EMP exposure; treatment with sevoflurane ameliorated these effects. Additionally, sevoflurane increased SOD activity, decreased MDA levels and alleviated neuronal apoptosis by regulating the expression of cleaved caspase-3, Bax and Bcl-2. These findings demonstrate that Sevoflurane conferred neuroprotective effects against EMP radiation-induced brain damage by inhibiting neuronal oxidative stress and apoptosis.
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Two monoclonal antibodies recognising aa 634-668 and aa 1026-1055 of NogoA enhance axon extension and branching in cultured neurons.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In a previous study, we generated two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in mice, aNogoA-N and aNogo-66 mAb, which were raised against recombinant N-terminal fragments of rat NogoA and Nogo-66, respectively. When compared with the commercial rabbit anti-rat NogoA polyclonal antibody (pAb), which can specifically recognise NogoA, the two mAbs were also specific for the NogoA antigen in immunofluorescence histochemical (IHC) staining and Western blot (WB) analysis. Serial truncations of NogoA covering the N-terminal region of NogoA (aa 570-691) and Nogo-66 (aa 1026-1091) were expressed in E. coli. The epitopes recognised by aNogoA-N and aNogo-66 are located in the aa 634-668 and aa 1026-1055 regions of NogoA, respectively. Both mAbs remarkably enhanced the axon growth and branching of cultured hippocampal neurons in vitro. These results suggest that the antibodies that bind to aa 634-668 and aa 1026-1055 of NogoA may have stimulatory effects on axon growth and branching. Additionally, the two mAbs that we generated are specific for NogoA and significantly block NogoA function. In conclusion, two sites in NogoA located within aa 634-668 and aa 1026-1055 are recognised by our two antibodies and are novel and potentially promising targets for repair after central nervous system (CNS) injury.
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[Effect of bufalin combined gefitinib on lung cancer H1975 cells and its mechanisms research].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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To observe the effect of bufalin combined Gefitinib on lung cancer H1975 cells, and to explore its potential mechanisms for anti-tumor.
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Effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields on the response of a conductance-based neuron model.
Int J Neural Syst
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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To provide insights into the modulation of neuronal activity by extremely low-frequency (ELF) magnetic field (MF), we present a conductance-based neuron model and introduce ELF sinusoidal MF as an additive voltage input. By analyzing spike times and spiking frequency, it is observed that neuron with distinct spiking patterns exhibits different response properties in the presence of MF exposure. For tonic spiking neuron, the perturbations of MF exposure on spike times is maximized at the harmonics of neuronal intrinsic spiking frequency, while it is maximized at the harmonics of bursting frequency for burst spiking neuron. As MF intensity increases, the perturbations also increase. Compared with tonic spiking, bursting dynamics are less sensitive to the perturbations of ELF MF exposure. Further, ELF MF exposure is more prone to perturb neuronal spike times relative to spiking frequency. Our finding suggests that the resonance may be one of the neural mechanisms underlying the modulatory effects of the low-intensity ELF MFs on neuronal activities. The results highlight the impacts of ELF MFs exposure on neuronal activity from the single cell level, and demonstrate various factors including ELF MF properties and neuronal spiking characteristics could determine the outcome of exposure. These insights into the mechanism of MF exposure may be relevant for the design of multi-intensity magnetic stimulus protocols, and may even contribute to the interpretation of MF effects on the central nervous systems.
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Persistent Hepatic Structural Alterations Following Nanoceria Vascular Infusion in the Rat.
Toxicol Pathol
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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Understanding the long-term effects and possible toxicity of nanoceria, a widely utilized commercial metal oxide, is of particular importance as it is poised for development as a therapeutic agent based on its autocatalytic redox behavior. We show here evidence of acute and subacute adverse hepatic responses, after a single infusion of an aqueous dispersion of 85 mg/kg, 30 nm nanoceria into Sprague Dawley rats. Light and electron microscopic evidence of avid uptake of nanoceria by Kupffer cells was detected as early as 1 hr after infusion. Biopersistent nanoceria stimulated cluster of differentiation 3(+) lymphocyte proliferation that intermingled with nanoceria-containing Kupffer cells to form granulomata that were observed between days 30 and 90. Ultrastructural tracking of ceria nanoparticles revealed aggregated nanoceria in phagolysosomes. An increased formation of small nanoceria over time observed in the latter suggests possible dissolution and precipitation of nanoceria. However, the pathway for nanoceria metabolism/secretion remains unclear. Although frank hepatic necrosis was not observed, the retention of nanoceria increased hepatic apoptosis acutely, this persisted to day 90. These findings, together with our earlier reports of 5-nm ceria-induced liver toxicity, provide additional guidance for nanoceria development as a therapeutic agent and for its risk assessment.
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[S632A3 promotes LPS-induced IFN-beta production through inhibiting the activation of GSK-3beta].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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LPS stimulation of macrophages production of IFN-beta plays a key role in innate immunity defending the microbial invasion. In this study, the effect of S632A3 promoting LPS-induced IFN-beta production and the underlying mechanism were investigated, mRNA level was measured by real-time PCR, cytokine production was determined by ELISA, GSK-3beta activity was investigated by kinase assay, protein phosphorylation and expression were evaluated by Western blotting. The results revealed that S632A3 significantly augmented IFN-beta production by LPS-stimulated macrophages. S632A3 inhibition of the activation of GSK-3beta, reduced the threonine 239 phosphorylation of transcription factor c-Jun but increased the total level of c-Jun in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of c-Jun level abrogated the ability of S632A3 to augment IFN-beta. The study thus demonstrates S632A3 being a new anti-inflammation lead compound and provides a molecular mechanism by which S632A3 promoted LPS-induced IFN-beta production in macrophages through inhibiting the activation of GSK-3beta.
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Impact of delays on the synchronization transitions of modular neuronal networks with hybrid synapses.
Chaos
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2013
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The combined effects of the information transmission delay and the ratio of the electrical and chemical synapses on the synchronization transitions in the hybrid modular neuronal network are investigated in this paper. Numerical results show that the synchronization of neuron activities can be either promoted or destroyed as the information transmission delay increases, irrespective of the probability of electrical synapses in the hybrid-synaptic network. Interestingly, when the number of the electrical synapses exceeds a certain level, further increasing its proportion can obviously enhance the spatiotemporal synchronization transitions. Moreover, the coupling strength has a significant effect on the synchronization transition. The dominated type of the synapse always has a more profound effect on the emergency of the synchronous behaviors. Furthermore, the results of the modular neuronal network structures demonstrate that excessive partitioning of the modular network may result in the dramatic detriment of neuronal synchronization. Considering that information transmission delays are inevitable in intra- and inter-neuronal networks communication, the obtained results may have important implications for the exploration of the synchronization mechanism underlying several neural system diseases such as Parkinsons Disease.
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Left ventricular systolic strain of the cardiac allograft evaluated with three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography was employed to evaluate the changes of left ventricular systolic strain in 23 heart transplant recipients at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th month after heart transplantation, and 23 healthy subjects served as controls. The three-dimensional full-volume echocardiographic images of left ventricle were recorded and then were analyzed using EchoPAC software. The strain curves and peak systolic strain values for each segment and overall left ventricular wall were obtained. Left ventricular global peak longitudinal strain (GPSL), global peak radial strain (GPSR), global peak circumferential strain (GPSC) and global peak area strain (GPSA) were measured and then statistically analyzed. There were no significant differences in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and cardiac output (CO) between heart transplant recipients and controls. The GPSL in heart transplant recipients at 1st month after surgery was significantly lower than that in controls, but close to the normal value at 3rd month after surgery and later. The GPSC, GPSA and GPSR were significantly lower in heart transplant recipients at 1st, 3rd, 6th and 12th month after surgery than those in controls. It is suggested that three-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography can be used for monitoring changes of left ventricular systolic strains and evaluating left ventricular systolic function in cardiac allograft.
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Arylations of substituted enamides by aryl iodides: regio- and stereoselective synthesis of (Z)-?-amido-?-arylacrylates.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Arylations of substituted enamides by aryl iodides were achieved for the first time via an unusual PdCl2(COD)/Ag3PO4 catalytic system. A broad range of (Z)-?-amido-?-arylacrylates were prepared regio- and stereoselectively in a highly efficient manner.
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Spatio-temporal expression of paired immunoglobulin-like receptor-B in the adult mouse brain after focal cerebral ischaemia.
Brain Inj
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Paired immunoglobulin-like receptor-B (PirB) is another receptor, except for the Nogo receptor, that is involved in inhibition of axons regeneration after central nervous system injury. However, the expression of PirB in focal cerebral ischaemic brain remains unclear. Herein, this study investigated spatial-temporal expression of PirB in the mouse brain following transient focal cerebral ischaemia.
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Identification of Enolase 1 and Thrombospondin-1 as serum biomarkers in HBV hepatic fibrosis by proteomics.
Proteome Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Hepatic fibrosis is an inevitable process in the progression of chronic HBV infection to hepatic cirrhosis, but its detailed mechanism is still unknown. Clinic serum biomarkers of HBV hepatic cirrhosis were scanned by proteomic methods. We used two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) to separate and identify the proteins which were differentially expressed in the serum of patients with hepatic fibrosis compared to HBV carriers. We identified 27 differentially expressed proteins, of which 19 proteins were up-regulated and 8 proteins were down-regulated in the serum of patients with hepatic fibrosis compared to HBV carriers. The expression level of enolase-1 (?-enolase) was decreased while the level of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) increased in the serum of patients with hepatic fibrosis by western blot. Enolase-1 and TSP-1 may be useful as biomarkers for the clinic diagnosis of hepatic fibrosis, but further study is necessary.
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Salidroside stimulates osteoblast differentiation through BMP signaling pathway.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Salidroside (SAL) is one of main active components of Rhodiola rosea L. and possesses diverse pharmacological effects. However, the direct role of SAL in bone metabolism remains elusive. In this study, effects of SAL on osteoblast differentiation of murine pluripotent mesenchymal cell line C3H10T1/2 and osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1 were examined. We first identified SAL as a potential BMP2 activator in a cell-based screening assay. SAL (0.5-10?M) could slightly promote the proliferation and greatly increase the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both cells. Furthermore, SAL increased the mRNA expressions of osteoblast marker genes in either C3H10T1/2 or MC3T3-E1 cells after treatment for different time. Moreover, the mineralization of C3H10T1/2 cells assayed by Alizarin red S staining was dose-dependently increased by SAL. Mechanistically, SAL increased the mRNA level of genes involved in the regulation of BMP signaling pathway, including BMP2, BMP6 and BMP7 and enhanced the phosphorylation of Smad1/5/8 and ERK1/2. The osteogenic effect of SAL was abolished by BMP antagonist noggin or by BMP receptor kinase inhibitor dorsomorphin. Further in vivo study demonstrated that SAL reversed bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Collectively, our findings indicate that SAL regulates bone metabolism through BMP signaling pathway.
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Targeted delivery of neurogenin-2 protein in the treatment for cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Neurogenin-2 (Ngn2), as a proneural gene that promotes the survival and differentiation of neural precursor cells, is an attractive candidate for therapy against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the delivery approach limits its clinical application. To deliver Ngn2 protein into the cerebral ischemic region and exert a therapeutic effect on injured neurons after ischemia, we here reported that the fusion protein TAT-LBD-Ngn2 was constructed by fusing a transactivator of transcription (TAT) domain and a laminin-binding domain (LBD) to Ngn2. TAT-LBD-Ngn2 promoted the outgrowth of neuronal neurite, increased the survival rate and alleviated apoptosis of hippocampal neurons exposed to oxygen glucose deprivation in vitro. Furthermore, a focal cerebral ischemia model in C57BL/6 mice showed that TAT-LBD-Ngn2 efficiently crossed the blood brain barrier, aggregated in the ischemic zone and was consistently incorporated into neurons. Moreover, TAT-LBD-Ngn2 transduced into brains attenuated neuronal degeneration and apoptosis in the ischemic zone. TAT-LBD-Ngn2 treatment resulted in a reduction of infarct volume that was associated with a parallel improvement in neurological functional outcomes after reperfusion. In conclusion, the targeted delivery of TAT-LBD-Ngn2 into the ischemic zone attenuated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury through the inhibition of neuronal degeneration and apoptosis, suggesting that TAT-LBD-Ngn2 is a promising target candidate for the treatment of ischemic stroke.
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Correlation between enhanced intensity of atherosclerotic plaque at contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and density of histological neovascularization.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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The feasibility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the assessment of atherosclerotic plaque neovascularization and its relation to histological findings were investigated. Abdominal aortic atherosclerotic plaque model was induced in 25 New Zealand white rabbits by a combination of high cholesterol-rich diet and balloon aortic denudation. Standard and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography was performed at the 16th week of the model induction period. The plaques were classified as echogenic plaques or echolucent plaques according to their echogenicity at standard ultrasonography. The maximum thickness of plaque was measured in the longitudinal section. Time intensity curve was used to quantify the enhanced intensity of the plaque. Animals were euthanized and abdominal aortas were harvested for histological staining of CD31 to evaluate the neovascularization density of atherosclerotic plaque. The results showed that the echolucent plaques had higher enhanced intensity during contrastenhanced ultrasonography and higher neovascularization density at CD31 staining than the echogenic plaques. The enhanced intensity of atherosclerotic plaque and its ratio to lumen were well correlated with histological neovascularization density (r=0.75, P<0.001; r=0.68, P<0.001, respectively). However, the maximum thickness of plaque was not correlated with neovascularization density (r=0.235, P=0.081). These findings demonstrated that the enhanced intensity in the plaque and ratio of enhanced intensity to that in the lumen of abdominal aorta may be more accurate in the evaluation of plaque neovascularization than maximum thickness. Our study indicates that contrast-enhanced ultrasonography provides us a reliable method for the evaluation of plaque neovascularization.
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[Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and its target gene networks].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) is one of the important nuclear transcription factors. SREBP-1 can maintain lipids dynamic equilibrium by regulating the expression of enzymes required for synthesis of endogenous cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides and phospholipids. Anomalies of SREBP-1 and its target genes can cause a series of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, type ? diabetes, heart dysfunction, vascular complications and hepatic steatosis. In these years, the development of high-throughput technologies has greatly expanded our knowledge about SREBP-1 target genes and the pattern of transcriptional regulation. Here we reviewed recent research progress of SREBP-1, with a focus on the protein structure, activation process, DNA binding sites and target genes. Most importantly, we showed the transcriptional regulatory networks based on omics datasets, which will contribute to a better understanding of the role of SREBP-1 in lipid metabolism and provide new clues for the treatment of lipid metabolism disorders.
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Decreased APOE-containing HDL subfractions and cholesterol efflux capacity of serum in mice lacking Pcsk9.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Studies in animals showed that PCSK9 is involved in HDL metabolism. We investigated the molecular mechanism by which PCSK9 regulates HDL cholesterol concentration and also whether Pcsk9 inactivation might affect cholesterol efflux capacity of serum and atherosclerotic fatty streak volume.
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Effects of time delay and random rewiring on the stochastic resonance in excitable small-world neuronal networks.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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The effects of time delay and rewiring probability on stochastic resonance and spatiotemporal order in small-world neuronal networks are studied in this paper. Numerical results show that, irrespective of the pacemaker introduced to one single neuron or all neurons of the network, the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. The time delay in the coupling process can either enhance or destroy stochastic resonance on small-world neuronal networks. In particular, appropriately tuned delays can induce multiple stochastic resonances, which appear intermittently at integer multiples of the oscillation period of the pacemaker. More importantly, it is found that the small-world topology can significantly affect the stochastic resonance on excitable neuronal networks. For small time delays, increasing the rewiring probability can largely enhance the efficiency of pacemaker-driven stochastic resonance. We argue that the time delay and the rewiring probability both play a key role in determining the ability of the small-world neuronal network to improve the noise-induced outreach of the localized subthreshold pacemaker.
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Closed-loop control of the thalamocortical relay neurons Parkinsonian state based on slow variable.
Int J Neural Syst
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2013
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A novel closed-loop control strategy is proposed to control Parkinsonian state based on a computational model. By modeling thalamocortical relay neurons under external electric field, a slow variable feedback control is applied to restore its relay functionality. Qualitative and quantitative analysis demonstrates the performance of feedback controller based on slow variable is more efficient compared with traditional feedback control based on fast variable. These findings point to the potential value of model-based design of feedback controllers for Parkinsons disease.
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[Selection and identification of ssDNA aptamers specific to clinical isolates of Streptococcus mutans strains with different cariogenicity].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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To select and identify ssDNA aptamers specific to Streptococcus mutans strains with different cariogenicity isolated from clinical specimens.
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[Preliminary screen of high cariogenicity Streptococcus mutans strains isolated from clinical specimens].
Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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To screen of high cariogenicity Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) strains isolated from clinical specimens preliminary.
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A versatile mini-mazF-cassette for marker-free targeted genetic modification in Bacillus subtilis.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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There are some drawbacks for MazF-cassette constructed in previous reports for marker-free genetic manipulation in Bacillus subtilis, including cloning-dependent methodology and non-strictly controlled expression system. In our study, the modifications on mazF-cassette are carried out, such as using mini Zeocin resistance gene as positive-selectable marker and strictly controlled xyl promoter from the B. subtilis to replace non-strictly controlled IPTG-inducible Pspac or xyl promoter from Bacillus megaterium. Then the mini-mazF-cassette was successfully applied to knock-out the amyE gene, to delete a 90-kb gene cluster, and to knock-in a green fluorescent protein expression cassette employing a cloning-independent methodology, without introducing undesirable redundant sequences at the modified locus in the B. subtilis 1A751. Besides, the mini-mazF-cassette could be used repeatedly to delete multiple genes or gene clusters with only a 2- to 2.5-kb PCR-fused fragment, which largely reduced the frequency of nucleic acid mutations generated by PCR compared to previous reports. We further demonstrated that the frequency of spontaneous mazF-resistant mutants was lower, and the frequency of generating desired clones was nearly 100%. The entire procedure for marker-free genetic manipulation using the mini-mazF-cassette can be finished in about 3days. This modified cassette has remarkable improvement compared to existing approaches and is applicable for available manipulating Bacillus species chromosomes.
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[Study on conditional myosin light chain kinase gene knockout mice resulting in hearing loss].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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To investigate the function of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in hearing in mouse by generating inner hair cell-specific Mlck knockout mice and analyze the effect on their hearing.
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Preventive effects of polysaccharides from Liriope spicata var. prolifera on diabetic nephropathy in rats.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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This study was undertaken to investigate preventive effects of polysaccharides (LSP) from Liriope spicata var. prolifera on diabetic nephropathy in rats, which were induced by high fat-fed and low-dose streptozotocin (STZ). The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in diabetic rats were significantly decreased after treated with LSP for 28 days. Additional, the glucose tolerance of diabetes rats showed improvement after administration of LSP. The results also indicated that LSP were able to normalize hyperlipidemia, ameliorate oxidative stress, improve renal function parameters, inhibit the structural damages of kidney tissue and down-regulate the system of advanced glycation end products - receptor for advanced glycation end products (AGE-RAGE). In conclusion, LSP had potential preventive effects on diabetic nephropathy in diabetic rats.
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A microfluidic system for cell type classification based on cellular size-independent electrical properties.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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This paper presents a microfluidic system enabling cell type classification based on continuous characterization of size-independent electrical properties (e.g., specific membrane capacitance (C(specific membrane)) and cytoplasm conductivity (?(cytoplasm)). In this study, cells were aspirated continuously through a constriction channel, while cell elongation and impedance profiles at two frequencies (1 kHz and 100 kHz) were measured simultaneously. Based on a proposed distributed equivalent circuit model, 1 kHz impedance data were used to evaluate cellular sealing properties with constriction channel walls and 100 kHz impedance data were translated to C(specific membrane) and ?(cytoplasm). Two lung cancer cell lines of CRL-5803 cells (n(cell) = 489) and CCL-185 cells (n(cell) = 487) were used to evaluate this technique, producing a C(specific membrane) of 1.63 ± 0.52 ?F cm(-2) vs. 2.00 ± 0.60 ?F cm(-2), and ?(cytoplasm) of 0.90 ± 0.19 S m(-1)vs. 0.73 ± 0.17 S m(-1). Neural network-based pattern recognition was used to classify CRL-5803 and CCL-185 cells, producing success rates of 65.4% (C(specific membrane)), 71.4% (?(cytoplasm)), and 74.4% (C(specific membrane) and ?(cytoplasm)), suggesting that these two tumor cell lines can be classified based on their electrical properties.
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Correlation between secretin-enhanced MRCP findings and histopathologic severity of chronic pancreatitis in a cat model.
Pancreatology
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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To evaluate the usefulness of secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (S-MRCP) in chronic pancreatitis (CP), we compared the severity of disease determined histopathologically with that indicated by S-MRCP imaging parameters in an induced CP cat model.
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Pancreatitis in patients with pancreas divisum: imaging features at MRI and MRCP.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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To determine the magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of pancreatitis with pancreas divisum (PD) and the differences vs pancreatitis without divisum.
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Targeted drug delivery to intestinal macrophages by bioactive nanovesicles released from grapefruit.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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The gut mucosal immune system is considered to play an important role in counteracting potential adverse effects of food derived antigens including nanovesicles. Whether nanovesicles naturally released from edible fruit work in a coordinated manner with gut immune cells to maintain the gut in a noninflammatory status is not known. Here, as proof of concept we demonstrate that grapefruit derived nanovesicles (GDNs) are selectively taken up by intestinal macrophages and ameliorate dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced mouse colitis. These effects were mediated by up-regulating the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and inhibiting the production of IL-1? and TNF-? in intestinal macrophages. The inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability, stability at wide ranges of pH values and targeting of intestinal macrophages led us to further develop a novel GDN based oral delivery system. Incorporating methotrexate (MTX), an anti-inflammatory drug, into GDNs and delivering the MTX-GDNs to mice significantly lowered the MTX toxicity when compared to free MTX, and remarkably increased its therapeutic effects in DSS induced mouse colitis. These findings demonstrate that GDNs can serve as immune modulators in the intestine, maintain intestinal macrophage homeostasis and can be developed for oral delivery of small molecule drugs to attenuate inflammatory responses in human disease.Molecular Therapy (2013); doi:10.1038/mt.2013.190.
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[MRI outstands mammogram in sensitivity of breast ductal carcinoma in situ:an analysis of 122 cases].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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To compare the sensitivity of mammogram and breast dedicated MRI in detecting ductal carcinoma in situ with microinvaion (DCIS-MI) and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions, and to further investigate the independent predictive factors of mammogram and MRI sensitivity.
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Colorectal Cancer Screening in High-risk Populations: a Survey of Cognition among Medical Professionals in Jiangsu, China.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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To investigate the cognition of medical professionals when following screening guidelines for colorectal cancer (CRC) and barriers to CRC screening. Between February 2012 and December 2012, an anonymous survey with 19-questions based on several CRC screening guidelines was randomly administered to gastroenterologists, oncologists, general surgeons, and general practitioners in Jiangsu, a developed area in China where the incidence of CRC is relatively high. The average cognitive score was 26.4% among 924 respondents. Gastroenterologists and oncologists had higher scores compared with others (p<0.01 and p<0.01, respectively); doctor of medicine (M.D.) with or without doctor of philosophy (Ph.D.) or holders with bachelor of medical science (BMS) achieved higher scores than other lower degree holders (P<0.05). More importantly, doctors who finished CRC related education in the past year achieved higher scores than the others (p<0.001). The most commonly listed barriers to referring high-risk patients for CRC screening were "anxiety about colonoscopy without anesthesia", "lack of awareness of the current guidelines" and "lack of insurance reimbursement. " Lack of cognition was detected among doctors when following CRC screening guidelines for high-risk populations. Educational programs should be recommended to improve their cognition and reduce barriers to CRC screening.
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Exploring how extracellular electric field modulates neuron activity through dynamical analysis of a two-compartment neuron model.
J Comput Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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To investigate how extracellular electric field modulates neuron activity, a reduced two-compartment neuron model in the presence of electric field is introduced in this study. Depending on neuronal geometric and internal coupling parameters, the behaviors of the model have been studied extensively. The neuron model can exist in quiescent state or repetitive spiking state in response to electric field stimulus. Negative electric field mainly acts as inhibitory stimulus to the neuron, positive weak electric field could modulate spiking frequency and spike timing when the neuron is already active, and positive electric fields with sufficient intensity could directly trigger neuronal spiking in the absence of other stimulations. By bifurcation analysis, it is observed that there is saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation, supercritical Hopf bifurcation and subcritical Hopf bifurcation appearing in the obtained two parameter bifurcation diagrams. The bifurcation structures and electric field thresholds for triggering neuron firing are determined by neuronal geometric and coupling parameters. The model predicts that the neurons with a nonsymmetric morphology between soma and dendrite, are more sensitive to electric field stimulus than those with the spherical structure. These findings suggest that neuronal geometric features play a crucial role in electric field effects on the polarization of neuronal compartments. Moreover, by determining the electric field threshold of our biophysical model, we could accurately distinguish between suprathreshold and subthreshold electric fields. Our study highlights the effects of extracellular electric field on neuronal activity from the biophysical modeling point of view. These insights into the dynamical mechanism of electric field may contribute to the investigation and development of electromagnetic therapies, and the model in our study could be further extended to a neuronal network in which the effects of electric fields on network activity may be investigated.
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Effects of time delay on the stochastic resonance in small-world neuronal networks.
Chaos
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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The effects of time delay on stochastic resonance in small-world neuronal networks are investigated. Without delay, an intermediate intensity of additive noise is able to optimize the temporal response of the neural system to the subthreshold periodic signal imposed on all neurons constituting the network. The time delay in the coupling process can either enhance or destroy stochastic resonance of neuronal activity in the small-world network. In particular, appropriately tuned delays can induce multiple stochastic resonances, which appear intermittently at integer multiples of the oscillation period of weak external forcing. It is found that the delay-induced multiple stochastic resonances are most efficient when the forcing frequency is close to the global-resonance frequency of each individual neuron. Furthermore, the impact of time delay on stochastic resonance is largely independent of the small-world topology, except for resonance peaks. Considering that information transmission delays are inevitable in intra- and inter-neuronal communication, the presented results could have important implications for the weak signal detection and information propagation in neural systems.
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Topology identification of uncertain nonlinearly coupled complex networks with delays based on anticipatory synchronization.
Chaos
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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This paper presents an adaptive anticipatory synchronization based method for simultaneous identification of topology and parameters of uncertain nonlinearly coupled complex dynamical networks with time delays. An adaptive controller is proposed, based on Lyapunov stability theorem and Barba?lats Lemma, to guarantee the stability of the anticipatory synchronization manifold between drive and response networks. Meanwhile, not only the identification criteria of network topology and system parameters are obtained but also the anticipatory time is identified. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
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The estimation of neurotransmitter release probability in feedforward neuronal network based on adaptive synchronization.
Chaos
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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In this paper, we proposed a new approach to estimate unknown parameters and topology of a neuronal network based on the adaptive synchronization control scheme. A virtual neuronal network is constructed as an observer to track the membrane potential of the corresponding neurons in the original network. When they achieve synchronization, the unknown parameters and topology of the original network are obtained. The method is applied to estimate the real-time status of the connection in the feedforward network and the neurotransmitter release probability of unreliable synapses is obtained by statistic computation. Numerical simulations are also performed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed adaptive controller. The obtained results may have important implications in system identification in neural science.
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Advances and challenges in screening traditional Chinese anti-aging materia medica.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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To provide a better service for senior health care, we summarized screening studies of traditional Chinese anti-aging materia medica (TCAM). We collected and analyzed literature of TCAM screening studies using the lifespan test and animal models of aging from 1984 to 2012. We found 26 screening methods for TCAM, and 153 single herbs or active ingredients of TCAM that have been screened out during the past 28 years. The cell lifespan test, the fruit fly lifespan test, and D-galactose aging model were the most widely used and intensively studied screening methods. However, the method for establishing the D-galactose aging model needs to be standardized, and the D-galactose aging model cannot completely be a substitute for the normal aging mouse model. Great success has been achieved in screening studies in TCAM. To further improve screening studies in TCAM, we suggest that the D-galactose aging model be incorporated into the lifespan test in the New Drugs of Traditional Chinese Medicine Research Guide.
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