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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A General Strategy for Fabricating Thoroughly Mesoporous Nanofibers.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Recently, preparation of mesoporous fibers has attracted extensive attentions because of their unique and broad applications in photocatalysis, optoelectronics and biomaterials. However, it remains a great challenge to fabricate thoroughly mesoporous nanofibers with high puri-ty and uniformity. Here, we report a general, simple and cost-effective strategy, namely foaming-assisted electro-spinning, for producing mesoporous nanofibers with high purity and enhanced specific surface areas. As a proof of concept, the as-fabricated mesoporous TiO2 fibers exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity and stability than both the conventional solid counterparts and the commercial available P25. The abundant vapors released from the intro-duced foaming agents are responsible for the creation of pores with uniform spatial distribution in the spun precur-sor fibers. The present work represents a critically im-portant step in advancing the electrospinning technique for generating mesoporous fibers in a facile and universal manner.
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Enhanced spontaneous emission of mid-infrared dipole emitter in double-layer graphene waveguide.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We present a double-layer graphene waveguide which can greatly enhance spontaneous emission rate (SER) of electric dipole emitter placed in it. With properly designed parameters, numerical results show that SER enhanced factors as high as 2.127 × 106 and 1.941 × 105 can be achieved for two different dipole moment orientations, respectively. The influences of waveguide thickness, existence of supporting layer and gating electrodes, location offset of the emitter and dipole moment orientation on spontaneous emission enhancement are also studied in this paper. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first numerical study of SER enhanced effect in complicated graphene structure.
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Photoinduced reversible shape conversion of silver nanoparticles assisted by TiO?.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Silver nanoprisms were transformed into nanodecahedra through photoinduction of ultraviolet (UV) light in the presence of titanium dioxide (TiO2) quantum dots (QDs). Subsequently, the silver nanodecahedra were reconverted to silver nanoprisms under sodium lamp if there was sufficient citrate in the reaction system. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) optical properties of silver nanoparticles were tuned during photoinduced shape conversion. The photocatalytic activity of TiO2 QDs assisted the conversion of prisms to decahedra upon UV light irradiation. Nevertheless, the presence of TiO2 did not inhibit the photoinduced reconversion from decahedra to prisms by sodium light. It was demonstrated that citrate was indispensable in the photoinduction process. In addition, oxygen in solution played a vital role in the reversible shape conversion of silver nanoparticles. Moreover, simulated sunlight can convert silver nanoprisms to nanodecahedra instead of UV light with assistance of TiO2 QDs, which would promote the photoinduced reaction of silver nanoparticles based on a natural light source.
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Characterisation of a plancitoxin-1-like DNase II gene in Trichinella spiralis.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Deoxyribonuclease II (DNase II) is a well-known acidic endonuclease that catalyses the degradation of DNA into oligonucleotides. Only one or a few genes encoding DNase II have been observed in the genomes of many species. 125 DNase II-like protein family genes were predicted in the Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) genome; however, none have been confirmed. DNase II is a monomeric nuclease that contains two copies of a variant HKD motif in the N- and C-termini. Of these 125 genes, only plancitoxin-1 (1095 bp, GenBank accession no. XM_003370715.1) contains the HKD motif in its C-terminus domain.
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Expression and functional analysis of a glycoside hydrolase family 45 endoglucanase from Rhizopus stolonifer.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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A novel endoglucanase gene was cloned from Rhizopus stolonifer and expressed in Escherichia coli, the gene product EG II (45 kDa) was assigned to Glycoside Hydrolase Family 45 (GH45), and its specific activity on phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PASC) was 48 IU/mg. To solve the problem of substrate accumulation in the cellulose hydrolysis and enhance the catalytic efficiency of endoglucanase, the eg2 gene was modified by site directed mutagenesis. Mutations generated by overlapping PCR have been proven to increase its catalytic activity on carboxymenthyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel) and PASC, among which the mutant EG II-E containing all 6 mutations (N39S, V136D, T251G, D255G, P256S and E260D) peaked 121 IU/mg on PASC. The bioinformatic analysis showed that 2 key catalytic residues (D136 and D260) moved closer with the opening of a loop after mutagenesis, and a tunnel was formed by structural transformation. This structure was conducive for the substrate to access the active centre, and D136 played an indispensable role in the substrate recognition.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the Lampetra japonica.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Lampetra japonica was 16,431 base pairs, it is circular molecule with a typical gene arrangement of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA, it contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 2 repeat regions. The study could be provided insights into the evolution of cyclostome mitochondrial geneomes, particularly in Lampetra family.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the Lampetra reissneri.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Lampetra reissneri was 16,469 base pair, it contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 2 repeat regions. It is circular molecule with a typical gene arrangement of vertebrate mitochondrial DNA. The study could be provided insights into the evolution of cyclostome mitochondrial geneomes.
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Simultaneous determination of the repertoire of classical neurotransmitters released from embryonal carcinoma stem cells using online microdialysis coupled with hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Dynamic, continuous, and simultaneous multi-analysis of transmitters is important for the delineation of the complex interactions between the neuronal and intercellular communications. But the analysis of the whole repertoire of classical transmitters of diverse structure is challenging due to their different physico-chemical properties and to their high polarity feature which leads to poor retention in traditional reversed-phase columns during LC-MS analysis. Here, an online microdialysis coupled with hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (online MD-HILIC-MS/MS) detection method was developed for the simultaneous measurement of the repertoire of classical transmitters (acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, glutamate, GABA, and glycine). Stable isotope labeled internal standards and authentic matrix have been applied to guarantee reliable results. The method was successfully employed to reveal the characteristics of transmitter release from embryonal carcinoma stem cells. The method features simple procedure (no sample preparation), high recovery (?73%), high accuracy (89.36%?RE?116.89%), good reproducibility (2.18%?RSD?14.56%), and sensitive limits of detection (2pg for acetylcholine, serotonin, and glutamate, 10pg for dopamine, norepinephrine, GABA, and glycine). It can be flexibly applied to determine the contents of the classical transmitters in other biological matrix samples with minor changes.
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Gold(I)-Catalyzed Highly Diastereo- and Enantioselective Alkyne Oxidation/Cyclopropanation of 1,6-Enynes.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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A highly enantioselective oxidative cyclopropanation of 1,6-enynes catalyzed by cationic Au(I) /chiral phophoramidite complexes is presented. The new method provides convenient access to densely functionalized bicyclo[3.1.0]hexanes bearing three contiguous quaternary and tertiary stereogenic centers with high enantioselectivity (up to e.r. 98:2). Control experiments suggest that the quinoline moiety of the ?-gold vinyloxyquinolinium intermediate in the reaction plays an important role in promoting good enantioselectivity through a transitional auxiliary effect in the transition state.
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[Characteristics of particulate matters and its chemical compositions during the dust episodes in Shanghai in spring, 2011].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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A continuous air quality observation was conducted in the urban area of Shanghai from April 28 to May 18 in 2011. The mass concentration of particle matters and main chemical compositions of fine particle were measured and analyzed. The mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 during the dust episode were much higher than those in non-dust episode, with the maximum daily mass concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 reaching 787.2 microg.gm-3 and 139.5 microgm(-3) , respectively. The average PM2.5 /PM10 ratio was (32.9 +/-14. 6)% (15. 6% -85.1% ). The total water soluble inorganic ions(TWSII ) contributed (27.2 +/- 19. 2)% (4. 8% -80. 8% ) of total PM2.5, and the secondary water soluble ions (SNA) , including SO(2-)4 , NO-(3) and NH(+)(4) , were (76.9 +/- 13.9)% (41.9%-94.2%) in TWSIl. The concentrations of TWSII and SNA in PM2.5 during dust days became lower than those in non-dust days while the trend of the ratio of Ca2+ to PM2.5, increased. The mean OC/EC value in non-dust days was higher than that in the heavy dust pollution episode, but lower than that in weak dust days. In addition, mineral-rich particle in dust period had an acid-buffer effect, making particle alkaline in dust days stronger. In non-dust days, SO(2-)(4) and NO(-)(3) mainly existed in the form of NH4HSO4, (NH4)SO4, and NH4NO3, and combined with other mineral ions during dust days.
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[Emission factors and PM chemical composition study of biomass burning in the Yangtze River Delta region].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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The emission characteristics of five typical crops, including wheat straw, rice straw, oil rape straw, soybean straw and fuel wood, were investigated to explore the gas and particulates emission of typical biomass burning in Yangzi-River-Delta area. The straws were tested both by burning in stove and by burning in the farm with a self-developed measurement system as open burning sources. Both gas and fine particle pollutants were measured in this study as well as the chemical composition of fine particles. The results showed that the average emission factors of CO, NO, and PM2,5 in open farm burning were 28.7 g.kg -1, 1.2 g.kg-1 and 2.65 g kg-1 , respectively. Due to insufficient burning in the low oxygen level environment, the emission factors of stove burning were higher than those of open farm burning, which were 81.9 g kg-1, 2. 1 g.kg -1 and 8.5 gkg -1 , respectively. Oil rape straw had the highest emission factors in all tested straws samples. Carbonaceous matter, including organic carbon(OC) and element carbon(EC) , was the foremost component of PM2, 5from biomass burning. The average mass fractions of OC and EC were (38.92 +/- 13.93)% and (5.66 +/-1.54)% by open farm burning and (26.37 +/- 10. 14)% and (18.97 +/- 10.76)% by stove burning. Water soluble ions such as Cl-and K+ had a large contribution. The average mass fractions of CI- and K+ were (13.27 +/-6. 82)% and (12.41 +/- 3.02)% by open farm burning, and were (16.25 +/- 9.34)% and (13.62 +/- 7.91)% by stove burning. The K +/OC values of particles from wheat straw, rice straw, oil rape straw and soybean straw by open farm burning were 0. 30, 0. 52, 0. 49 and 0. 15, respectively, which can be used to evaluate the influence on the regional air quality in YRD area from biomass burning and provide direct evidence for source apportionment.
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[Analysis of chromosomal abnormalities and a report of eight new karyotypes among children in genetic counseling].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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To study the relationship between abnormal karyotypes and clinical phenotypes among children in genetic counseling in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China.
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Femoral fractures in infants: a comparison of Bryant traction and modified Pavlik harness.
Acta Orthop Belg
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Bryant traction is a commonly used method for femoral shaft fractures in children, but many disadvantages have been reported. Pavlik harness with exact clinical effect and fewer complications has gained increasing popularity in resent years. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare modified Pavlik harness with Bryant traction for infant with a femoral shaft fracture. A retrospective study was performed of 38 infants treated with either modified Pavlik Harness or Bryant traction. All fractures were closed, isolated, and diaphyseal. We analyzed operative and radiographic data, complications, hospital charges, and functional outcome. Twenty-one patients, with a mean age of 5.9 months, were treated with modified Pavlik harnesses. Seventeen infants, with a mean age of 6.3 months, were treated with Bryant tractions. All fractures united within 3-5 weeks. The two cohorts were similar with respect to age, weight, and fracture union time. Four of the seventeen children treated with Bryant tractions had a skin complication that needed second intervention. No similar complications occurred in the modified Pavlik group (p = 0.03). There was a significant difference in hospital stay (modified Pavlik harness 1.4 days versus Bryant traction 17.8 days) and hospital charge (modified Pavlik harness 3209 Yuan versus Bryant traction 3759 Yuan) (p < 0.001). At one year visit, no difference existed between the two groups for standard clinical/functional criteria. There were no malunion, nonunion, or rotational deformities. Nor were there any significant limb length discrepancies, residual angular deformities.
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The role of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and glucose transporter 2 in the absorption of cyanidin-3-o-?-glucoside in Caco-2 cells.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Anthocyanins have multiple biological activities of benefit to human health. While a few studies have been conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of anthocyanins, the mechanisms of their absorption mechanism remain ill-defined. In the present study, we investigated the absorption mechanism of cyanidin-3-O-?-glucoside (Cy-3-G) in human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. Cy-3-G transport was assessed by measuring the absorptive and efflux direction. Inhibition studies were conducted using the pharmacological agents, phloridzin, an inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1), or phloretin, an inhibitor of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2). The results showed that phloridzin and phloretin significantly inhibited the absorption of Cy-3-G. In addition, Caco-2 cells transfected with small interfering RNA (siRNA) specific for SGLT1 or GLUT2 showed significantly decreased Cy-3-G absorption. These siRNA transfected cells also showed a significantly decreased rate of transport of Cy-3-G compared with the control group. These findings suggest that Cy-3-G absorption is dependent on the activities of SGLT1 and GLUT2 in the small intestine and that SGLT1 and GLUT2 could be a limiting step for the bioavailability of Cy-3-G.
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Species-specific bioaccumulation of halogenated organic pollutants and their metabolites in fish serum from an e-waste site, South China.
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs)-including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), polybromobiphenyls (PBBs), dechlorane plus (DP), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) as well as PCB metabolites (methylsulfone [MeSO2-]) and hydroxylated (OH-) PCBs and OH-PBDEs-were determined in the serum of mud carp and northern snakehead from an electronic-waste (e-waste) site in South China. The average concentrations (mean ± SD) of ?PCBs, ?PBDEs, ?OCPs, ?PBBs, ?TBBPA, ?HBCDs, and ?DP were 1410 ± 324, 70 ± 20, 3.0 ± 0.4, 2.8 ± 0.8, 1.6 ± 0.4, 1.0 ± 0.2, and 0.3 ± 0.03 ng/g wet weight (ww) in mud carp and 6430 ± 781, 468 ± 49, 22.4 ± 1.1, 7.0 ± 0.6, 2.9 ± 2.3, 5.5 ± 1.1, and 4.6 ± 0.6 ng/g ww in northern snakehead, respectively. MeSO2-PCBs, OH-PCBs, and OH-PBDEs were detected at a total concentration of 0.44 ± 0.03 and 9.7 ± 0.3 ng/g ww in mud carp and northern snakehead, respectively. The congener profiles of PCBs, PBDEs, OH/MeSO2-PCBs, and OH-PBDEs were found to be significantly different between the two fish species, possibly as a result of species-specific bioaccumulation and/or metabolism of the HOPs. Chirality of ten PCB congeners and ?-HBCD, as well as the f anti values of DP in the serum samples, supported the species-specific biotransformation of HOPs. Furthermore, the presence of covaried and counter-varied enantiomeric fractions of PCBs between the two fish species indicated species- and congener-specific enantiomer enrichment of PCBs.
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A nano-silver composite based on the ion-exchange response for the intelligent antibacterial applications.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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As a kind of antimicrobial agent, nano-silver composites have attracted a great deal of interest in biomedical applications. However, the typical loadings of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in such composites could result in dose-related cytotoxicity. In this study, a nano-silver composite leading to antimicrobial activity without cytotoxicity was fabricated by loading AgNPs into a dried alginate hydrogel. The biological performance of this composite mainly depended on the release of AgNPs, which needed to be triggered by the ion-exchange response and was further influenced by the loadings of AgNPs in the composite. The antimicrobial activity against E. coli and S. aureus demonstrated that the released silver no less than 678 ppb in the medium caused a reduction of 7log10CFU/mL (100%) bacteria. Significantly, the dose (~1.10×10(3) ppb) of released silver was not toxic and allowed attachment, and growth of MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast cells. These results supported that the composite was compatible with in vitro mammalian cells yet exhibited antimicrobial activity by carefully designing the loadings of AgNPs within the alginate. Thus, it indicated that the performance of this composite might permit management of bacterial infection in wound beds without impairment of wound healing.
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Characterizing the heavy metal-complexing potential of fluorescent water-extractable organic matter from composted municipal solid wastes using fluorescence excitation–emission matrix spectra coupled with parallel factor analysis.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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To investigate the effect of organic matter evolution on heavy metal sorption, fluorescence excitation–emission matrix (EEM) spectra combined with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis were employed to characterize the evolution and metal-complexing potential of fluorescent water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) from composted municipal solid wastes (MSWs). The WEOMs examined comprised humic-, fulvic-, tryptophan-, and tyrosine-like substances. Composting treatment increased the content of humic- and fulvic-like matter, and changed the existence pattern of tryptophan- and tyrosine-like substances (i.e., the tryptophan- and tyrosine-like substances from uncomposted MSWs were mainly bound in protein-like matter, whereas those from composted MSWs were primarily bound in humic- and fulvic-like substances). Furthermore, composting treatment increased the polar functional group, aromaticity, and humification degree of the WEOMs, but decreased the aliphatic and hydroxyl group. These evolutions decreased the Cu(II) affinities of fulvic- and humic-like substances and the Pb(II) affinities and complexing capacities of fulvic-like substances, but increased the Cu(II) complexing capacities of fulvic- and humic-like substances. These results reveal that mature composts from the MSWs can be used for the remediation of Cu- and Pb-contaminated soils in situ, whereas immature composts can enhance the metal transferability from soil to plant.
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Mesenchymal stem cells reduce intervertebral disc fibrosis and facilitate repair.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Intervertebral disc degeneration is associated with back pain and radiculopathy which, being a leading cause of disability, seriously affects the quality of life and presents a hefty burden to society. There is no effective intervention for the disease and the etiology remains unclear. Here, we show that disc degeneration exhibits features of fibrosis in humans and confirmed this in a puncture-induced disc degeneration (PDD) model in rabbit. Implantation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to PDD discs can inhibit fibrosis in the nucleus pulposus with effective preservation of mechanical properties and overall spinal function. We showed that the presence of MSCs can suppress abnormal deposition of collagen I in the nucleus pulposus, modulating profibrotic mediators MMP12 and HSP47, thus reducing collagen aggregation and maintaining proper fibrillar properties and function. As collagen fibrils can regulate progenitor cell activities, our finding provides new insight to the limited self-repair capability of the intervertebral disc and importantly the mechanism by which MSCs may potentiate tissue regeneration through regulating collagen fibrillogenesis in the context of fibrotic diseases.
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Optical transmission through compound gold surface relief slit arrays.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The optical transmissions through compound gold surface relief slit arrays were investigated theoretically by using the finite difference time domain method. The differences of transmission, reflection, and absorption spectra of the bare slit and the surface relief grating are discussed. The transmission spectra influenced by different dielectric constants of medium in the two slits and different slits widths. When the two slits fill different dielectrics, the presence of the medium induces a red-shift of the plasmon resonances. Along with the dielectric constant in one slit increasing, there appear obvious dips in the transmission spectra. Based on the magnetic and electric field distributions, Fabry-Pérot-like resonance and phase resonance mechanisms have been suggested for the physical origins of these observations.
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Direct large-scale synthesis of 3D hierarchical mesoporous NiO microspheres as high-performance anode materials for lithium ion batteries.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Hierarchically porous materials are an ideal material platform for constructing high performance Li-ion batteries (LIBs), offering great advantages such as large contact area between the electrode and the electrolyte, fast and flexible transport pathways for the electrolyte ions and the space for buffering the strain caused by repeated Li insertion/extraction. In this work, NiO microspheres with hierarchically porous structures have been synthesized via a facile thermal decomposition method by only using a simple precursor. The superstructures are composed of nanocrystals with high specific surface area, large pore volume, and broad pore size distribution. The electrochemical properties of 3D hierarchical mesoporous NiO microspheres were examined by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The results demonstrate that the as-prepared NiO nanospheres are excellent electrode materials in LIBs with high specific capacity, good retention and rate performance. The 3D hierarchical mesoporous NiO microspheres can retain a reversible capacity of 800.2 mA h g(-1) after 100 cycles at a high current density of 500 mA g(-1).
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Suppressing the expression of a forkhead transcription factor disrupts the chitin biosynthesis pathway in Spodoptera exigua.
Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Forkhead (Fox) transcription factors display functional diversity and are involved in various metabolic and developmental processes. The Spodoptera exigua Fox (SeFox) encodes a protein of 353 amino acids with a theoretical molecular mass of approximately 38.99 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.86. qPCR results revealed that SeFox was expressed mainly in the brain, fat body, epidermis, midgut, Malpighian tubules, and testis. SeFox was expressed, with some changes, throughout development in the fat body and whole body. Injection of dsSeFox (SeFox dsRNA) into larvae resulted in incidences of albino plus molting deformity (4.8%), molting deformity (26.2%), and albino phenotypes (69.1%). dsSeFox injection resulted in approximately 50% knockdown of transcript levels at 36 h. Compared with control groups, hexokinase (HK) expression was reduced to approximately 40% at 48 h postinjection. Chitin synthase A (CHSA) expression was reduced to two-thirds at 24 h, but increased at 72 h. Compared with untreated control and green fluorescent protein-treated groups, Chitin synthase B (CHSB) expression decreased to 33% following dsSeFox injection by 36 h. We infer from our results that forkhead transcription factors act in chitin synthesis in S. exigua.
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Iron Deficiency Anemia in Young Children with Predominant Breastfeeding.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Due to the increase of breastfeeding in infants, iron deficiency anemia (IDA) related to prolonged, predominant breastfeeding should be of concern. Mostly, the manifestation of IDA is indistinguishable and the enthusiastic advocacy of breastfeeding without concomitant education of complementary food may lead to ignorance of breast milk-related IDA, which may result in impaired psychomotor development of the baby. This retrospective study was conducted to re-emphasize this easily ignored but still prevalent illness.
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The effects of titania nanotubes with embedded silver oxide nanoparticles on bacteria and osteoblasts.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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A versatile strategy to endow biomaterials with long-term antibacterial ability without compromising the cytocompatibility is highly desirable to combat biomaterial related infection. TiO2 nanotube (NT) arrays can significantly enhance the functions of many cell types including osteoblasts thus having promising applications in orthopedics, orthodontics, as well as other biomedical fields. In this study, TiO2 NT arrays with Ag2O nanoparticle embedded in the nanotube wall (NT-Ag2O arrays) are prepared on titanium (Ti) by TiAg magnetron sputtering and anodization. Well-defined NT arrays containing Ag concentrations in a wide range from 0 to 15 at % are formed. Ag incorporation has little influence on the NT diameter, but significantly decreases the tube length. Crystallized Ag2O nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 5 nm to 20 nm are embedded in the amorphous TiO2 nanotube wall and this unique structure leads to controlled release of Ag(+) that generates adequate antibacterial activity without showing cytotoxicity. The NT-Ag2O arrays can effectively kill Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus even after immersion for 28 days, demonstrating the long lasting antibacterial ability. Furthermore, the NT-Ag2O arrays have no appreciable influence on the osteoblast viability, proliferation, and differentiation compared to the Ag free TiO2 NT arrays. Ag incorporation even shows some favorable effects on promoting cell spreading. The technique reported here is a versatile approach to develop biomedical coatings with different functions.
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miR-494 acts as an anti-oncogene in gastric carcinoma by targeting c-myc.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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We recently showed that miR-494 was downregulated in gastric carcinoma (GC). The objectives of this study were to determine the role of miR-494 in GC malignancy and to identify its target genes.
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Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Mangiferin from Mango (Mangifera indica L.) leaves using response surface methodology.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Mangiferin is a xanthone widely distributed in higher plants showing antioxidative, antiviral, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunomodulatory, hepatoprotective and analgesic effects. In the present study, an ultrasonic-assisted extraction method was developed for the effective extraction of mangiferin from mango leaves. Some parameters such as ethanol concentration, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 44% ethanol, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 38:1, and extraction for 19.2 min at 60 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of mangiferin was 58.46 ± 1.27 mg/g. The results obtained are helpful for the full utilization of mango leaves, and also indicated that ultrasonic-assisted extraction is a very useful method for the extraction of mangiferin from plant materials.
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Gastrointestinal absorption, dynamic tissue-specific accumulation, and isomer composition of dechlorane plus and related analogs in common carp by dietary exposure.
Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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Dechlorane plus (DP) is a high-productive volume substance which had been identified as ubiquitous pollutant and has been widely detected in biota. In the present study, common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was exposed to known amounts of commercial DP-25 under laboratory conditions. The gastrointestinal absorption and tissue-specific bioaccumulation of DP and its dechlorinated analogs in common carp were investigated. The higher absorption efficiencies but lower assimilation efficiencies of anti-isomers indicated stereoselective metabolism of anti-isomers in fish. Linear uptake curves were seen in serum and muscle, but the depuration curves for all the four tissues (muscle, serum, liver and gonad) did not follow the first-order kinetics. The liver exhibited a high affinity for anti-isomers during the experiment. Other tissues, such as serum, muscle, and gonad, showed a selective accumulation of syn-DP in the early stages of the experiment, particularly the serum. However, the deviation of fanti between different tissues disappeared at late stages of the experiment, and the fanti values in all tissues were close to that in commercial mixtures. Our results suggest that the bioaccumulation of DP is a complex and multi-factorial process.
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Interleukin-17A in lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Interleukin-17 (IL-17) A, the most important cytokine of the IL-17 family predominantly secreted by T helper 17 (Th17) cells, plays a critical role in the development of inflammatory diseases. Its receptor is an obligate heterodimer composed of IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) A and C, the main members of the IL-17R family. Binding of IL-17A to the IL-17RA/C complex can activate a variety of downstream signaling pathways such as nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B), activator protein 1 (AP1) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) to induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. IL-17A also promotes mRNA stability. Growing evidence shows that IL-17A is involved in lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory arterial disease driven by both innate and adaptive immune responses to modified lipoproteins. In the current review, we describe recent progress on regulation and signaling of IL-17A, and highlight its impacts on lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis.
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Cytotoxicity of polyaniline nanomaterial on rat celiac macrophages in vitro.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Polyaniline nanomaterial (nPANI) is getting popular in many industrial fields due to its conductivity and stability. The fate and effect of nPANI in the environment is of paramount importance towards its technological applications. In this work, the cytotoxicity of nPANI, which was prepared by rapid surface polymerization, was studied on rat celiac macrophages. Cell viability of macrophages treated with various concentrations of nPANI and different periods ranging from 24 to 72 hours was tested by a MTT assay. Damages of nPANI to structures of macrophages were evaluated according to the exposure level of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and change of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). We observed no significant effects of nPANI on the survival, ROS level and MMP loss of macrophages at concentrations up to 1 µg/ml. However, higher dose of nPANI (10 µg/ml or above) induced cell death, changes of ROS level and MMP. In addition, an increase in the expression level of caspase-3 protein and its activated form was detected in a Western blot assay under the high dose exposure of nPANI. All together, our experimental results suggest that the hazardous potential of nPANI on macrophages is time- and dose-dependent and high dose of nPANI can induce cell apoptosis through caspase-3 mediated pathway.
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Epidemiological analysis of trauma patients following the Lushan earthquake.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A 7.0-magnitude earthquake hit Lushan County in China's Sichuan province on April 20, 2013, resulting in 196 deaths and 11,470 injured. This study was designed to analyze the characteristics of the injuries and the treatment of the seismic victims.
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Inhibitional effects of metal Zn²? on the reproduction of Aphis medicaginis and its predation by Harmonia axyridis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Contamination, including metals, can disturb the reproductive processes of many organisms, including both prey and predatory insects. However, there is virtually no information on the effects of high level Zinc (Zn) pollution on aphids and ladybirds. The high concentrations of Zn²? or Zn pollution inhibit reproduction in the phytophagous aphid, Aphis medicaginis, and the predatory ladybird Harmonia axyridis could provide important information.
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Involvement of substance P/neurokinin-1 receptor in the analgesic and anticancer activities of minimally toxic fraction from the traditional Chinese medicine Liu-Shen-Wan in vitro.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
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Liu-Shen-Wan (LSW), an ancient preparation used to treat localized infection with pain, was recently reported to possess anticancer activity. The mechanism responsible for LSWs analgesic and anticancer activity is unclear. In the present study, we obtained a LSW supernatant (LSWS) fraction from ultrasound-assisted ethanol extraction (yield 15.9%) which proved to be safer than LSW in terms of hepatotoxicity. The LSWS (1 and 10 µg/mL) exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on the bradykinin-evoked rapid release of substance P from dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells. At concentrations of 0.1 µg/mL and higher, the LSWS resulted in a concentration-related growth inhibitory effect on HepG2, a representative cancer cell lines. The LSWS significantly down-regulated the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor expression in both HepG2 and bradykinin-treated DRG cells. In addition to the NK-1 receptor-dependent growth inhibition in HepG2 cells (0.1-100 µg/mL), the LSWS induced mitochondria-mediated apoptosis at a higher concentration (1-100 µg/mL). In conclusion, we recently isolated a safer LSW fraction which maintained its analgesic and anticancer activity, and found that the substance P/NK-1 receptor system was partly responsible for these effects. Our findings will be useful for developing more effective and less toxic LSW preparations.
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Influence of body temperature on the evoked activity in mouse visual cortex.
Brain Imaging Behav
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Optical imaging of intrinsic signals and conventional electrophysiological methods were used to investigate the correlation between the evoked activity in mouse visual cortex and core body temperature. The results show that hypothermia (25-36 °C) decreases the intensity of optical imaging in the visual cortex and the imaging signal reversibly disappears at 25 °C. Hyperthermia (39-41 °C) increases the intensity but decreases the quality of cortical imaging when body temperature is above 40 °C. The change of optical imaging was in line with that of neuronal activities and local field potentials (LFPs) directly recorded from the visual cortex at 25-39 °C. Hypothermia decreases neuron firing rate and LFPs amplitude. Most of the recorded neurons ceased firing to visual stimulation at 25 °C. Hyperthermia increases neuronal firing rate and LFPs amplitude. Both are reduced when body temperature is above 40 °C, though neither change was statistically significant. These results suggest: (1) Body temperature has an important impact on the visual cortical evoked activities and optical imaging generally reflects these effects when body temperature is between 25 and 39 °C; (2) Optical imaging may not properly reflect the neuronal activity when body temperature is over 40 °C. It is important to maintain core body temperature within 3 °C of the normal body temperature to obtain verifiable results.
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Behavioral and transcriptome alterations in male and female mice with postnatal deletion of TrkB in dorsal striatal medium spiny neurons.
Mol Neurodegener
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
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The high affinity tyrosine kinase receptor, TrkB, is the primary receptor for brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and plays an important role in development, maintenance and plasticity of the striatal output medium size spiny neuron. The striatal BDNF/TrkB system is thereby implicated in many physiologic and pathophysiologic processes, the latter including mood disorders, addiction, and Huntingtons disease. We crossed a mouse harboring a transgene directing cre-recombinase expression primarily to postnatal, dorsal striatal medium spiny neurons, to a mouse containing a floxed TrkB allele (fB) mouse designed for deletion of TrkB to determine its role in the adult striatum.
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A stable bimetallic Au-Ag/TiO2 nanopaper for aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Well-dispersed small Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles (sub-3 nm) on one dimensional TiO2 nanobelts were synthesized by a facile successive photodeposition-galvanic replacement method. Based on these Au-Ag/TiO2-NB nanostructures, a porous paper-like monolithic catalyst was fabricated and exhibited synergistically enhanced activity and stability for catalyzing aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol.
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Cu(II)-catalyzed highly regio- and stereoselective construction of C-C double bonds: an efficient method for the ketonization-olefination of indoles.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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A general and efficient method for the cross-coupling of indoles with ?-keto esters by using TEMPO/CuSO4·5H2O in air as oxidant has been developed. This reaction features high functional-group compatibility and an excellent selectivity. This methodology provides an alternative approach for the ketonization-olefination of indoles in moderate to good yields.
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Cell-penetrating Peptide-mediated therapeutic molecule delivery into the central nervous system.
Curr Neuropharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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The blood-brain barrier (BBB), a dynamic and complex barrier formed by endothelial cells, can impede the entry of unwanted substances - pathogens and therapeutic molecules alike - into the central nervous system (CNS) from the blood circulation. Taking into account the fact that CNS-related diseases are the largest and fastest growing unmet medical concern, many potential protein- and nucleic acid-based medicines have been developed for therapeutic purposes. However, due to their poor ability to cross the BBB and the plasma membrane, the above-mentioned bio-macromolecules have limited use in treating neurological diseases. Finding effective, safe, and convenient ways to deliver therapeutic molecules into the CNS is thus urgently required. In recent decades, much effort has been expended in the development of drug delivery technologies, of which cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have the most promising potential. The present review covers the latest advances in CPP delivery technology, and provides an update on their use in CNS-targeted drug delivery.
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One-pot synthesis of optically enriched 2-piperidinones from aliphatic aldehydes and cyanoacrylamides.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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A highly stereoselective one-pot reaction of aliphatic aldehydes and cyanoacrylamides has been developed. The one-pot reaction includes an organocatalytic Michael addition followed by an intramolecular hemiaminalization. After reduction, optically enriched 2-piperidinones with three contiguous chiral centers were obtained in up to 95% yield and 9:1 dr with 99% ee.
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A review of optical imaging and therapy using nanosized graphene and graphene oxide.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Nanosized graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are photoluminescent due to the presence of bandgaps and edges/defects. The excellent photostability of these nanomaterials makes them superior to molecular dyes for biological imaging. They can also produce intensive heat under laser irradiation, enabling them to serve as photothermal agents for cancer treatment. In this work, recent studies on the photoluminescence of these materials, their applications for biological imaging and photothermal cancer therapy are reviewed. Properties of laser, particularly the temporal property (continuous wave or pulsed), affect its interaction with materials. Therefore, the photoluminescence and photothermal effects, as well as their applications under both single (one)-photon (continuous wave laser) and two-photon (pulsed laser) excitation were summarized and analyzed. Synergistic therapy which combines chemotherapy and photothermal therapy using these materials is also reviewed. Finally, critical issues and challenges for further research and in medical applications of these materials are analyzed.
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Non-neuronal release of gamma-aminobutyric Acid by embryonic pluripotent stem cells.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the principle inhibitory transmitter in the mature central nervous system, is also involved in activities outside the nervous system. Recent studies have shown that functional GABA receptors are expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells and these receptors control ES cell proliferation. However, it is not clear whether ES cells have their own GABAergic transmission output machinery that can fulfill GABA release or whether the cells merely process the GABA receptors by receiving and responding to the diffused GABA released elsewhere. To get further insight into this unresolved problem, we detected the repertoire of components for GABA synthesis, storage, reaction, and termination in ES and embryonal carcinoma stem cells by biological assays, and then directly quantified released GABA in the intercellular milieu from these pluripotent stem (PS) cells by an analytical chemical assay based on high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). We found that embryonic PS cells processed a GABAergic circuit machinery and spontaneously released GABA, which suggests the potential that embryonic PS cells could autonomously establish a GABA niche via release of the transmitter.
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[Cytogenetic analysis of 105 new human abnormal karyotypes].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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To analyze the genetic effect of the abnormal chromosome karyotype, we summarized and studied the clinical data of the new abnormal karyotypes diagnosed at the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Women and Children Care Hospital from January 2009 to July 2012. The samples were cultured routinely for the karyotype analysis using G banding and C banding. Chromosomal aberrations were named according to the International System for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN 2009). Among tested samples, 105 new human abnormal karyotypes were identified (86 reciprocal translocation, 10 chromosomal inversion, six derivative chromosome, one duplication, one isochromosome, one partial trisomy and monosomy). The results suggest that chromosomal abnormalities were a major cause of miscarriage, infertility, congenital abnormalities, mental retardation and amenorrhea in humans.
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Apelin and its receptor APJ in cardiovascular diseases.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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Apelin is an adipokine that has been identified as an endogenous ligand for the orphan receptor APJ. Apelin and APJ are expressed in a diverse range of tissues with particular preponderance for the heart and vasculature. Apelin has powerful positive inotropic actions and causes endothelium- and nitric oxide-dependent vasodilatation. Growing evidence shows that apelin/APJ system functions as a critical mediator of cardiovascular homeostasis and is involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Targeting apelin/APJ axis produces protection against cardiovascular diseases. In the current review we have summarized recent data concerning the role and therapeutic potential of apelin/APJ in several major cardiovascular diseases. An increased understanding of the cardiovascular actions of apelin/APJ system will help to develop novel therapeutic interventions for cardiovascular diseases.
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Development and validation of a quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry assay for pristimerin in rat plasma.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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A sensitive, rapid and simple LC-MS/MS analysis method was developed and validated for the determination of pristimerin (PR) in rat plasma. Protein precipitation with four volumes of acetonitrile as the precipitation reagent was used as the sample preparation method. The analysis process was performed on a Merck ZIC-HILIC column with the mobile phase of acetonitrile-water (containing 5mM ammonium formate, pH 2.8) (85:15, v/v). PR (m/z 465.3-201.1) and glycyrrhetinic acid (internal standard, m/z 471.5-177.1) were monitored under positive electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Retention time of PR and IS was 2.45min and 2.4min, respectively. The limit of detection was 0.5ng/mL and the linear range was 1-500ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision were 2.89-6.27% and 4.91-8.98%, and the intra-day and inter-day accuracy ranged from -5.81% to 8.64% and -7.37% to 9.57%, respectively. The matrix effects and absolute recovery ranged from 89.3% to 92.4% and 88.7% to 92.8%, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to the determination of PR concentration in rat plasma after intravenous administration (0.5mg/kg).
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Acceleration effect of reduced graphene oxide on photoinduced synthesis of silver nanoparticles.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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The photoinduced growth reaction of silver nanoparticles was accelerated by reduced graphene oxide (RGO) produced from graphene oxide (GO) during the light irradiation process in aqueous solution. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy demonstrated that RGO was generated in the photoinduced process. The acceleration effect of RGO was investigated through monitoring the extinction spectra of silver nanoparticles during the synthesis process. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was employed to characterize the evolution of morphologies of silver nanoparticles at different irradiation times to demonstrate the effect of RGO. The results indicate that RGO accelerates the photoinduced synthesis of silver nanoparticles. It is proposed that the acceleration effect of RGO on the photoinduced reaction is attributed to the particular property of high electronic conductivity.
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[Effect of San-huang-sheng-fu oil on wounds of full-thickness scald in rabbits].
Zhonghua Shao Shang Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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To observe the effect of San-huang-sheng-fu oil on wounds of full-thickness scald in rabbits.
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Graphene oxide nanoparticles for enhanced photothermal cancer cell therapy under the irradiation of a femtosecond laser beam.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Nano-sized graphene and graphene oxide (GO) are promising for biomedical applications, such as drug delivery and photothermal therapy of cancer. It is observed in this work that the ultrafast reduction of GO nanoparticles (GONs) with a femtosecond laser beam creates extensive microbubbling. To understand the surface chemistry of GONs on the microbubble formation, the GONs were reduced to remove most of the oxygen-containing groups to get reduced GONs (rGONs). Microbubbling was not observed when the rGONs were irradiated by the laser. The instant collapse of the microbubbles may produce microcavitation effect that brings about localized mechanical damage. To understand the potential applications of this phenomenon, cancer cells labeled with GONs or rGONs were irradiated with the laser. Interestingly, the microbubbling effect greatly facilitated the destruction of cancer cells. When microbubbles were produced, the effective laser power was reduced to less than half of what is needed when microbubbling is absent. This finding will contribute to the safe application of femtosecond laser in the medical area by taking advantage of the ultrafast reduction of GONs. It may also find other important applications that need highly localized microcavitation effects. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
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Behavioral and dorsal raphe neuronal activity following acute and chronic methylphenidate in freely behaving rats.
Brain Res. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Concomitant behavioral and dorsal raphe (DR) neuronal activity were recorded following acute and chronic dose response of methylphenidate (MPD) in freely moving rats previously implanted with permanent semi-microelectrodes using telemetric (wireless) technology. On experimental day (ED) 1, the neuronal and locomotor activity were recorded after saline (baseline) and MPD (0.6, 2.5 or 10.0mg/kg) injection (i.p.). Animals were injected daily with a single dose of MPD for five consecutive days (ED 2-6) to elicit behavioral sensitization or tolerance. After three washout days, the neuronal and locomotor activity recording was resumed on ED 10 followed by saline and MPD rechallenge injection. The main findings were: (1) the same dose of chronic MPD administration elicited behavioral sensitization in some animals and behavioral tolerance in others. (2) 46%, 56% and 73% of DR units responded to acute 0.6, 2.5 and 10.0mg/kg MPD respectively. (3) 89%, 70% and 86% of DR units changed their baseline activity on ED 10 compared to that on ED 1 in the 0.6, 2.5 and 10.0mg/kg MPD groups respectively. (4) A significant difference in ED 10 baseline activity was observed in the DR neuronal population recording from animals expressing behavioral sensitization compared to that of animals expressing behavioral tolerance. (5) 89%, 78% and 88% of DR units responded to chronic 0.6, 2.5 and 10.0mg/kg MPD respectively. (6) The DR neuronal population recording following acute MPD on ED 1 and rechallenge MPD on ED 10 from animals expressing behavioral sensitization was significantly different from the neuronal population recorded from animals exhibited behavioral tolerance. The correlation between the DR neuronal activity and animals behavior following chronic MPD exposure suggested that the DR neuronal activity may play an important role in the expression of behavioral sensitization and tolerance induced by chronic MPD administration.
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Otorrhea as a sign of medical treatment failure in acute otitis media: two cases with silent mastoiditis complicated with facial palsy.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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We report two children with otitis media who developed facial palsy despite prompt antibiotic therapy. Brain images revealed silent mastoiditis. Persistent otorrhea may be a cautious sign of medical treatment failure or complication of acute otitis media, including mastoiditis or facial palsy. Delayed identification of coexisting mastoiditis or hesitation over surgical intervention may lead to treatment failure and complications. Adequate intravenous antibiotics and myringotomy provide reasonable and appropriate management to prevent permanent sequelae.
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An overview of the recent outbreaks of the avian-origin influenza A (H7N9) virus in the human.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Since the first human infection with influenza A (H7N9) viruses have been identified in Shanghai on March 31, 2013, the latest variant of the avian flu virus has spread across four Chinese provinces recently. Human infections with avian influenza are rare and this is the first time that human infection with a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus has been associated with fatal outcome. To date (May 5(th), 2013), China had reported 128 confirmed H7N9 infections in human, among 27 died. Most reported cases have severe respiratory illness resulting in severe pneumonia and in some cases have died. No evidence of sustained human-to -humans at this time, however, there is one family cluster with two confirmed cases for which human-to-human transmission cannot be ruled out. Recent evidence showed that the gene sequences of this novel H7N9 virus is primarily zoonotic and may be better adapted than other avian influenza viruses to infect human. Effective global infection control is urgently needed, and further surveillance and analyses should be undertaken to identify the source and mode of transmission of these viruses.
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Protective effects of Batroxobin on spinal cord injury in rats.
Neurosci Bull
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Expansion of the secondary injury following primary spinal cord injury is a major pathological event that increases destruction in the spinal cord, so measures to reduce secondary injury are needed. Our previous study demonstrated that, at the front of the expanding secondary injury in the spinal cord, there is an ischemic area in which many neurons can still be rescued. Therefore, enhancement of blood circulation in the cord may be helpful, and indeed, we found that a traditional Chinese medicine, shu-xue-tong, efficiently reduces the secondary injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of reducing fibrinogen with Batroxobin, a drug widely used clinically for ischemia, in rats with spinal cord contusion. We found that both 2 and 4 Batroxobin units (BU)/kg efficiently decreased the plasma fibrinogen, and 2 BU/kg significantly increased spinal blood flow, enhanced neuronal survival, mitigated astrocyte and microglia activation, and improved locomotor recovery. However, 4 BU/kg had no effect on the secondary spinal cord injury. These data suggest that Batroxobin has multiple beneficial effects on spinal cord injury, indicating a potential clinical application.
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Response surface methodology for ultrasound-assisted extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Astaxanthin is a novel carotenoid nutraceutical occurring in many crustaceans and red yeasts. It has exhibited various biological activities including prevention or amelioration of cardiovascular disease, gastric ulcer, hypertension, and diabetic nephropathy. In this study, ultrasound-assisted extraction was developed for the effective extraction of astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis. Some parameters such as extraction solvent, liquid-to-solid ratio, extraction temperature, and extraction time were optimized by single-factor experiment and response surface methodology. The optimal extraction conditions were 48.0% ethanol in ethyl acetate, the liquid-to-solid ratio was 20:1 (mL/g), and extraction for 16.0 min at 41.1 °C under ultrasound irradiation of 200 W. Under optimal conditions, the yield of astaxanthin was 27.58 ± 0.40 mg/g. The results obtained are beneficial for the full utilization of Haematococcus pluvialis, which also indicated that ultrasound-assisted extraction is a very useful method for extracting astaxanthin from marine life.
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Epidemiological and molecular analysis of human norovirus infections in Taiwan during 2011 and 2012.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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The human norovirus (NV) circulates worldwide and is a major cause of epidemics, which have increased in Taiwan since 2002. NV in acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and non-acute gastroenteritis (asymptomatic) patients, including children and adults, have not been previously examined in Taiwan; therefore, we examined the epidemiology and phylogeny of NV in AGE and asymptomatic patients of all ages.
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Gene cloning and expression patterns of two prophenoloxidases from Catantops pinguis (Orthoptera: Catantopidae).
Bull. Entomol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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In insect, fat body plays major roles in insect innate immunity. Phenoloxidase (PO) is an important component in insect innate immunity and is necessary for acclimatization. In our study, two prophenoloxidase (PPO) subunits were obtained from fat body of Catantops pinguis (Stål). The full-length cDNA sequence of one PPO (CpPPO1) consisted of 2347 bp with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2187 bp encoding 728 amino acids, while the other subunit (CpPPO2) had a full length of 2445 bp, encoding 691 amino acids. Both the PPO gene products are predicted to possess all the structural features of other PPO members, including two putative tyrosinase copper-binding motifs with six highly conserved histidine residues and a thiolester-like motif. Tissue distribution analysis showed that both PPO mRNAs were abundantly expressed in the fat body among 11 tissues examined, and they were transiently up-regulated after Escherichia coli infection, consistent with them being immune-responsive genes. Total levels of CpPPO1 and CpPPO2 mRNA transcripts were much higher in first instar larvae and adults. A much higher transcript level of CpPPO1 was detected in several months, while there were extremely high mRNA expression levels of CpPPO2 in January, July, October, and December. The above results suggested that PPO from fat body might also bring significant function during the processes of development and acclimatization for C. pinguis.
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Antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility of Cu-Ti-O nanotubes.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) have favorable biological properties, but the poor antibacterial activity limits their application especially in orthopedics fields. In this article, Cu-Ti-O nanotubes with different Cu contents are fabricated on sputtered TiCu films. Scanning electron microscopy reveals the NTs can be formed on sputtered TiCu films when the Cu content is less than 14.6 at %. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate the NTs are consist of CuO mixed with TiO2 and the Cu content in NTs decreases dramatically compared with that in TiCu films. Biological experiments show that although these NTs have poor release antibacterial activity, their contact antibacterial activity has proven to be excellent, indicating the NT surface can effectively inhibit biomaterial-associated infections. The cytocompatibility of the NTs is closely related to the Cu content and when its content is relatively low (1.01 at %), there is no appreciable cytotoxicity. So Cu-Ti-O NTs with 1 at % Cu may be suitable to achieve proper antibacterial activity and desired cytocompatibility. The Cu-Ti-O NTs integrate the favorable antibacterial activity of Cu and excellent biological properties of TiO2 NTs therefore have potential applications in orthopedics, dentistry, and other biomedical fields. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A, 2013.
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[Analysis of DCX gene mutation in a patient featuring X-linked subcortical laminar heterotopia and epilepsy].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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To detect potential mutation of Doublecortin (DCX) gene in a patient featuring X-linked subcortical laminar heterotopia (X-SCLH) and epilepsy.
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Recommendations for rotavirus vaccine.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Rotavirus infection has been the leading cause of gastroenteritis among children in Taiwan. Studies have shown that 40% of hospitalization for acute gastroenteritis can be prevented through the use of vaccines, including a live, attenuated monovalent rotavirus vaccine and a pentavalent, human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine. In 2009, the World Health Organization suggested that rotavirus vaccine should be included in all national immunization programs. This review summarizes issues and recommendations discussed during an expert meeting in Taiwan. The recommendations included: (1) rotavirus vaccine should be offered to all healthy infants (including those without contraindications, such as immunodeficiency) at an appropriate age; (2) either monovalent or pentavalent vaccine can be administered concurrently with routine injected vaccines; (3) the administration of rotavirus vaccine must be administered at least 2 weeks prior to oral polio vaccination; (4) the first vaccine dose for infants should be administered between age 6 weeks and age 14 weeks 6 days and the course should be completed by age 8 months 0 day; (5) pentavalent vaccines can be administered at 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months while monovalent vaccines can be taken at 2 months and 4 months; (6) a combined use of monovalent and pentavalent vaccine is justified only when the previous dose is unavailable or unknown; and (7) rotavirus vaccines may be given to premature infants, human immunodeficiency virus infected infants and infants who have received or are going to receive blood products.
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Clinical analysis of Enterobacter bacteremia in pediatric patients: A 10-year study.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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BACKGROUND: Enterobacter species has emerged as an important pathogen of nosocomial bacteremia. The purpose of this study is to review the clinical characteristics of bacteremia in pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed retrospectively the medical records of patients (under the age of 18 years) having Enterobacter bacteremia who were treated at Taipei the Veterans General Hospital from January 2001 to June 2011. RESULTS: In total, 853 positive blood cultures were obtained from 620 patients during the study period. Among them, 96 episodes of Enterobacter bacteremia were found in 83 patients, accounting for 11.3% of all bacteremia. Eighty-two cases (98.8%) were nosocomial infections. Most of the cases were neonates (62 cases, 74.7%) and premature infants (51 cases, 61.5%). The common sources of bacteremia were the respiratory tract (53.0%), followed by intravascular catheter (10.8%), multiple sources (10.8%), and the gastrointestinal tract (8.4%). The overall case fatality rate was 18.1%, with the highest rate being reported among premature infants. The factors responsible for the deaths were leukocytosis and a higher median number of underlying diseases. CONCLUSION: Based on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that Enterobacter species are probably an important pathogen of nosocomial bacteremia in premature neonates. The number of underlying diseases should be considered a major factor influencing the prognosis.
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AFM nanoindentation detection of the elastic modulus of tongue squamous carcinoma cells with different metastatic potentials.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
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Although significant advances have been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that influence tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) metastasis, less is known about the association between the cellular elastic modulus and TSCC metastasis. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation via the rate-jump method was used to detect the elastic modulus of TSCC cells from patients and cell lines with different metastatic potentials. TSCC cells with higher metastatic potential showed decreases in the elastic modulus compared to TSCC cells with lower metastatic potential. Moreover, the decrease in elastic modulus was accompanied with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), cytoskeleton (F-actin and ?-tubulin) changes, small nucleus size and large nucleus/cytoplasm (N/C) ratio. The present findings demonstrate a close relationship between the cellular elastic modulus and the metastasis of TSCC. The elastic modulus detected by AFM nanoindentation via the rate-jump method can potentially be used to grade the metastatic potential of TSCC.
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Epigenetic changes at gene promoters in response to immune activation in utero.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Increasing evidence suggests that maternal infection increases the risk of psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia and autism in offspring. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with these effects are unclear. Here, we have studied epigenetic gene regulation in mice exposed to non-specific immune activation elicited by polyI:C injection to pregnant dams. Using Western blot analysis, we detected global hypoacetylation of histone H3, at lysine residues 9 and 14, and histone H4, at lysine residue 8, in the cortex from juvenile (?24days of age) offspring exposed to polyI:C in utero, but not from adult (3months of age) offspring, which exhibit significant behavioral abnormalities. Accordingly, we detected robust deficits in the expression of genes associated with neuronal development, synaptic transmission and immune signaling in the cortex of polyI:C-exposed juvenile mice. In particular, we found that several genes in the glutamate receptor signaling pathway, including Gria1 and Slc17a7, showed decreases in promoter-specific histone acetylation, and corresponding gene expression deficits, in polyI:C-exposed offspring at both juvenile and adult ages. In contrast, the expression of these same genes, in addition to Disc1 and Ntrk3, was elevated in the hippocampus of juvenile mice, in concordance with elevated levels of promoter-specific histone acetylation. We suggest that these early epigenetic changes contribute to the delayed behavioral abnormalities that are observed in adult animals after exposure to polyI:C, and which resemble symptoms seen in schizophrenia and related disorders.
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Shape evolution of silver nanoplates through heating and photoinduction.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Shape conversions of silver nanoplates were realized by heating and subsequent light irradiation. The initial silver nanoprisms were transformed into silver nanodisks gradually in the process of heating, which was possibly achieved through dissolving and readsorption of silver atoms on the surface of silver nanoplates. Subsequently, under light irradiation, the heating induced silver nanodisks were reversed to silver nanoprisms in the same solution. The dissolved oxygen was found to play a pivotal role in the shape conversion from nanoprism to nanodisk. In addition to heating, deionized water could induce the shape conversion of silver nanoplates when it was added to precipitate of the initial silver nanoprisms after centrifugation. Citrate in solution is essential to the photoinduced shape conversion process. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and extinction spectroscopy results demonstrated that localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) properties of silver nanoplates were effectively tuned through shape conversion.
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Determination of Raddeanin A in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: application to a pharmacokinetic study.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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A simple, rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS analysis method was developed and validated for the determination of Raddeanin A (RA) in rat plasma. Protein precipitation with three volumes of methanol as the precipitation reagent was used as the sample preparation method. The analysis process was performed on a Thermo Syncronis C18 column with the mobile phase of methanol-water (containing 5mM ammonium formate, pH 2.2) (85:15, v/v). RA and glycyrrhetinic acid (internal standard) were monitored under negative electrospray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Retention time of RA and IS were 2.1 min and 3.5 min, respectively. The limit of detection was 5 ng/mL and the linear range was 50-50,000 ng/mL. The intra-day and inter-day precision was 1.87-2.94% and 3.25-5.36%, and the intra-day and inter-day accuracy ranged from 5.9% to 10.5% and 5.6% to 11.1%, respectively. The absolute recovery was above 90.3%. The method has been successfully translated to the pharmacokinetic study of RA in rats after intravenous and intraperitoneal administration (0.75 mg/kg).
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Dynamic QTL Analysis and Candidate Gene Mapping for Waterlogging Tolerance at Maize Seedling Stage.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Soil waterlogging is one of the major abiotic stresses adversely affecting maize growth and yield. To identify dynamic expression of genes or quantitative trait loci (QTL), QTL associated with plant height, root length, root dry weight, shoot dry weight and total dry weight were identified via conditional analysis in a mixed linear model and inclusive composite interval mapping method at three respective periods under waterlogging and control conditions. A total of 13, 19 and 23 QTL were detected at stages 3D|0D (the period during 0-3 d of waterlogging), 6D|3D and 9D|6D, respectively. The effects of each QTL were moderate and distributed over nine chromosomes, singly explaining 4.14-18.88% of the phenotypic variation. Six QTL (ph6-1, rl1-2, sdw4-1, sdw7-1, tdw4-1 and tdw7-1) were identified at two consistent stages of seedling development, which could reflect a continuous expression of genes; the remaining QTL were detected at only one stage. Thus, expression of most QTL was influenced by the developmental status. In order to provide additional evidence regarding the role of corresponding genes in waterlogging tolerance, mapping of Expressed Sequence Tags markers and microRNAs were conducted. Seven candidate genes were observed to co-localize with the identified QTL on chromosomes 1, 4, 6, 7 and 9, and may be important candidate genes for waterlogging tolerance. These results are a good starting point for understanding the genetic basis for selectively expressing of QTL in different stress periods and the common genetic control mechanism of the co-localized traits.
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Dragons blood inhibits chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain responses by blocking the synthesis and release of substance P in rats.
J. Pharmacol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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As a traditional Chinese medicine, dragons blood (DB) is widely used in treating various pains for thousands of years due to its potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. In the present study, we observed that intragastric administration of DB at dosages of 0.14, 0.56, and 1.12 g/kg potently inhibited paw edema, hyperalgesia, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression, or preprotachykinin-A mRNA expression in carrageenan-inflamed or sciatic nerve-injured (chronic constriction injury) rats, respectively. A short-term (15 s or 10 min) pre-exposure of cultured rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons to DB (0.3, 3, and 30 µg/ml) or its component cochinchinenin B (CB; 0.1, 1, and 10 µM) blocked capsaicin-evoked increases in both the intracellular calcium ion concentration and the substance P release. Moreover, a long-term (180 min) exposure of cultured rat DRG neurons to DB or CB significantly attenuated bradykinin-induced substance P release. These findings indicate that DB exerts anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects by blocking the synthesis and release of substance P through inhibition of COX-2 protein induction and intracellular calcium ion concentration. Therefore, DB may serve as a promising potent therapeutic agent for treatment of chronic pain, and its effective component CB might partly contribute to anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects.
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[The specification of parameters driven by measurement data in the construction of virtual sources in Monte Carlo simulation].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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Dose calculation algorithms based on the Monte Carlo (MC) method are widely regarded as the most accurate tool available in radiotherapy. The MC simulation in radiotherapy has been split into two parts, the radiation source simulation and patient simulation. In this research, a virtual source for simulating the linear accelerator head was constructed with measurement-driven models. The dependence between the calculation accuracy and the specification of various parameters was studied by comparison between the measurement data and calculation results. It has been shown that the dose profile obtained by MC simulation can be consistent with measurement data, suggesting that the compound effect of primary photons and secondary photons are considered with appropriate parameter specification. The requirement of modeling for MC simulation can be met in clinical conditions.
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Inhibition of mammalian muscle differentiation by excretory secretory products of muscle larvae of Trichinella spiralis in vitro.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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The excretory-secretory products (ESP) released by muscle stage of Trichinella spiralis have been suggested to be involved in nurse cell formation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which ESP modulate nurse cell formation remain unclear. In the present study, the ability of ESP of muscle larvae of T. spiralis (ML-ESP) to influence the proliferation and differentiation of murine myoblasts and the mechanisms were evaluated in vitro using C2C12 myoblast cell line, which were incubated for various times under grow or differentiation culture medium containing various concentrations of ML-ESP. The results indicated that ML-ESP promoted myoblast proliferation in a dose-dependent manner and increased the expression of the cell-cycle regulator cyclin D1 as well as that of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Conversely, ML-ESP inhibited the differentiation of these cells, which was evidenced by a reduction in the levels of MHC and MRFs expression (MyoD and myogenin) as well as that of p21. In addition, ML-ESP also inhibited the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in differentiating C2C12 myoblast. Taken together, these results imply that certain critical mediators contained in ML-ESP inhibit myogenesis through enhancing skeletal myoblasts proliferation and down-regulating the expression of MRFs as well as involving p38 MAPK signalling pathway, which provides insight into the mechanisms utilised by T. spiralis to interfere normal wound repair in infected muscle cells and affect nurse cell formation.
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Kazakh therapy on differential protein expression of Achilles tendon healing in a 7-day postoperative rabbit model.
J Tradit Chin Med
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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To compare the effect of cast immobilization with that of early Kiymil arkili emdew (Kazakh exercise therapy) on the post-operative healing of Achilles tendon rupture in rabbits, and to observe the influence of early Kiymil arkili emdew on the differentially expressed proteins in the healing tendon.
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Clinical and pathological analysis of hepatic artery aneurysm in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus: report of a case.
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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A hepatic artery aneurysm is an unusual but life-threatening hepatobiliary complication occurring in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and early diagnosis and treatment of this complication are essential. A 31-year-old man with SLE presented with recurring epigastric pain and jaundice for 2 months; he was diagnosed with choledocholithiasis and underwent surgery. Hemobilia was found intraoperatively, and two hepatic artery aneurysms were identified in the left lateral lobe during postoperative arteriography. Major hemobilia occurred 6 days after the operation, and the patient was immediately treated with selective embolization of the hepatic artery. However, the major hemobilia recurred 2 days later, and he was treated with a left lateral lobectomy and ligation of the proximal hepatic artery. The patient recovered uneventfully and is in good condition. A histological analysis revealed small- and medium-sized arteritis as well as hepatic artery aneurysm. Systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by a hepatic artery aneurysm should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients showing symptoms of abdominal pain, jaundice, or gastrointestinal bleeding.
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease complicated by nephrotic syndrome.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
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Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is one of the most frequent and serious complications of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Nephrotic syndrome (NS) is an uncommon and underrecognized manifestation of cGVHD. We report a patient who developed NS 18 months after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. The onset of NS was accompanied by active manifestations of cGVHD, and immunosuppressants had not been tapered recently. Renal biopsy revealed membranous nephropathy. The patient failed to improve with three combined immunosuppressants (prednisolone, cyclosporine, and mycophenolate mofetil), but achieved partial remission after intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion. Twenty-four months after the diagnosis of NS, the patient was still in hematological remission, with normal serum creatinine level, urinary protein loss of 0.7-1.9 g/day and mild oral mucositis. Our report suggests that NS can be a cGVHD-related immune disorder in HSCT patients. Monitoring of renal parameters, especially proteinuria, is important in cGVHD patients. Our case indicated that post-transplant NS, occurring without history of tapering or following immunosuppressant withdrawal, presents a more severe activity of cGVHD and a relatively severe clinical course. IVIG may modify and control the refractory GVHD-related NS, and can be one of the choices of treatment.
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H. pylori related proinflammatory cytokines contribute to the induction of miR-146a in human gastric epithelial cells.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2011
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MicroRNAs have been implicated as a central regulator of the immune system. We have previously reported that Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) was able to increase the expression of miR-146a, and miR-146a may negatively regulate H. pylori-induced inflammation, but the exact mechanism of how H. pylori contribute the induction of miR-146a is not clear. Here, we attempted to assess the role of H. pylori related proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and interleukin (IL)-1?, and cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) virulence factor on the induction of miR-146a. We found that IL-8, TNF-?, and IL-1? could contribute to the induction of miR-146a in gastric epithelial cell HGC-27 in NF-?B-dependent manner, while the induction of miR-146a upon H. pylori stimulation was independent of above proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, overexpression of miR-146a reduced H. pylori-induced IL-8, TNF-?, and IL-1?. However, CagA had no effect on the miR-146a induction. Taken together, our study suggest that proinflammatory cytokines IL-8, TNF-?, and IL-1? could contribute to the induction of miR-146a during H. pylori infection, while CagA is not necessarily required for miR-146a induction. miR-146a may function as novel negative regulators to modulate the inflammation.
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Ultrasound-assisted compatible in situ hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse in cellulase-aqueous-N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide system for improved saccharification.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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To fully exploit the benefits of N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) in lignocelluloses bioconversion, a compatible system was established for efficient in situ saccharification of cellulose in NMMO-aqueous media in which the NMMO is able to activate and solubilize the cellulose, and the cellulases possess high stability and activity. Cellulase retained its original activity after being pre-incubated in 15% and 20% (w/v) NMMO solutions. After optimization of reaction parameters, high saccharification rate (96.5%) was obtained in aqueous-NMMO media by ultrasound assisted treatment of cellulose. The viscosity and FTIR analysis revealed that NMMO-treated cellulose under ultrasonic condition was porous and amorphous, which led to improved saccharification. The addition of trifle lignin in lower concentration improved the saccharification efficiency of sugarcane bagasse, while higher concentration interferes with hydrolysis. In conclusion, these findings provided great implications to develop a continuous process NMMO-cellulases system for transformation of native biomass.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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