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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Self-assembled synthesis of hierarchical Zn2GeO4 core-shell microspheres with enhanced photocatalytic activity.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Hierarchically spherical materials with a core-shell structure are of special interest for a variety of promising applications. Although some advanced synthetic methods have been reported, the development of a facile strategy to fabricate hierarchically spherical materials with a core-shell structure is still desirable. Herein, hierarchical Zn2GeO4 core-shell microspheres, with stacked nanoparticles at the core and well-aligned rods at the shell, are successfully synthesized through a triethylenetetramine (TETA)-induced self-assembly route. They exhibit relatively high photocatalytic activity and stability towards degradation of organic pollutants under UV light irradiation. In addition, other diverse hierarchical Zn2GeO4 macrocrystals can be successfully prepared by rationally tuning the reaction parameters. The present synthetic strategy may allow access to fabricating other multifunctional materials with special artistical morphologies.
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A netlike rolling circle nucleic acid amplification technique.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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A nucleic acid amplification technique termed as netlike rolling circle amplification is proposed by introducing a nicking enzyme into the existing hyperbranched rolling circle amplification system. Surprisingly dense and uniform network morphology is observed; and cubic amplification is achieved for the sensitive detection of a sequence from HIV.
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An ATP-responsive smart gate fabricated with a graphene oxide-aptamer-nanochannel architecture.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Here, we report a graphene oxide-aptamer-nanochannel architecture for the fabrication of a novel stimuli-responsive gate. The gate is switched OFF in the absence of ATP, and is switched ON when ATP is present. The concept we proposed may contribute to a versatile platform for the development of stimuli-responsive gates.
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A Method to Study Stoichiometry of Protein Post-translational Modification.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We report a new method to study stoichiometry of protein post-translational modification (PTM) via manipulating small-molecule labels. Such labels can simultaneously bind with all the modified amino acids in a target protein, resulting in large signal. However, if the small-molecule labels are previously attached with macromolecule comparable to the target protein in size, binding of one such label will prevent subsequent binding of more labels of its kind, thus only one of the modified amino acids in the target protein can be bound with the label, resulting in small signal. Therefore, the stoichiometric number of PTM can be determined by ratio of the two signals. The proposed method can analyze nitration of several essential regulatory proteins of cellular life, all of which are found to have integer stoichiometric number indicating regulated site-specific nitration. These results validate the efficacy of our method to provide detailed information on PTMs with biological significance.
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Ultra-wideband all-fiber tunable Tm/Ho-co-doped laser at 2 ?m.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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We demonstrate an all-fiber tunable Tm/Ho-codoped laser operating in the 2 ?m wavelength region. The wavelength tuning range of the Tm/Ho-codoped fiber laser (THFL) with 1-m length of Tm/Ho-codoped fiber (THDF) was from 1727 nm to 2030 nm. Efficient short wavelength operation and ultra-wide wavelength tuning range of 303 nm were both achieved. To the best of our knowledge, this is the broadest tuning range that has been reported for an all-fiber rare-earth-doped laser to date. By increasing the THDF length to 2 m, the obtainable wavelength of the THFL was further red-shifted to the range from 1768 nm to 2071 nm. The output power of the THFL was scaled up from 1810 nm to 2010 nm by using a stage of Tm/Ho-codoped fiber amplifier (THFA), which exhibited the maximum slope efficiency of 42.6% with output power of 408 mW at 1910 nm.
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The immunologic and hematopoietic profiles of mesenchymal stem cells derived from different sections of human umbilical cord.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been widely used in allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We compared immunologic and hematopoietic characteristics of MSCs derived from whole human umbilical cord (UC), as well as from different sections of UCs, including the amniotic membrane (AM), Wharton's jelly (WJ), and umbilical vessel (UV). Cell phenotypes were examined by flow cytometry. Lymphocyte transformation test and mixed lymphocyte reaction were performed to evaluate the immuno-modulatory activity of MSCs derived from UCs. The mRNA expression of cytokines was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Hematopoietic function was studied by co-culturing MSCs with CD34(+) cells isolated from cord blood. Our results showed that MSCs separated from these four different sections including UC, WJ, UV, and AM had similar biological characteristics. All of the MSCs had multi-lineage differentiation ability and were able to differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes, and chondrocytes. The MSCs also inhibited the proliferation of allogeneic T cells in a dose-dependent manner. The relative mRNA expression of cytokines was examined, and the results showed that UCMSCs had higher interleukin-6 (IL6), IL11, stem cell factor, and FLT3 expression than MSCs derived from specific sections of UCs. CD34(+) cells had high propagation efficiencies when co-cultured with MSCs derived from different sections of UCs, among which UCMSCs are the most efficient feeding layer. Our study demonstrated that MSCs could be isolated from whole UC or specific sections of UC with similar immunomodulation and hematopoiesis supporting characteristics.
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Immunoprophylaxis Failure Against Vertical Transmission of Hepatitis B Virus in the Chinese Population: A Hospital-based Study and a Meta-analysis.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Despite effective immunoprophylaxis, vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from infected mothers still occurs. This study aimed to provide an estimate of the prevalence of immunoprophylaxis failure and evaluate associated risk factors.
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Pan-Canadian study of mammography screening and mortality from breast cancer.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Screening with mammography has been shown by randomized controlled trials to reduce breast cancer mortality in women aged 40 to 74 years. Estimates from observational studies following screening implementation in different countries have produced varyied findings. We report findings for seven Canadian breast screening programs.
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Does appendiceal diameter change with age? A sonographic study.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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OBJECTIVE. The purposes of this study were to determine whether age-related changes in appendiceal diameter identified on CT and pathology are apparent on sonography and to assess the relationship between normal appendiceal diameter and patient-specific factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Ultrasound examinations from 388 unique pediatric patients with normal appendixes, evenly distributed by age, were reviewed. Appendiceal diameter and wall thickness were correlated with patient age, sex, height, weight, and presence of enlarged lymph nodes. RESULTS. Mean (± SD) anteroposterior and transverse appendiceal diameters were 4.4 ± 0.9 and 5.1 ± 1.0 mm, respectively. Appendiceal diameter was normally distributed across the population but was not significantly associated with age. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) weight percentile for age was the only statistically significant patient-specific predictor of transverse diameter (p = 0.001) and approached significance for anteroposterior diameter (p = 0.051). The presence of enlarged lymph nodes was a significant predictor of anteroposterior diameter (p = 0.029) and approached significance for transverse diameter (p = 0.07). Wall thickness was normally distributed across the population and was significantly associated with age (p = 0.011; effect size, -0.05 mm/y). CONCLUSION. Appendiceal diameter measured on ultrasound is normally distributed in children and does not depend on age. Age-dependent diagnostic cutoffs for normal sonographic diameter are thus not needed. There is, however, a relationship between age and appendiceal wall thickness, suggesting the need for age-dependent diagnostic values if this criteria are to be used to diagnose appendicitis. Although the CDC weight percentile for age and the presence of enlarged lymph nodes affect appendiceal diameter on ultrasound, these effects are small and of doubtful clinical significance.
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High-power all-fiber wavelength-tunable thulium doped fiber laser at 2 ?m.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Power scaling of an all-fiber wavelength-tunable thulium doped fiber laser (TDFL) based on a monolithic master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system is presented. The whole configuration is comprised of a low-power seed oscillator and two stages of double-cladding thulium doped fiber amplifiers (TDFAs). The tuning of the operating wavelength is realized by inserting a spectral tunable filter into the seed oscillator. Maximum average output power of 115 W is obtained at 1950 nm with a linearly fitted slope efficiency of 51.7%. This laser has superior spectral characteristics with wavelength tunable from 1940 nm to 2070 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of an all-fiber wavelength-tunable TDFL at 2 ?m with output power exceeding 100 W. The results are of great interest for many application areas.
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Comparison of culture methods for isolation of salmonella in yak fecal samples.
Indian J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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To compare the effectiveness of culture methods for identifying yak Salmonella, three selective enrichment broths (SC, TTB, MSRV) and three media (SS, XLD, CAS) for detecting Salmonella were evaluated in this study. The results showed that TTB broth was better than SC broths and MSRV broths, and SS medium has the highest isolation rate, significantly higher than those of CAS and XLD media (P < 0.05). It is worth noticing that there was no overlapping of the positive results given by TTB, SC and MSRV broths. In addition, all of the yak Salmonella isolates were detected positive by the five reported PCR assays, targeting the invA, srfC, invE, stn and 16S-23S rRNA genes. The combination of TTB and MSRV broths and SS and CAS media (or XLD) recommended in this study was relatively efficient in recovering Salmonella from yak feces, and the five PCR assays can be successfully used to identify yak Salmonella.
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A Missense Mutation in HK1 Leads to Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a genetically heterogeneous disease with over 60 causative genes known to date. Nevertheless, approximately 40% of RP cases remain genetically unsolved, suggesting that many novel disease-causing genes are yet to be identified. In this study, we aimed to identify the causative mutation for a large autosomal dominant RP (adRP) family with negative results from known retinal disease gene screening.
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[Morphologic and histopathologic analysis of testicular appendages].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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To investigate the incidence of testicular appendages, observe their morphology, and analyze their histopathological origins.
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Early monocular defocus disrupts the normal development of receptive-field structure in v2 neurons of macaque monkeys.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Experiencing different quality images in the two eyes soon after birth can cause amblyopia, a developmental vision disorder. Amblyopic humans show the reduced capacity for judging the relative position of a visual target in reference to nearby stimulus elements (position uncertainty) and often experience visual image distortion. Although abnormal pooling of local stimulus information by neurons beyond striate cortex (V1) is often suggested as a neural basis of these deficits, extrastriate neurons in the amblyopic brain have rarely been studied using microelectrode recording methods. The receptive field (RF) of neurons in visual area V2 in normal monkeys is made up of multiple subfields that are thought to reflect V1 inputs and are capable of encoding the spatial relationship between local stimulus features. We created primate models of anisometropic amblyopia and analyzed the RF subfield maps for multiple nearby V2 neurons of anesthetized monkeys by using dynamic two-dimensional noise stimuli and reverse correlation methods. Unlike in normal monkeys, the subfield maps of V2 neurons in amblyopic monkeys were severely disorganized: subfield maps showed higher heterogeneity within each neuron as well as across nearby neurons. Amblyopic V2 neurons exhibited robust binocular suppression and the strength of the suppression was positively correlated with the degree of hereogeneity and the severity of amblyopia in individual monkeys. Our results suggest that the disorganized subfield maps and robust binocular suppression of amblyopic V2 neurons are likely to adversely affect the higher stages of cortical processing resulting in position uncertainty and image distortion.
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Nanoporous Hollow Transition Metal Chalcogenide Nanosheets Synthesized via the Anion-Exchange Reaction of Metal Hydroxides with Chalcogenide Ions.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Nanoporous hollow transition metal chalcogenides are of special interest for a variety of promising applications. Although some advanced synthetic methods have been reported, the development of a facile and general strategy to fabricate porous hollow nanostructures of transition metal chalcogenides, especially with enhanced electrocatalytic performance, still remains highly challenged. Herein, we report a facile chemical transformation strategy to prepare nanoporous hollow Co3S4 nanosheets via the anion exchange reaction of Co(OH)2 with sulfide ions. The chemical transformation mechanism involves the as-formed layer of nanoporous cobalt sulfide on Co(OH)2 driven by the anion-exchange-reaction and lattice mismatch induced quick strain release, a following diffusion-effect-dominated core-shell hollow intermediate with hollow interiors, and subsequent Ostwald ripening growth of hollow nanosheets at elevated temperatures. This anion-exchange strategy of transition metal hydroxides with chalcogenide ions is also suitable for fabricating nanoporous hollow nanosheets of other metal chalcogenides (e.g., CoSe2, CoTe2, CdS, and NiS). The as-prepared nanoporous hollow Co3S4 nanosheets are found to be highly active and stable for electrocatalytic oxygen evolution reaction.
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Suppression of C6 gliomas via application of rat hyperplasia gene.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Among all neurological tumors, tumor incidence of the neuroepithelial tissue is the highest, where 50% are gliomas. Treatment for gliomas has traditionally included surgery and adjuvant therapy. With advancements in medicine, gene therapy has entered the clinical setting, in which control of tumor growth, tumor volume and decrease of supply of blood to the tumor have been observed. Rat hyperplasia suppressor gene (rHSG) has been proven to inhibit the injury-mediated proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells.
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[Preparation of paeonol transdermal delivery systems based on proniosomes-based ointment and its pharmacokinetics characters].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The paeonol proniosomes ointment and ordinary ointment were administered to rats. Physiological saline served as perfused solution. The perfusion rate was 5 mL x L(-1) and the microdialysis samples were collected every 20 min intervals. The paeonol concentration in perfused solution was determined by HPLC. Investigation of the pharmacokinetics of paeonol proniosomes ointment and ordinary ointment by the skin-blood synchronous microdialysis coupled with HPLC is reported in this study. The results show that the recovery was (54.80 +/- 1.50)% in vitro and (54.58 +/- 4.61)% in vivo. The results showed that paeonol proniosomes ointment significantly raised the drug concentrations in skin more than the paeonol ordinary ointment. The paeono proniosomes ointment has less drugs into the blood as the ordinary ointments in blood, but its blood drug concentrations were steadier. The paeonol proniosomes ointment may be developed into a new preparation.
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[Effect of FarR on transcriptional levels of arginine biosynthetic genes in Corynebacterium crenatum AS 1.542 and its relationship with ArgR].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The FarR protein was involved in the regulation of arginine biosynthetic pathway in corynebacterium, but the regulation mechanism of FarR protein and its relationship with the negative regulator ArgR have never been reported. In this work, we constructed two deletion mutants: C. crenatum delta farR and C. crenatum delta argR delta farR, and investigated the FarR function and its relationship with ArgR through the determination of transcriptional levels of arginine biosynthetic genes in four strains, including C. crenatum delta argR constructed in previous work.
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[Larynx preservation and hypopharyngeal reconstruction in posterior hypopharyngeal wall sqamous cell carcinoma].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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To study the larynx preservation after resection of posterior hypopharygeal wall squamous cell carcinoma.
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[Free jejunum reconstruction and laryngeal preservation for squamous cell carcinoma in the pharyngoesophageal junction].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Try to use free jejunum flaps reconstruction and laryngeal preservation for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the pharyngoesophageal junction.
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[Clinical role of BRAF V600E mutation testing in thyroid nodules].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To evaluate the clinical role of BRAF V600E mutation testing in fine-needle aspirates (FNA) of thyroid nodules.
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[miR-610 suppresses lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion by targeting GJA3].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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To investigate the function and mechanism of miR-610 in lung cancer cell proliferation and invasion.
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Conformational study reveals amino acid residues essential for hemagglutinating and anti-proliferative activities of Clematis montana lectin.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Clematis montana lectin (CML), a novel mannose-binding lectin purified from C. montana Buch.-Ham stem (Ranunculaceae), has been proved to have hemagglutinating activity in rabbit erythrocytes and apoptosis-inducing activity in tumor cells. However, the biochemical properties of CML have not revealed and its structural information still needs to be elucidated. In this study, it was found that CML possessed quite good thermostability and alkaline resistance, and its hemagglutinating activity was bivalent metal cation dependent. In addition, hemagglutination test and fluorescence spectroscopy proved that GuHCl, urea, and sodium dodecyl sulfate could change the conformation of CML and further caused the loss of hemagglutination activity. Moreover, the changes of fluorescence spectrum indicated that the tryptophan (Trp) microenvironment conversion might be related to the conformation and bioactivities of CML. In addition, it was also found that Trp residues, arginine (Arg) residues, and sulfhydryl were important for the hemagglutinating activity of CML, but only Trp was proved to be crucial for the CML conformation. Furthermore, the Trp, Arg, and sulfhydryl-modified CML exhibited 97.17%, 76.99%, and 49.64% loss of its anti-proliferative activity, respectively, which was consistent with the alterations of its hemagglutinating activity. Given these findings, Trp residues on the surface of CML are essential for the active center to form substrate-accessible conformation and suitable environment for carbohydrate binding.
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[A survey on underweight and growth retardation of 51 children before and after liver transplantation].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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To evaluate the growth of children in weight and height before and after liver transplantation and the relation between malnutrition and postoperative time.
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Analysis on the Interaction Domain of VirG and Apyrase by Pull-Down Assay.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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VirG is outer membrane protein of Shigella and affects the spread of Shigella. Recently it has been reported that apyrase influences the location of VirG, although the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. The site of interaction between apyrase and VirG is the focus of our research. First we constructed recombinant plasmid pHIS-phoN2 and pS-(v1-1102, v53-758, v759-1102, v53-319, v320-507, v507-758) by denaturation-renaturation, the phoN2:kan mutant of Shigella flexneri 5a M90T by a modified version of the lambda red recombination protocol originally described by Datsenko and Wanner and the complemented strain M90T?phoN2/pET24a(PhisphoN2). Second, the recombinant plasmid pHIS-phoN2 and the pS-(v1-1102, v53-758, v759-1102, v53-319, v320-507, v507-758) were transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3) and induced to express the fusion proteins. Third, the fusion proteins were purified and the interaction of VirG and apyrase was identified by pull-down. Fourth, VirG was divided and the interaction site of apyrase and VirG was determined. Finally, how apyrase affects the function of VirG was analyzed by immunofluorescence. Accordingly, the results provided the data supporting the fact that apyrase combines with the ?-domain of VirG to influence the function of VirG.
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Skin cancer (Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and malignant melanoma): new cases, treatment practice, and health care costs in new brunswick, Canada, 2002-2010.
J Cutan Med Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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In Canada, there is no formal process for registering nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC); thus, the epidemiology, treatment practices, and associated health costs are not well known.
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Tumor suppressor role of protein 4.1B/DAL-1.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is a membrane skeletal protein that belongs to the protein 4.1 family. Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is localized to sites of cell-cell contact and functions as an adapter protein, linking the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton or associated cytoplasmic signaling effectors and facilitating their activities in various pathways. Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is involved in various cytoskeleton-associated processes, such as cell motility and adhesion. Moreover, protein 4.1B/DAL-1 also plays a regulatory role in cell growth, differentiation, and the establishment of epithelial-like cell structures. Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is normally expressed in multiple human tissues, but loss of its expression or prominent down-regulation of its expression is frequently observed in corresponding tumor tissues and tumor cell lines, suggesting that protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is involved in the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors and acts as a potential tumor suppressor. This review will focus on the structure of protein 4.1B/DAL-1, 4.1B/DAL-1-interacting molecules, 4.1B/DAL-1 inactivation and tumor progression, and anti-tumor activity of the 4.1B/DAL-1.
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[Change of spinal neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in rats with painful diabetic neuropathy].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To observe the change of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression in the spinal cord of diabetic rats with painful diabetic neuropathy.
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Pre-operative prognostic nutritional index predicts the outcomes for triple-negative breast cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate whether pre-operative prognostic nutritional index (PNI), an indicator of nutritional and immunological status, has an impact on the long-term outcomes in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. This retrospective study reviewed the medical records of 382 TNBC patients who had suffered from mastectomy. Pre-operative PNI was calculated as 10?×?serum albumin (g/dl)?+?0.005?×?total lymphocyte count (per mm(3)). The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to determine the optimal cutoff value of PNI. The correlations of PNI value with clinicopathological features were analyzed and the univariate and multivariate analysis were applied to identify the prognostic factors. The results showed that pre-operative PNI value was significantly related to advanced tumor status such as N stage (p?=?0.011), T stage (p?=?0.015), and recurrence incidents (p?=?0.001). Survival analysis identified PNI as an independent prognostic factor for TNBC. Patients with higher PNI value had better 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and 5-year overall survival (OS) than those with lower PNI value (DFS, p?=?0.007; OS, p?=?0.011). Taken together, our results suggest that the pre-operative PNI can be used as a simple and useful marker for predicting the long-term outcomes of TNBC patients.
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Urinary messenger RNA of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB could be used to differentiate between minimal change disease and membranous nephropathy.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Abstract Podocyte damage and loss together have an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of glomerulonephritis. Glomerulonephritis patients and healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Biochemical, clinical and experimental procedures included measurement of total urinary protein, renal biopsy and gene expression analysis of the receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK). The urinary mRNA levels of RANK were significantly higher in the glomerulonephritis group compared to the controls. The urinary RANK level of glomerular subtypes was correlated significantly with proteinuria. The calculated area of RANK mRNA levels under the curve was 0.61 for minimal change disease (MCD), 0.97 for membranous nephropathy (MN), 0.65 for IgA nephropathy (IgAN), 0.70 for lupus nephritis (LN) and 0.70 for focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The urinary mRNA of RANK might be used to differentiate histologic subtypes of glomerulonephritis, particularly between MCD and MN.
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Male mate recognition via cuticular hydrocarbons facilitates sexual isolation between sympatric leaf beetle sister species.
J. Insect Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Chemical signals in insects have been documented to play an important role in mate recognition, and divergence in chemical signals can often cause sexual isolation between closely related species or populations within species. We investigated the role of cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs), short distance chemical signals, in male mate recognition between the two sympatric elm leaf beetles, Pyrrhalta maculicollis and Pyrrhaltaaenescens. Mating experiments demonstrated that strong sexual isolation between the two species was driven by CHCs divergence. Males preferred to mate with conspecific females with intact conspecific CHCs or conspecific CHCs reapplied after removal. Males also preferred heterospecific females that were treated with conspecific CHCs. Chemical analysis showed that the CHC profiles differ significantly between species. In P. maculicollis dimethyl-branched alkanes between C29 and C35 account for the majority of the saturated alkanes while the CHC profile of P. aenescens mostly consisted of monomethyl-branched alkanes between C22 and C29. Additionally, some compounds, such as 12,18-diMeC32, 12,18-diMeC34, are unique to P. maculicollis.
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[The effects of prone position ventilation combined with recruitment maneuvers on outcomes in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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To evaluate the effects of prone position ventilation combined with recruitment maneuvers (RM) on clinical outcomes in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).
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[The clinical electrophysiology and pathological characteristics of 15 cases of vasculitic neuropathy].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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To summarize the clinical features, electrophysiology and neuropathological characteristics of peripheral nerves in patients with vasculitic neuropathy.
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Targeting RPTP? with lentiviral shRNA promotes neurites outgrowth of cortical neurons and improves functional recovery in a rat spinal cord contusion model.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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After spinal cord injury (SCI), the rapidly upregulated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs), the prominent chemical constituents and main repulsive factors of the glial scar, play an important role in the extremely limited ability to regenerate in adult mammals. Although many methods to overcome the inhibition have been tested, no successful method with clinical feasibility has been devised to date. It was recently discovered that receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase sigma (RPTP?) is a functional receptor for CSPGs-mediated inhibition. In view of the potential clinical application of RNA interference (RNAi), here we investigated whether silencing RPTP? via lentivirus-mediated RNA interference can promote axon regeneration and functional recovery after SCI. Neurites of primary rat cerebral cortical neurons with depleted RPTP? exhibited a significant enhancement in elongation and crossing ability when they encountered CSPGs in vitro. A contusion model of spinal cord injury in Wistar rats (the New York University (NYU) impactor) was used for in vivo experiments. Local injection of lentivirus encoding RPTP? shRNA at the lesion site promoted axon regeneration and synapse formation, but did not affect the scar formation. Meanwhile, in vivo functional recovery (motor and sensory) was also enhanced after RPTP? depletion. Therefore, strategies directed at silencing RPTP? by RNAi may prove to be a beneficial, efficient and valuable approach for the treatment of SCI.
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Expression of human leukocyte antigen-G and acute rejection in patients following liver transplantation.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Acute liver rejection is one of the most severe complications that may affect the liver transplantation procedure. Thus, one of the most important focal points in the field of liver transplantation research is to discover a non-invasive or less-invasive method of diagnosing and predicting cases of acute liver rejection. In the present study, 59 tissue samples, including blood and liver tissues, were collected from patients who underwent liver transplantation between March 2005 and November 2009. The patients were divided into acute rejection and no rejection groups, the latter of which was further divided into normal and abnormal liver function groups. The samples were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry methods. The results were analyzed and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was plotted. The area under the ROC curve and the sensitivity and specificity of the cut-off point were analyzed statistically. The results indicated that the expression level of human leukocyte antigen-G (HLA-G) in the serum and liver samples in the acute rejection group was markedly lower than that in the no rejection group (P<0.001 and P=0.004, respectively). Furthermore, in the no rejection group, no statistically significant difference was identified in the level of HLA-G between patients with normal or abnormal liver function (P=0.0593). The area under the ROC curve was 0.805. When 2.41 U/ml HLA-G was considered as the cut-off point for the diagnosis of acute liver rejection, the sensitivity and specificity were 72.7 and 83.8%, respectively. In conclusion, in the present study, a high expression of the HLA-G was shown to correlate with a reduced occurrence of acute liver rejection. HLA-G may thus be an effective factor for the diagnosis and prediction of acute liver rejection.
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[Dendritic cells and acute myeloid leukemia].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Dendritic cells can be derived from leukemia cells and normal precursor cells in the patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Dendritic cells may capture leukemia antigen in bone marrow or lymph nodes, and present leukemia common antigen to stimulate proliferation of specific CD8(+) T cells, playing anti-leukemia effect. Dendritic cells for clinical and experimental use are transformed from leukemia cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells and loaded in vitro with leukemia -specific or tumor common antigen, play a therapeutic role after reinfusion. This article reviews dendritic cells in the immunotherapy of AML.
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Flexible picosecond thulium-doped fiber laser using the active mode-locking technique.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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An all-fiber actively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser (AML-TDFL) based on a 10 GHz bandwidth electro-optic intensity modulator (EOM) providing flexible picosecond pulses at 1980 nm is presented. The EOM is driven by electrical pulses rather than traditional sine-wave signals. The repetition rate of output pulses was 21.4 MHz at fundamental mode-locking, which could be scaled up to 1.498 GHz through the 70th order harmonic mode-locking, and the shortest measured output pulse width was 38 ps. Furthermore, the output pulse width could be tuned by either adjusting the modulation frequency with small detuning or changing the width of these driving electrical pulses without frequency detuning. In our work, the stability of these mode-locked pulses obtained from the AML-TDFL was superior; for instance, the measured supermode suppression ratio of 1.498 GHz pulses train was up to 48 dB.
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Sulfur copolymer nanowires with enhanced visible-light photoresponse.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Sulfur copolymer nanowires have been reported for the first time as highly stable visible-light-active photocatalysts for photoelectrochemical water splitting depending on their size and sulfur content. The as-prepared sulfur copolymer nanowires can serve as a sulfur source and templates to create metal sulfide/copolymer heterocatalysts.
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An automated three-dimensional detection and segmentation method for touching cells by integrating concave points clustering and random walker algorithm.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Characterizing cytoarchitecture is crucial for understanding brain functions and neural diseases. In neuroanatomy, it is an important task to accurately extract cell populations' centroids and contours. Recent advances have permitted imaging at single cell resolution for an entire mouse brain using the Nissl staining method. However, it is difficult to precisely segment numerous cells, especially those cells touching each other. As presented herein, we have developed an automated three-dimensional detection and segmentation method applied to the Nissl staining data, with the following two key steps: 1) concave points clustering to determine the seed points of touching cells; and 2) random walker segmentation to obtain cell contours. Also, we have evaluated the performance of our proposed method with several mouse brain datasets, which were captured with the micro-optical sectioning tomography imaging system, and the datasets include closely touching cells. Comparing with traditional detection and segmentation methods, our approach shows promising detection accuracy and high robustness.
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Correlates of self-reported dietary cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate from two cohorts in China.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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To assess correlations between cruciferous vegetable intake and urinary isothiocyanate (ITC) level, in addition to glutathione S-transferase (GST) genotypes and other individual factors.
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Recombinant expressed vector pET32a (+) S constructed by ligation independent cloning.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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The aim of this work was to develop a new method for constructing vectors, named ligation-independent cloning (LIC) method. We constructed the S label expression vector and recombinant pET32a (+) S-phoN2 by LIC. The recombinant proteins were expressed in E. coli at a high level, and then the specificity of the recombinant proteins was identified by western blot. The target band was detected by S monoclonal antibody and Apyrase polyclonal antibodies but not Trx monoclonal antibody and HIS monoclonal antibody. Finally, we obtained protein Apyrase in E. coli (BL21), with a protein-only expression S tag. Collectively, our results demonstrated that LIC is effective for the construction of new vectors and recombinant plasmids. Free from the limitations of restriction enzyme sites and with a higher positive rate, LIC processes should find broad applications in molecular biology research.
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Reliable adaptive data aggregation route strategy for a trade-off between energy and lifetime in WSNs.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Mobile security is one of the most fundamental problems in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). The data transmission path will be compromised for some disabled nodes. To construct a secure and reliable network, designing an adaptive route strategy which optimizes energy consumption and network lifetime of the aggregation cost is of great importance. In this paper, we address the reliable data aggregation route problem for WSNs. Firstly, to ensure nodes work properly, we propose a data aggregation route algorithm which improves the energy efficiency in the WSN. The construction process achieved through discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) saves node energy costs. Then, to balance the network load and establish a reliable network, an adaptive route algorithm with the minimal energy and the maximum lifetime is proposed. Since it is a non-linear constrained multi-objective optimization problem, in this paper we propose a DPSO with the multi-objective fitness function combined with the phenotype sharing function and penalty function to find available routes. Experimental results show that compared with other tree routing algorithms our algorithm can effectively reduce energy consumption and trade off energy consumption and network lifetime.
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A novel single-side azobenzene-grafted Anderson-type polyoxometalate for recognition-induced chiral migration.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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A three-component supramolecular hybrid system based on host-guest recognition and electrostatic interaction has been developed for a consecutive chiral transfer from an alpha-cyclodextrin to cationic dyes via the bridge of a new azobenzene-grafted Anderson-type polyoxometalate cluster.
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Evolution behavior of Gaussian Schell-model vortex beams propagating through oceanic turbulence.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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The analytical expressions for the cross-spectral density and average intensity of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) vortex beams propagating through oceanic turbulence are obtained by using the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the spatial power spectrum of the refractive index of ocean water. The evolution behavior of GSM vortex beams through oceanic turbulence is studied in detail by numerical simulation. It is shown that the evolution behavior of coherent vortices and average intensity depends on the oceanic turbulence including the rate of dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, rate of dissipation of mean-square temperature, relative strength of temperature salinity fluctuations, and beam parameters including the spatial correlation length and topological charge of the beams, as well as the propagation distance.
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Molecular-Weight-Dependent Changes in Morphology of Solution-Grown Polyethylene Single Crystals.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Polymer single crystals consisting of folded chains are always in a nonequilibrium state, even if they are faceted with a well-defined envelope reflecting the parameters of the crystal unit cell. Heterogeneities like small variations in the degree of chain folding within such crystals are responsible for a rather broad range in melting temperature. Consequently, upon annealing at a given temperature, some parts may be above and some below their respective melting temperatures, inducing a lamellar thickening process, which may vary locally. To emphasize such variations, controlled annealing experiments are performed at comparatively low temperatures and for long times. For single crystals of low-molecular-weight polyethylene, the formation of the well-known "Swiss-cheese"-like morphology with randomly distributed holes of varying sizes within the annealed single crystal is observed. However, for high-molecular-weight polyethylene, a regular pattern appeared upon annealing, characterized by branches of equal width that are oriented perpendicular to the crystal edge. All branches end at the nucleation site. Interestingly, the resulting pattern depends sensitively on both crystallization and annealing conditions. These thermally induced regular patterns within a single crystal are attributed to a stable crystalline framework formed within polyethylene single crystals in the course of growth.
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Aptamer-functionalized barcode particles for the capture and detection of multiple types of circulating tumor cells.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2014
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Aptamer-functionalized barcode particles are employed to capture and detect various types of circulating tumor cells (CTCs). The particles are spherical colloidal crystal clusters, and the reflection properties that arise from their structures are how their codes are evaluated. Aptamer functionalization (with TD05, Sgc8, and Sgd5) make the particles interact with specific CTC types; dendrimers are used to amplify the effect of the aptamers, allowing for increased sensitivity, reliability, and specificity in CTC capture, detection, and subsequent release.
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India ink incorporated multifunctional phase-transition nanodroplets for photoacoustic/ultrasound dual-modality imaging and photoacoustic effect based tumor therapy.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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The in vivo applications of gas-core microbubbles have been limited by gas diffusion, rapid body clearance, and poor vascular permeability. To overcome these limitations, using a modified three-step emulsion process, we have developed a first-of-its-kind India ink incorporated optically-triggerable phase-transition perfluorocarbon nanodroplets (INDs) that can provide not only three types of contrast mechanisms-conventional/thermoelastic photoacoustic, phase-transition/nonlinear photoacoustic, and ultrasound imaging contrasts, but also a new avenue for photoacoustic effect mediated tumor therapy. Upon pulsed laser illumination above a relatively low energy threshold, liquid-gas phase transition of the INDs has been demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, offering excellent contrasts for photoacoustic and ultrasound dual-modality imaging. With further increased laser energy, the nanodroplets have been shown to be capable of destructing cancer cells in vivo, presumably due to the photoacoustic effect induced shock-wave generation from the carbon particles of the incorporated India ink. The demonstrated results suggest that the developed multifunctional phase-transition nanodroplets have a great potential for many theranostic biomedical applications, including photoacoustic/ultrasound dual-modality molecular imaging and targeted, localized cancer therapy.
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Common dysregulation network in the human prefrontal cortex underlies two neurodegenerative diseases.
Mol. Syst. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Using expression profiles from postmortem prefrontal cortex samples of 624 dementia patients and non-demented controls, we investigated global disruptions in the co-regulation of genes in two neurodegenerative diseases, late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Huntington's disease (HD). We identified networks of differentially co-expressed (DC) gene pairs that either gained or lost correlation in disease cases relative to the control group, with the former dominant for both AD and HD and both patterns replicating in independent human cohorts of AD and aging. When aligning networks of DC patterns and physical interactions, we identified a 242-gene subnetwork enriched for independent AD/HD signatures. This subnetwork revealed a surprising dichotomy of gained/lost correlations among two inter-connected processes, chromatin organization and neural differentiation, and included DNA methyltransferases, DNMT1 and DNMT3A, of which we predicted the former but not latter as a key regulator. To validate the inter-connection of these two processes and our key regulator prediction, we generated two brain-specific knockout (KO) mice and show that Dnmt1 KO signature significantly overlaps with the subnetwork (P = 3.1 × 10(-12)), while Dnmt3a KO signature does not (P = 0.017).
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Inhibition of autophagy augments apoptosis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma under nutrient depletion.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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There has been little research conducted regarding autophagy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Given the prevalence of oral cancers which are OSCC and the severe side effects of current treatments, there is a pressing need to develop effective alternative therapies. In this study, we have endeavored to explore the biological characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line KB cells, in particular with regard to the role played by autophagy in their survival. Autophagy was activated by nutrient depletion via culturing cells in Earle's balanced salts (EBSS) and was measured via indices relating to Beclin 1, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (MAPLC3, LC3), p62, and Green fluorescent protein-light chain 3 plasmid transfection (GFP-LC3). Cell death and apoptosis induced by nutrient depletion was measured using both MTT assay and flow cytometry (FCM). Compared to initial levels at 0 h, Beclin 1 density in EBSS-treated cells was found to have increased at 6, 12, and 18 h in a time-dependent manner and was found to have subsequently declined at 24 and 48 h. p62 levels, LC3-II/LC3-I ratio, and GFP-LC3 levels increased at 6, 12, 18, 24, and 48 h in a time-dependent manner. 3-methyladenine (3-MA) was found to inhibit autophagy and the expression of Beclin 1 and significantly enhanced nutrient depletion-induced apoptosis and death. We concluded that nutrient depletion enhances OSCC cell autophagy in time-course patterns and that the inhibition of autophagy augments apoptosis in OSCC cells. We also deduced that Beclin 1 takes part in the development and progression of autophagy, potentially playing an important role in the crosstalk between apoptosis and autophagy in OSCC cells. These findings suggest that nutrient depletion may be an effective way to explore autophagy and that autophagy inhibitors should be investigated as a potential novel agent for the adjuvant treatment of human OSCC.
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Glucocorticoid Receptor ? Acts as a Co-activator of T-Cell Factor 4 and Enhances Glioma Cell Proliferation.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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We previously reported that glucocorticoid receptor ? (GR?) regulates injury-mediated astrocyte activation and contributes to glioma pathogenesis via modulation of ?-catenin/T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor (TCF/LEF) transcriptional activity. The aim of this study was to characterize the mechanism behind cross-talk between GR? and ?-catenin/TCF in the progression of glioma. Here, we reported that GR? knockdown reduced U118 and Shg44 glioma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, we found that GR? knockdown decreased TCF/LEF transcriptional activity without affecting ?-catenin/TCF complex. Both GR? and GR? directly interact with TCF-4, while only GR? is required for sustaining TCF/LEF activity under hormone-free condition. GR? bound to the N-terminus domain of TCF-4 its influence on Wnt signaling required both ligand- and DNA-binding domains (LBD and DBD, respectively). GR? and TCF-4 interaction is enough to maintain the TCF/LEF activity at a high level in the absence of ?-catenin stabilization. Taken together, these results suggest a novel cross-talk between GR? and TCF-4 which regulates Wnt signaling and the proliferation in gliomas.
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Adsorption of bisphenol A to a carbon nanotube reduced its endocrine disrupting effect in mice male offspring.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Soluble carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown promise as materials for adsorption of environmental contaminants such as Bisphenol A (BPA), due to the high adsorption capacity and strong desorption hysteresis of BPA on CNTs. The adsorption of BPA to CNTs may change the properties of both BPA and CNTs, and induce different toxicity to human and living systems from that of BPA and CNTs alone. Herein, we report that oral exposure of BPA/MWCNT-COOH (carboxylated multi-walled carbon nantubes) adduct to mice during gestation and lactation period decreased the male offspring reproductive toxicity compared with those induced by BPA alone. The adduct decreased malondialdehyde (MDA) level in testis and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in serum, but increased the level of serum testosterone in male offspring in comparison to BPA alone. Our investigations broadened the knowledge of nanotoxicity and provided important information on the safe application of CNTs.
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Phosphatase and tensin homolog overexpression decreases proliferation and invasion and increases apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a potent tumor suppressor which regulates various cellular functions. The aim of the present study was to analyze the function of PTEN gene expression in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. This gene exhibits a unique function in cell migration and proliferation during the early stages of embryonic development. However, its role as a tumor suppressor gene in tongue squamous carcinoma cells remains unclear. In the present study, an SCC-4 cell line stably expressing PTEN was established and the effects of PTEN gene expression on SCC-4 cell proliferation, invasion and apoptosis were investigated. PTEN expression was found to induce apoptosis in SCC-4 cells, possibly via negative regulation of the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathway and increased expression of Bcl-2-interacting mediator of cell death. In addition, PTEN was found to control the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in SCC cells, thereby reducing their invasive ability. Furthermore, Transwell assay revealed that the expression of E-cadherin was increased, while the expression of vimentin and SNAIL was decreased. This study has provided an important insight into the mechanisms by which PTEN mediates the progression and early metastasis of tongue carcinoma.
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Assessment of tumor response to chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer using (18)F-FLT: a meta-analysis.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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To determine the diagnostic performance of 3'-deoxy-3'-(18)F-fluorothymidine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FLT PET/CT) and FLT PET for evaluating response to chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer.
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Amylase binding to starch granules under hydrolysing and non-hydrolysing conditions.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Although considerable information is available about amylolysis rate, extent and pattern of granular starches, the underlying mechanisms of enzyme action and interactions are not fully understood, partly due to the lack of direct visualisation of enzyme binding and subsequent hydrolysis of starch granules. In the present study, ?-amylase (AA) from porcine pancreas was labelled with either fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) or tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate (TRITC) fluorescent dye with maintenance of significant enzyme activity. The binding of FITC/TRITC-AA conjugate to the surface and interior of granules was studied under both non-hydrolysing (0 °C) and hydrolysing (37 °C) conditions with confocal microscopy. It was observed that enzyme binding to maize starch granules under both conditions was more homogenous compared with potato starch. Enzyme molecules appear to preferentially bind to the granules or part of granules that are more susceptible to enzymic degradation. The specificity is such that fresh enzyme added after a certain time of incubation binds at the same location as previously bound enzyme. By visualising the enzyme location during binding and hydrolysis, detailed information is provided regarding the heterogeneity of granular starch digestion.
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Upregulated ROS production induced by the proteasome inhibitor MG-132 on XBP1 gene expression and cell apoptosis in Tca-8113 cells.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Exposure of Tca-8113 cells to proteasome inhibitor carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-leucinal (MG-132) causing apoptosis is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP1) is an important regulator of a subset of genes active during ER stress, which is related to cell survival and is required for tumor growth. The present study is to evaluate the effect of MG-132 on ROS production, XBP1 gene expression, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), ASK1 and c-jun protein expression in tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line Tca-8113 cells. ROS production was measured by reactive oxygen species assay. X-box binding protein-1 (XBP1) mRNA was analyzed by real-time-PCR, TRAF2, ASK1 and c-jun protein were investigated by western blot and immunocytochemistry respectively. The result indicated that ROS production, TRAF2, ASK1 and c-jun were elevated in MG-132 treated cells. Giving ROS scavenger N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) largely prevented the effects of MG-132. Furthermore, treating with MG-132 lead to decreased XBP1 mRNA expression but could not completely block the expression of XBP1. Taken together, these findings provide the evidence that MG-132 induced ER stress lead to Tca-8113 cells apoptosis through ROS generation and TRAF2-ASK1-JNK signal pathway activation.
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Candidate quantum spin liquid due to dimensional reduction of a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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As with quantum spin liquids based on two-dimensional triangular and kagome lattices, the two-dimensional honeycomb lattice with either a strong spin-orbital coupling or a frustrating second-nearest-neighbor coupling is expected to be a source of candidate quantum spin liquids. An ammonium salt [(C3H7)3NH]2[Cu2(C2O4)3](H2O)2.2 containing hexagonal layers of Cu(2+) was obtained from solution. No structural transition or long-range magnetic ordering was observed from 290 K to 2 K from single crystal X-ray diffraction, specific heat and susceptibility measurements. The anionic layers are separated by sheets of ammonium and H2O with distance of 3.5 Å and no significant interaction between anionic layers. The two-dimensional honeycomb lattice is constructed from Jahn-Teller distorted Cu(2+) and oxalate anions, showing a strong antiferromagnetic interaction between S = 1/2 metal atoms with ? = -120 (1) K. Orbital analysis of the Cu(2+) interactions through the oxalate-bridges suggests a stripe mode pattern of coupling with weak ferromagnetic interaction along the b axis, and strong antiferromagnetic interaction along the a axis. Analysis of the magnetic susceptibility shows that it is dominated by a quasi-one-dimensional contribution with spin chains that are at least as well isolated as those of well-known quasi-one-dimensional spin liquids.
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Antioxidant and functional properties of collagen hydrolysates from Spanish mackerel skin as influenced by average molecular weight.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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In the current study, the relationships between functional properties and average molecular weight (AMW) of collagen hydrolysates from Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorous niphonius) skin were researched. Seven hydrolysate fractions (5.04 ? AMW ? 47.82 kDa) from collagen of Spanish mackerel skin were obtained through the processes of acid extraction, proteolysis, and fractionation using gel filtration chromatography. The physicochemical properties of the collagen hydrolysate fractions were studied by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), gel filtration chromatography, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results indicated that there was an inverse relationship between the antioxidant activities and the logarithm of the AMW of the hydrolysate fractions in the tested AMW range. However, the reduction of AMW significantly enhanced the solubility of the hydrolysate fractions, and a similar AMW decrease of the hydrolysate fractions negatively affected the emulsifying and foaming capacities. This presented as a positive correlation between the logarithm of AMW and emulsion stability index, emulsifying activity index, foam stability, and foam capacity. Therefore, these collagen hydrolysates with excellent antioxidant activities or good functionalities as emulsifiers could be obtained by controlling the effect of the digestion process on the AMW of the resultant hydrolysates.
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The impact of hepatocyte phase imaging from infancy to young adulthood in patients with a known or suspected liver lesion.
Pediatr Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Hepatocyte-specific contrast agents are used to help characterize liver lesions. However, there are no studies evaluating the utility of these agents in detecting or diagnosing pediatric liver lesions. The purpose of this study is to assess the impact of the hepatocyte phase of imaging on lesion detection, tumor staging and diagnostic confidence.
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Positive expression of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a novel independent poor prognostic marker in surgically resected non-small cell lung cancer.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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This study aims to investigate the expression level of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and its prognostic value in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression level of POMC. Correlations between POMC expression and clinical and pathological characteristics were evaluated with the chi-square test, and the prognostic value was determined with the Kaplan-Meier method and COX proportional hazards model, ??
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Analytical tools and current challenges in the modern era of neuroepigenomics.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Over the past decade, rapid advances in epigenomics research have extensively characterized critical roles for chromatin regulatory events during normal periods of eukaryotic cell development and plasticity, as well as part of aberrant processes implicated in human disease. Application of such approaches to studies of the CNS, however, is more recent. Here we provide a comprehensive overview of available tools for analyzing neuroepigenomics data, as well as a discussion of pending challenges specific to the field of neuroscience. Integration of numerous unbiased genome-wide and proteomic approaches will be necessary to fully understand the neuroepigenome and the extraordinarily complex nature of the human brain. This will be critical to the development of future diagnostic and therapeutic strategies aimed at alleviating the vast array of heterogeneous and genetically distinct disorders of the CNS.
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Deletion of the rfaE gene in Haemophilus parasuis SC096 strain attenuates serum resistance, adhesion and invasion.
Microb. Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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In Haemophilus parasuis, the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) has been identified as an important virulence factor. The rfa gene cluster encodes enzymes for LOS core biosynthesis. In order to investigate the role of the rfaE gene, we generated an rfaE deficient mutant (?rfaE) of a H. parasuis SC096 by a natural transformation method. The purified preparation of LOS from the ?rfaE mutant strain showed truncated LOS structure on silver-stained SDS-PAGE. Compared to the wild-type SC096 strain, the generation time of ?rfaE mutant strain was significantly extended from 59 min to 69 min. The ?rfaE mutant strain caused an approximately 30-fold reductions in survival rate in 50% sera and 36-fold reductions in survival rate in 90% sera, respectively (p < 0.001). In adhesion and invasion assays, the ?rfaE mutant strain had 10-fold less efficient adherence and 12-fold reductions in invasion of the porcine umbilicus vein endothelial cells (PUVEC) and porcine kidney epithelial cells (PK-15), respectively (p < 0.001). However, the complemented strain could restore the above phenotypes. Hence, the above results suggested that the rfaE gene participated in the pathogenicity of H. parasuis SC096 strain.
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Antitumor effect and biological pathways of a recombinant adeno-associated virus as a human renal cell carcinoma suppressor.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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The aims of this work are to study the antitumor effect of the adeno-associated virus on the xenografted tumors of chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane and predict potential genes and biological pathways which are associated with renal cell carcinoma. The adeno-associated virus NT4-TAT-6?×?His-VHLbeta was constructed and identified. Then, chick embryos with xenografted tumor were divided into three groups and respectively inoculated with rAAV/NT4-TAT-6?×?His-VHLbeta (group A), empty virus (group B), and phosphate-buffered saline (group C, the control subject). Antitumor effect in each group was investigated by means of immunofluorescence observation. Genes interacted with von Hippel-Lindau were screened by Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database, while pathway analysis were performed based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. The growth of xenografted tumors inoculated with recombinant adeno-associated virus was slower than the control subjects. The tumor volumes of group A showed significant difference compared with group B and group C (P?
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Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.
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Fine mapping and candidate gene analysis of a major QTL for panicle structure in rice.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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A gene not only control tiller and plant height, but also regulate panicle structure by QTL dissection in rice. An ideal panicle structure is important for improvement of plant architecture and rice yield. In this study, using recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of PA64s and 93-11, we identified a quantitative trait locus (QTL), designated qPPB3 for primary panicle branch number. With a BC3F2 population derived from a backcross between a resequenced RIL carrying PA64s allele and 93-11, qPPB3 was fine mapped to a 34.6-kb genomic region. Gene prediction analysis identified four putative genes, among which Os03g0203200, a previously reported gene for plant height and tiller number, Dwarf 88 (D88)/Dwarf 14 (D14), had three nucleotide substitutions in 93-11 compared with PA64s. The T to G substitution resulted in one amino acid change from valine in 93-11 to glycine in PA64s. Real-time PCR analysis showed expression level of D88 was higher in 93-11 than PA64s. The expression of APO1 and IPA1 increased, while GN1a and DST decreased in 93-11 compared with PA64s. Therefore, D88/D14 is not only a key regulator for branching, but also affects panicle structure.
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Preparation and swelling behavior of a novel self-assembled ?-cyclodextrin/acrylic acid/sodium alginate hydrogel.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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A novel biodegradable ?-cyclodextrin/acrylic acid/sodium alginate (CSA) hydrogel with a three-dimensional network structure was self-assembled by inverse suspension copolymerization. The CSA resin was pH sensitive and had good water absorption properties in pH 6-8 buffer solutions. At a ?-CD:AA:SA mass ratio of 1:9:3 the CSA water absorbency was found to be 1403 g/g and the CSA hydrogel strength was 4.968 N. In 0.005-0.1 mol/L chloride salt and sulfate salt solutions the CSA water absorbencies increased as follows: NaCl>KCl>MgCl2>CaCl2>FeCl3, and Na2SO4>K2SO4>FeSO4>Al2(SO4)3, respectively. The release of water from the CSA hydrogel occurred slowly over 120 h. The biodegradation efficiency of the resin reached 85.3% for Lentinula edodes. The super water absorbency, good salt resistance and excellent water retention properties of CSA make it suitable for application as an agricultural water retention agent in saline soils.
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Structural controllability of complex networks based on preferential matching.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Minimum driver node sets (MDSs) play an important role in studying the structural controllability of complex networks. Recent research has shown that MDSs tend to avoid high-degree nodes. However, this observation is based on the analysis of a small number of MDSs, because enumerating all of the MDSs of a network is a #P problem. Therefore, past research has not been sufficient to arrive at a convincing conclusion. In this paper, first, we propose a preferential matching algorithm to find MDSs that have a specific degree property. Then, we show that the MDSs obtained by preferential matching can be composed of high- and medium-degree nodes. Moreover, the experimental results also show that the average degree of the MDSs of some networks tends to be greater than that of the overall network, even when the MDSs are obtained using previous research method. Further analysis shows that whether the driver nodes tend to be high-degree nodes or not is closely related to the edge direction of the network.
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Immunotherapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Extracellular vesicle or EV is a term that encompasses all classes of secreted lipid membrane vesicles. Despite being scientific novelties, EVs are gaining importance as a mediator of important physiological and pathological intercellular activities possibly through the transfer of their cargo of protein and RNA between cells. In particular, exosomes, the currently best characterized EVs have been notable for their in vitro and in vivo immunomodulatory activities. Exosomes are nanometer-sized endosome-derived vesicles secreted by many cell types and their immunomodulatory potential is independent of their cell source. Besides immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and T cells, cancer and stem cells also secrete immunologically active exosomes that could influence both physiological and pathological processes. The immunological activities of exosomes affect both innate and adaptive immunity and include antigen presentation, T cell activation, T cell polarization to regulatory T cells, immune suppression, and anti-inflammation. As such, exosomes carry much immunotherapeutic potential as a therapeutic agent and a therapeutic target.
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Prognostic value analysis of mutational and clinicopathological factors in non-small cell lung cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Targeting activating oncogenic driver mutations in lung adenocarcinoma has led to prolonged survival in patients harboring these specific genetic alterations. The prognostic value of these mutations has not yet been elucidated. The prevalence of recently uncovered non-coding somatic mutation in promoter region of TERT gene is also to be validated in lung cancer. The purpose of this study is to show the prevalence, association with clinicalpathological features and prognostic value of these factors.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.