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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Expression of C1QBP gene and its correlation with drug resistance in human resistance choriocarcinoma cell line].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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To examine the complement component 1 Q subcomponent-binding protein (C1QBP) gene expression in human resistance choriocarcinoma cell lines and its parental cell line JeG-3, and to investigate whether silence C1QBP by small interference RNA could reverse the resistance of human resistance choriocarcinoma cell lines to its relevant chemotherapy drugs.
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Conformation Modulated Optical Activity Enhancement in Chiral Cysteine and Au Nanorod Assemblies.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Assemblies of chiral cysteine (CYS) and Au nanorods (GNRs) are constructed in two typical patterns, end-to-end and side-by-side. Impressively, side-by-side assembled GNRs with CYS show obviously stronger plasmonic circular dichrosim (CD) response compared with the end-to-end assemblies. The corresponding theoretical calculation elucidates the intrinsic relationship among geometric structure, electromagnetic interaction, and induced plasmonic CD of the assemblies. This work will significantly benefit the design and application of plasmonic nanodevices with controllable chiroptical responses.
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[Clinical analysis of 14 cases with primary breast lymphoma].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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To analyze the clinical features, prognostic factors, diagnostic methods and treatment outcomes of primary breast lymphoma (PBL).
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Dysidinoid A, an Unusual Meroterpenoid with Anti-MRSA Activity from the South China Sea Sponge Dysidea sp.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
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An unusual meroterpenoid, dysidinoid A (1), was isolated from the South China Sea sponge Dysidea sp. Its structure was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including HRESIMS and 2D NMR, and its absolute configuration was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Dysidinoid A (1) is the first meroterpenoid from Nature bearing a 9,4-friedodrime skeleton and a 2,5-dionepyrrole unit. Dysidinoid A (1) showed potent antibacterial activity against two strains of pathogenic bacteria methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with MIC90 values of 8.0 ?g/mL against both.
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Comparative study of mutation spectrums of MT-RNR1 m.1555A>G, GJB2, and SLC26A4 between familial and sporadic patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss in Chinese Han.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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The mutation frequencies of three common deafness genes (MT-RNR1 m.1555A>G, GJB2, and SLC26A4) among patients with nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss (NSHL) were different in previous studies. Inconsistent selection criteria for recruiting patients could have led to differences in estimating the frequencies of genetic mutations thus resulting in different mutation frequencies among these studies. The aim of this study was to reveal the differences in the mutation spectrums of the three common genes between familial and sporadic Chinese Han patients.
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[Clinical characteristics of 104 patients with primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin lymphoma].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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To analyze the clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in patients with primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin lymphoma (PGI-NHL).
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TLR8 signaling enhances tumor immunity by preventing tumor-induced T-cell senescence.
EMBO Mol Med
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Accumulating evidence suggests the immunosuppressive microenvironments created by malignant tumors represent a major obstacle for effective anti-tumor immunity. A better understanding of the suppressive mechanisms mediated by tumor microenvironments and the development of strategies to reverse the immune suppression are major challenges for the success of tumor immunotherapy. Here, we report that human tumor cells can induce senescence in naïve/effector T cells, exhibiting potent suppressive function in vitro and in vivo. We further show that tumor-derived endogenous cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is responsible for the induction of T-cell senescence. Importantly, activation of TLR8 signaling in tumor cells can block the induction and reverse the suppression of senescent naïve and tumor-specific T cells in vitro and in vivo, resulting in enhanced anti-tumor immunity. These studies identify a novel mechanism of human tumor-mediated immune suppression and provide a new strategy to reverse tumor immunosuppressive effects for tumor immunotherapy.
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Cytotoxic aaptamine derivatives from the South China Sea sponge Aaptos aaptos.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Nine new aaptamine derivatives (1-9), together with three known related compounds (10-12), have been isolated from the South China Sea sponge Aaptos aaptos. The structures of all compounds were unambiguously elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. Structurally, compound 1 possesses a piperidinyl group fused to a demethyl(oxy)aaptamine moiety, whereas compounds 3-6 share an imidazole-fused 1H-benzo[de][1,6]naphthyridin-2(4H)-one skeleton. The cytotoxic activities of the compounds were evaluated against various human cancer cell lines, and compounds 2, 8, 11, and 12 showed potent cytotoxicities against HL60, K562, MCF-7, KB, HepG2, and HT-29 cells, with IC50 values in the range of 0.03 to 8.5 ?M.
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[Prevalence and features of pathogenic bacteria in the department of hematology without bone marrow transplantation in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2010 to 2012].
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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To investigate the incidence,pathogens, and clinical features of infection in consecutive cases from 2010 to 2012 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital.
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[Relevance analysis of health behaviors and influencing factors for detection rate of carotid atherosclerotic plaque].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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To explore the relevance of health behaviors and influencing factors for detection rate of carotid plaques to prevent the formation of carotid plaque.
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Iminoxyl radical-promoted dichotomous cyclizations: efficient oxyoximation and aminooximation of alkenes.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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A novel iminoxyl radical-involved metal-free approach to vicinal oxyoximation and aminooximation of unactivated alkenes is developed. This method utilizes the dichotomous reactivity of the iminoxyl radical to furnish a general difunctionalization on alkenes using simple tert-butyl nitrite (TBN) as the iminoxyl radical initiator as well the carbon radical trap. By using this protocol, oxime featured 4,5-dihydroisoxazoles and cyclic nitrones were facilely prepared from ?,?- and ?,?-unsaturated ketoximes, respectively.
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Examining the sustainment of the Adolescent-Community Reinforcement Approach in community addiction treatment settings: protocol for a longitudinal mixed method study.
Implement Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Although evidence-based treatments are considered the gold standard for clinical practice, it is widely recognized that evidence-based treatment implementation in real world practice settings has been limited. To address this gap, the federal government provided three years of funding, training and technical assistance to 84 community-based treatment programs to deliver an evidence-based treatment called the Adolescent-Community Reinforcement Approach (A-CRA). Little is known about whether such efforts lead to long-term A-CRA sustainment after the initial funding ends.
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Targeted high-throughput sequencing identifies pathogenic mutations in KCNQ4 in two large Chinese families with autosomal dominant hearing loss.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) is highly heterogeneous, among them, KCNQ4 is one of the most frequent disease-causing genes. More than twenty KCNQ4 mutations have been reported, but none of them were detected in Chinese mainland families. In this study, we identified a novel KCNQ4 mutation in a five generation Chinese family with 84 members and a known KCNQ4 mutation in a six generation Chinese family with 66 members. Mutation screening of 30 genes for ADNSHL was performed in the probands from thirty large Chinese families with ADNSHL by targeted region capture and high-throughput sequencing. The candidate variants and the co-segregation of the phenotype were verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and Sanger sequencing in all ascertained family members. Then we identified a novel KCNQ4 mutation p.W275R in exon 5 and a known KCNQ4 mutation p.G285S in exon 6 in two large Chinese ADNSHL families segregating with post-lingual high frequency-involved and progressive sensorineural hearing loss. This is the first report of KCNQ4 mutation in Chinese mainland families. KCNQ4, a member of voltage-gated potassium channel family, is likely to be a common gene in Chinese patients with ADNSHL. The results also support that the combination of targeted enrichment and high-throughput sequencing is a valuable molecular diagnostic tool for autosomal dominant hereditary deafness.
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Monocyte interaction accelerates HCl-induced lung epithelial remodeling.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized by overwhelming inflammatory responses and lung remodeling. We hypothesized that leukocyte infiltration during the inflammatory response modulates epithelial remodeling through a mechanism of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT).
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Relative and absolute stereochemistry of diacarperoxides: antimalarial norditerpene endoperoxides from marine sponge Diacarnus megaspinorhabdosa.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Five new norditerpene endoperoxides, named diacarperoxides H-L (1-5), and a new norditerpene diol, called diacardiol B (6), were isolated from the South China Sea sponge, Diacarnus megaspinorhabdosa. Their structures, including conformations and absolute configurations, were determined by using spectroscopic analyses, computational approaches and chemical degradation. Diacarperoxides H-J (1-3) showed some interesting stereochemical issues, as well as antimalarial activity.
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Study of underwater laser propulsion using different target materials.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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In order to investigate the influence of target materials, including aluminum (Al), titanium (Ti) and copper (Cu), on underwater laser propulsion, the analytical formula of the target momentum IT is deduced from the enhanced coupling theory of laser propulsion in atmosphere with transparent overlay metal target. The high-speed photography method and numerical simulation are employed to verify the IT model. It is shown that the enhanced coupling theory, which was developed originally for laser propulsion in atmosphere, is also applicable to underwater laser propulsion with metal targets.
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Density functional theory study on the full ALD process of silicon nitride thin film deposition via BDEAS or BTBAS and NH3.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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A detailed reaction mechanism has been proposed for the full ALD cycle of Si3N4 deposition on the ?-Si3N4(0001) surface using bis(diethylamino)silane (BDEAS) or bis(tertiarybutylamino)silane (BTBAS) as a Si precursor with NH3 acting as the nitrogen source. Potential energy landscapes were derived for all elementary steps in the proposed reaction network using a periodic slab surface model in the density functional approximation. Although the dissociative reactivity of BTBAS was slightly better than that of BDEAS, the thermal deposition process was still found to be an inherently high temperature process due to the high activation energies during the dissociative chemisorption of both precursors and the surface re-amination steps. These results underline the need to develop new precursors and alternative nitrogen sources when low temperature thermal silicon nitride films are targeted.
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Gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and cytokine release: similarities and differences in endothelial cell function.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia as well as intra-uterine infection during pregnancy affects the function of the endothelium both in the mother and the fetus leading to endothelial dysfunction. Gestational diabetes is also associated with an increased incidence of pre-eclampsia and it is likely that both the hyperglycemia as well as the release of cytokines especially TNF? during hyperglycemia may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction leading to preeclampsia. Similarly, some but not all studies have suggested that infection of the mother under certain circumstances can also lead to preeclampsia as women with either a bacterial or viral infection were at a higher risk of developing preeclampsia, compared to women without infection and infection also leads to a release in TNF?. Endothelial cells exposed to either high glucose or TNF? leads to an increase in the production of H2O2 and to a decrease in endothelial cell proliferation. The cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are discussed.Gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia as well as intra-uterine infection during pregnancy has profound effects on the fetus and long term effects on the neonate. All three conditions affect the function of the endothelium both in the mother and the fetus leading to endothelial dysfunction. Gestational diabetes is also associated with an increased incidence of pre-eclampsia and it is likely that both the hyperglycemia as well as the release of cytokines especially TNF? during hyperglycemia may play an important role in the pathogenesis of endothelial dysfunction leading to preeclampsia. It has also been suggested although not universally accepted that under certain circumstances maternal infection may also predispose to pre-eclampsia. Pre-eclampsia is also associated with the release of TNF? and endothelial dysfunction. However, the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) leading to the endothelial dysfunction by either hyperglycemia or by the cytokine TNF? appear to be different. In this chapter, we explore some of the similarities and differences leading to endothelial dysfunction by both hyperglycemia and by the inflammatory cytokine TNF? and the cellular and molecular mechanism(s) involved.
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16?,17?-Epoxypregnenolone-20-oxime prevent LPS-induced NO production and iNOS expression in BV-2 microglial cells by inhibiting JNK phosphorylation.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The free radical nitric oxide (NO), a main member of neuroinflammatory cytokine and a gaseous molecule produced by activated microglia, has many physiological functions, including neuroinflammation. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of serial 16-dehydropregnenolone-3-acetate derivatives on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in BV-2 microglial cells. Among the six derivatives tested, the increases in NO production and iNOS expression observed in BV-2 microglial cells after LPS stimulation were significantly inhibited by treatment with 16?, 17?-epoxypregnenolone-20-oxime. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of 16?,17?-epoxypregnenolone-20-oxime on NO production was similar to that of S-methylisothiourea sulfate (SMT), an iNOS inhibitor. Further studies showed that 16?,17?-epoxypregnenolone-20-oxime inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation but not inhibitor kappa B (I?B)-? degradation. Our data in LPS-stimulated microglia cells suggest that 16?,17?-epoxypregnenolone-20-oxime might be a candidate therapeutic for treatment of NO induced neuroinflammation and could be a novel iNOS inhibitor.
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Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells infected with adenovirus expressing HGF promote regeneration of damaged neuron cells in a Parkinson's disease model.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative movement disorder that is characterized by the progressive degeneration of the dopaminergic (DA) pathway. Mesenchymal stem cells derived from human umbilical cord (hUC-MSCs) have great potential for developing a therapeutic agent as such. HGF is a multifunctional mediator originally identified in hepatocytes and has recently been reported to possess various neuroprotective properties. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect of hUC-MSCs infected by an adenovirus carrying the HGF gene on the PD cell model induced by MPP+ on human bone marrow neuroblastoma cells. Our results provide evidence that the cultural supernatant from hUC-MSCs expressing HGF could promote regeneration of damaged PD cells at higher efficacy than the supernatant from hUC-MSCs alone. And intracellular free Ca(2+) obviously decreased after treatment with cultural supernatant from hUC-MSCs expressing HGF, while the expression of CaBP-D28k, an intracellular calcium binding protein, increased. Therefore our study clearly demonstrated that cultural supernatant of MSC overexpressing HGF was capable of eliciting regeneration of damaged PD model cells. This effect was probably achieved through the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) levels by modulating of CaBP-D28k expression.
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Impact of Park Renovations on Park Use and Park-Based Physical Activity.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Given the concerns about low rates of physical activity among low-income minority youth, many community based organizations are investing in the creation or renovation of public parks, in order to encourage youth to become more physically active. To what degree park renovations accomplish this goal is not known.
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Profiling of drug binding proteins by monolithic affinity chromatography in combination with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
J Chromatogr A
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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A new approach for proteome-wide profiling drug binding proteins by using monolithic capillary affinity chromatography in combination with HPLC-MS/MS is reported. Two immunosuppresive drugs, namely FK506 and cyclosporin A, were utilized as the experimental models for proof-of-concept. The monolithic capillary affinity columns were prepared through a single-step copolymerization of the drug derivatives with glycidyl methacrylate and ethylene dimethacrylate. The capillary chromatography with the affinity monolithic column facilitates the purification of the drug binding proteins from the cell lysate. By combining the capillary affinity column purification and the shot-gun proteomic analysis, totally 33 FK506- and 32 CsA-binding proteins including all the literature reported target proteins of these two drugs were identified. Among them, two proteins, namely voltage-dependent anion-selective channel protein 1 and serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PGAM5 were verified by using the recombinant proteins. The result supports that the monolithic capillary affinity chromatography is likely to become a valuable tool for profiling of binding proteins of small molecular drugs as well as bioactive compounds.
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Surface-plasmon-mediated programmable optical nanofabrication of an oriented silver nanoplate.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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We report polarized femtosecond laser-light-mediated growth and programmable assembly of photoreduced silver nanoparticles into triply hierarchical micropatterns. Formation of erected arrays of nanoplates with a thickness as small as ?/27 (?, the writing laser wavelength) level is demonstrated. The growth mechanism of nanoplates has been clarified: (i) the excited surface plasmons enhance the local electric field and lead to spatially selective growth of silver atoms at the opposite ends of dipoles induced on early created silver seeds; (ii) the optical attractive force overcomes electrostatic repulsion in the enhanced local electric field to assemble the silver nanoparticles directly. The triply hierarchical micropattern shape and location, the nanoplate orientation, and thickness are all attained in controlled fashion.
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Exome Sequencing Identifies a Novel Frameshift Mutation of MYO6 as the Cause of Autosomal Dominant Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss in a Chinese Family.
Ann. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Autosomal dominant types of nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) are typically postlingual in onset and progressive. High genetic heterogeneity, late onset age, and possible confounding due to nongenetic factors hinder the timely molecular diagnoses for most patients. In this study, exome sequencing was applied to investigate a large Chinese family segregating ADNSHL in which we initially failed to find strong evidence of linkage to any locus by whole-genome linkage analysis. Two affected family members were selected for sequencing. We identified two novel mutations disrupting known ADNSHL genes and shared by the sequenced samples: c.328C>A in COCH (DFNA9) resulting in a p.Q110K substitution and a deletion c. 2814_2815delAA in MYO6 (DFNA22) causing a frameshift alteration p.R939Tfs*2. The pathogenicity of novel coding variants in ADNSHL genes was carefully evaluated by analysis of co-segregation with phenotype in the pedigree and in light of established genotype-phenotype correlations. The frameshift deletion in MYO6 was confirmed as the causative variant for this pedigree, whereas the missense mutation in COCH had no clinical significance. The results allowed us to retrospectively identify the phenocopy in one patient that contributed to the negative finding in the linkage scan. Our clinical data also supported the emerging genotype-phenotype correlation for DFNA22.
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Influence of Calcium Hydroxide-loaded Microcapsules on Osteoprotegerin and Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B Ligand Activity.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) microcapsules were synthesized to allow controlled release of Ca(OH)2. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of Ca(OH)2 microcapsules on osteoprotegerin (OPG) activity, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) activity, and the OPG/RANKL ratio compared with pure Ca(OH)2 powder and Vitapex (Neo Dental Chemical Products Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan).
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New hippolide derivatives with protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B inhibitory activity from the marine sponge Hippospongia lachne.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Five new sesterterpenoids, compounds 1-5, have been isolated from the sponge Hippospongia lachne off Yongxing Island in the South China Sea. The structures of compounds 1-5 were elucidated through extensive spectroscopic analysis, including HRMS, 1D, and 2D NMR experiments. The stereochemistry, including absolute configurations of these compounds, was determined by spectroscopic, chemical, and computational methods. Compounds 1 and 5 showed moderate protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 5.2 ?M and 8.7 ?M, respectively, more potent than previously reported hippolides.
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Recovery of ovary function impaired by chemotherapy using Chinese herbal medicine in a rat model.
Syst Biol Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The ovary is not only involved in female germ cell development and maturation, but also adjusts female endocrinology. Its function is severely impaired during chemotherapy, and premature ovarian failure may be induced. Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) has displayed significant potential in the treatment of female endocrine disorders; however, it is unknown whether it can recover ovarian function impaired by chemotherapy. In the present study, CHM was used to treat rat models of ovarian dysfunction impaired by chemotherapeutic drugs. Three groups were included in this study: a prevention group, a treatment group, and a prevention-treatment group. Routine gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) treatment was used as a control. The results showed that body weight, fertility, estrus days, hormone levels, and ovary weight were restored when CHM was administered in these rat models. Moreover, in the prevention-treatment group, the number of follicles at each developmental stage significantly increased compared with the prevention or treatment group. Furthermore, the number of apoptotic cells significantly decreased, and the relative mRNA expression of caspase-3 significantly decreased, in the prevention-treatment group. The results of gene expression analysis indicated that the expression of anti-Müllerianhormone (AMH) which indicates ovarian preservation was significantly up-regulated in the prevention-treatment group and was similar to normal rats. The expression of growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) was significantly enhanced in both the prevention-treatment group and the GnRHa group, which suggested that the oocytes were of better quality. Finally, we found that there were no differences in body weight and fertility in the offspring conceived by the drug-treated rats, which partly indicated the safety of the medicine. In conclusion, Chinese herbal medicine showed a beneficial role in the recovery of ovary function in these rat models and has significant potential in the clinic.
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The use of Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for human breast cancer detection.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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This study uses the powerful fingerprint features of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish different types of breast tissues including normal breast tissues (NB), fibroadenoma (FD), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC). Thin frozen tissue sections of fresh breast tissues were measured by Raman spectroscopy. Due to the inherent low sensitivity of Raman spectra, Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) technique was utilized to provide supplementary and more informative spectral features. A total of 619 Raman spectra were acquired and compared to 654 SHINERS spectra. The maximum enhancement effect of distinct and specific bands was characterized for different tissue types. When applying the new criteria, excellent separation of FD, DCIS, and IDC was obtained for all tissue types. Most importantly, we were able to distinguish ADH from DCIS. Although only a preliminary distinction was characterized between ADH and NB, the results provided a good foundation of criteria to further discriminate ADH from NB and shed more light toward a better understanding of the mechanism of ADH formation. This is the first report to detect the premalignant (ADH and DCIS) breast tissue frozen sections and also the first report exploiting SHINERS to detect and distinguish breast tissues. The results presented in this study show that SHINERS can be applied to accurately and efficiently identify breast lesions. Further, the spectra can be acquired in a minimally invasive procedure and analyzed rapidly facilitating early and accurate diagnosis in vivo/in situ.
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How much neighborhood parks contribute to local residents' physical activity in the City of Los Angeles: A meta-analysis.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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To quantify the contribution of neighborhood parks to population-level, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA).
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Prevalence, awareness, treatment and control of hypertension in Henan Province, China.
Aust J Rural Health
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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The present article aimed to explore and evaluate the epidemiology and determine the status of hypertension awareness, treatment and control in Henan province, China.
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Di-(n-butyl)-phthalate-induced oxidative stress and depression-like behavior in mice with or without ovalbumin immunization.
Biomed. Environ. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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To investigate the relationship between atopic allergy and depression and the role of DBP in the development of depression.
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A potential target for the treatment of Parkinson's disease: Effect of lateral habenula lesions.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder that is caused predominantly by the degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Lateral habenula (LHb) has efferent projections that terminate in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and electrical stimulation of the LHb effectively suppresses the activity of dopamine-containing neurons in the SNpc. This study was aimed to investigate whether LHb lesions can ameliorate the syndromes of PD via affecting the activities of SNpc neurons in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD model rats.
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TGFBI (?IG-H3) is a diabetes-risk gene based on mouse and human genetic studies.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Transforming growth factor beta-induced (TGFBI/?IG-H3), also known as ?ig-H3, is a protein inducible by TGF?1 and secreted by many cell types. It binds to collagen, forms part of the extracellular matrix and interacts with integrins on the cell surface. Recombinant TGFBI and transgenic TGFBI overexpression can promote both islet survival and function. In this study, we generated TGFBI KO mice and further assessed TGFBI function and signaling pathways in islets. Islets from KO mice were of normal size and quantity, and these animals were normoglycemic. However, KO islet survival and function was compromised in vitro. In vivo, KO donor islets became inferior to wild-type donor islets in achieving normoglycemia when transplanted into KO diabetic recipients. TGFBI KO mice were more prone to straptozotocin-induced diabetes than the wild-type counterpart. Phosphoprotein array analysis established that AKT1S1, a molecule linking the AKT and mTORC1 signaling pathways, was modulated by TGFBI in islets. Phosphorylation of four molecules in the AKT and mTORC1 signaling pathway, i.e. AKT, AKT1S1, RPS6 and EIF4EBP1, was upregulated in islets upon TGFBI stimulation. Suppression of AKT activity by a chemical inhibitor, or knockdown of AKT1S1, RPS6 and EIF4EBP1 expression by small interfering RNA, modulated islet survival, proving the relevance of these molecules in TGFBI-triggered signaling. Human genetic studies revealed that in the TGFBI gene and its vicinity, three single-nucleotide polymorphisms were significantly associated with type 1 diabetes risks, and one with type 2 diabetes risks. Our study suggests that TGFBI is a potential risk gene for human diabetes.
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Exploring type II microcalcifications in benign and premalignant breast lesions by shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS).
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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The characteristics of type II microcalcifications in fibroadenoma (FB), atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) breast tissues has been analyzed by the fingerprint features of Raman spectroscopy. Fresh breast tissues were first handled to frozen sections and then they were measured by normal Raman spectroscopy. Due to inherently low sensitivity of Raman scattering, Au@SiO2 shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SHINERS) technique was utilized. A total number of 71 Raman spectra and 70 SHINERS spectra were obtained from the microcalcifications in benign and premalignant breast tissues. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish the type II microcalcifications between these tissues. This is the first time to detect type II microcalcifications in premalignant (ADH and DCIS) breast tissue frozen sections, and also the first time SHINERS has been utilized for breast cancer detection. Conclusions demonstrated in this paper confirm that SHINERS has great potentials to be applied to the identification of breast lesions as an auxiliary method to mammography in the early diagnosis of breast cancer.
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Effect of apelin on the cardiac hemodynamics in hypertensive rats with heart failure.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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It is known that apelin has definite protective effects on various cardiovascular diseases; however, the mechanism through which hypertension with heart failure (H-HF) is affected by pyroglutamylated apelin-13 (Pyr-AP13) remain unclear. Thus, in the present study, we investigated the effects of apelin on the cardiac hemodynamics in rats with hypertension and heart failure. In our study, cardiac function, dimensions and histological determination of the fibrosis of rats with two-kidney, one-clip induced hypertension and sham-operated rats were assessed using an echocardiography system and Masson's trichrome. The infusion of either 5% glucose injection (GS) alone or 5% GS containing Pyr-AP13 as a dose, time-matched design on the cardiac hemodynamics in H-HF rats and sham-operated rats was recorded. For the determination of the effects of potential related proteins on cardiac hemodynamics in the H-HF rats, the animals were divided into 5 groups: i) the sham-operated group (n=8); ii) H-HF (n=8); iii) H-HF with infusion of 0.1 µg dose of Pyr-AP13 (n=8) or 5% glucose (GS) (n=8); iv) H-HF with infusion of 1 µg dose of Pyr-AP13 (n=8) or 5% GS (n=8); and v) H-HF with infusion of 10 µg dose of Pyr-AP13 (n=8) or 5% GS (n=8). The concentration of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) was determined by ELISA. The expression of membrane and cytosolic proteins was evaluated by western blot analysis. Significant cardiac and perivascular fibrosis was observed in the H-HF rats. Following the infusion of Pyr-AP13, the systolic and diastolic function was significantly improved in the cardiac hemodynamic parameters in the H-HF rats treated with Pyr-AP13. The apelin receptor (APJ), which was activated by the exogenous infusion of Pyr-AP13, was partially recycled from the cytoplasm back to the plasma membrane; however, membrane APJ was eventually downregulated in the H-HF rats treated with Pyr-AP13 compared with the sham-operated group rats. Our findings suggested that a complex was formed after Pyr-AP13 combined with cellular membrane APJ receptor. However, the endogenous downregulation of the APJ receptor results in benefits from the exogenous administration of apelin.
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TRIM29 as a novel biomarker in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Tripartite motif-containing 29 (TRIM29) is structurally a member of the tripartite motif family of proteins and is involved in diverse human cancers. However, its role in pancreatic cancer remains unclear.
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Dysideanones A-C, unusual sesquiterpene quinones from the South China Sea sponge Dysidea avara.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Dysideanones A-C (1-3), three unusual sesquiterpene quinones with unprecedented carbon skeletons, were isolated from the South China Sea sponge Dysidea avara. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined by a combination of spectroscopic analyses and calculated ECD spectra. Within the sesquiterpene quinone structures, dysideanones A (1) and B (2) share an unprecedented 6/6/6/6-fused tetracyclic carbon skeleton, while dysideanone C (3) possesses an unusual 6/6/5/6-fused tetracyclic core. Dysideanone B (2) showed cytotoxicity against two human cancer cell lines, HeLa and HepG2, with IC50 values of 7.1 and 9.4 ?M, respectively.
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Uniform self-forming metallic network as a high-performance transparent conductive electrode.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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A transparent, conductive, and flexible electrode is demonstrated. It is based on an inexpensive and easily manufacturable metallic network formed by depositing metals onto a template film. This electrode shows excellent electro-optical properties, with the figure of merit ranging from 300 to 700, and transmittance from 82% (~4.3 ? sq(-1) ) to 45% (~0.5 ? sq(-1) ).
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The influence of the social support on symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with silicosis.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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The improvement of social support promotes the mental health and improves the health status. The study aimed to examine the influence of the social support on symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with silicosis and provide the scientific basis to further alleviate anxiety and depression and to monitor their whole quality of life. We investigated 324 inpatients with silicosis between April 2011 and September 2011. The HADS (the Hospital Anxiety-Depression Scale) was the major methodology used to evaluate anxiety and depression, and the MSPSS (the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support) to evaluate the social support level. Among patients with silicosis, 99.1% had anxiety symptoms, and 86.1% had depression symptoms. Meanwhile, the social support significantly influenced symptoms of anxiety and depression. The study suggested that patients with silicosis presented more anxiety and depression symptoms, while the social support levels of the patients were relatively low. The influence of social support on symptoms of anxiety and depression among patients with silicosis implied that improving the level of social support and the effective symptomatic treatment might alleviate anxiety and depression symptoms and improve physical and mental status.
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Novel drug targets for asthma and COPD: Lessons learned from in vitro and in vivo models.
Pulm Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent respiratory diseases characterized by airway inflammation, airway obstruction and airway hyperresponsiveness. Whilst current therapies, such as ?-agonists and glucocorticoids, may be effective at reducing symptoms, they do not reduce disease progression. Thus, there is a need to identify new therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarize the potential of novel targets or tools, including anti-inflammatories, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, kinase inhibitors, transient receptor potential channels, vitamin D and protease inhibitors, for the treatment of asthma and COPD.
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Design of the Violence and Stress Assessment (ViStA) study: a randomized controlled trial of care management for PTSD among predominantly Latino patients in safety net health centers.
Contemp Clin Trials
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common problem in primary care. Although effective treatments are available, little is known about whether such treatments are effective within the context of Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs) that serve as national "safety nets" for providing primary care for low income and underinsured patients. The Violence and Stress Assessment (ViStA) study is the first randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the impact of a care management intervention for treating PTSD in FQHCs. To develop a PTSD management intervention appropriate for lower resource FQHCs and the predominantly Latino patients they serve, formative work was conducted through a collaborative effort between researchers and an FQHC practice-based research network. This article describes how FQHC stakeholders were convened to review, assess, and prioritize evidence-based strategies for addressing patient, clinician, and system-level barriers to care. This multi-component care management intervention incorporates diagnosis with feedback, patient education and activation; navigation and linkage to community resources; clinician education and medication guidance; and structured cross-disciplinary communication and continuity of care, all facilitated by care managers with FQHC experience. We also describe the evaluation design of this five-year RCT and the characteristics of the 404 English or Spanish speaking patients enrolled in the study and randomized to either the intervention or to usual care. Patients are assessed at baseline, six months, and 12 months to examine intervention effectiveness on PTSD, other mental health symptoms, health-related quality-of-life, health care service use; and perceived barriers to care and satisfaction with care.
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HGF accelerates wound healing by promoting the dedifferentiation of epidermal cells through ?1-integrin/ILK pathway.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Skin wound healing is a critical and complex biological process after trauma. This process is activated by signaling pathways of both epithelial and nonepithelial cells, which release a myriad of different cytokines and growth factors. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a cytokine known to play multiple roles during the various stages of wound healing. This study evaluated the benefits of HGF on reepithelialization during wound healing and investigated its mechanisms of action. Gross and histological results showed that HGF significantly accelerated reepithelialization in diabetic (DB) rats. HGF increased the expressions of the cell adhesion molecules ?1-integrin and the cytoskeleton remodeling protein integrin-linked kinase (ILK) in epidermal cells in vivo and in vitro. Silencing of ILK gene expression by RNA interference reduced expression of ?1-integrin, ILK, and c-met in epidermal cells, concomitantly decreasing the proliferation and migration ability of epidermal cells. ?1-Integrin can be an important maker of poorly differentiated epidermal cells. Therefore, these data demonstrate that epidermal cells become poorly differentiated state and regained some characteristics of epidermal stem cells under the role of HGF after wound. Taken together, the results provide evidence that HGF can accelerate reepithelialization in skin wound healing by dedifferentiation of epidermal cells in a manner related to the ?1-integrin/ILK pathway.
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Dimethyloxalylglycine Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized C57BL/6J Mice through Enhanced Angiogenesis and Osteogenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hypoxia-inducible factor 1-? (HIF-1?) plays a critical role in angiogenesis-osteogenesis coupling during bone development and bone regeneration. Previous studies have shown that 17?-estradiol activates the HIF-1? signaling pathway and that mice with conditional activation of the HIF-1? signaling pathway in osteoblasts are protected from ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. In addition, it has been shown that hypoxia facilitates the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and modulates Wnt/?-catenin signaling. Therefore, we hypothesized that activation of the HIF-1? signaling pathway by hypoxia-mimicking agents would prevent bone loss due to estrogen deficiency. In this study, we confirmed the effect of dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG), a hypoxia-mimicking agent, on the HIF-1? signaling pathway and investigated the effect of DMOG on MSC osteogenic differentiation and the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway. We then investigated the effect of DMOG treatment on OVX-induced bone loss. Female C57BL/6J mice were divided into sham, OVX, OVX+L-DMOG (5 mg/kg/day), and OVX+H-DMOG (20 mg/kg/day) groups. At sacrifice, static and dynamic bone histomorphometry were performed with micro computed tomography (micro-CT) and undecalcified sections, respectively. Bone strength was assessed with the three-point bending test, and femur vessels were reconstructed and analyzed by micro-CT. Serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), osteocalcin, and C-terminal telopeptides of collagen type(CTX) were measured by ELISA. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining was used to assess osteoclast formation. Alterations in the HIF-1? and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways in the bone were detected by western blot. Our results showed that DMOG activated the HIF-1? signaling pathway, which further activated the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway and enhanced MSC osteogenic differentiation. The micro-CT results showed that DMOG treatment improved trabecular bone density and restored the bone microarchitecture and blood vessels in OVX mice. Bone strength was also partly restored in DMOG-treated OVX mice. Dynamic bone histomorphometric analysis of the femur metaphysic revealed that DMOG increased the mineralizing surface, mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate. The serum levels of VEGF and osteocalcin were higher in DMOG-treated OVX mice. However, there were no significant differences in serum CTX or in the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-stained cells between DMOG-treated OVX mice and OVX mice. Western blot results showed that DMOG administration partly rescued the decrease in HIF-1? and ?-catenin expression following ovariectomy. Collectively, these results indicate that DMOG prevents bone loss due to ovariectomy in C57BL/6J mice by enhancing angiogenesis and osteogenesis, which are associated with activated HIF-1? and Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathways.
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Factors predisposing to maxillary anchorage loss: a retrospective study of 1403 cases.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Anchorage loss is very disturbing for orthodontists and patients during orthodontic treatment, which usually results in bad treatment effects. Despite the same treatment strategy, different patients show different tendencies toward anchorage loss, which influences the treatment results and should preferably be predicted before the treatment is begun. However, relatively little research has been conducted on which patients are more likely to lose anchorage. The mesial tipping of the first molar marks the onset of anchorage loss, and changes in the angulation of the first molar are closely related to anchorage loss. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine how the mesiodistal angulation of the upper first molars changes during general orthodontic treatment and to identify the individual physiologic factors leading to these changes in a large sample of 1403 patients with malocclusion. The data indicate that the upper first molars tend to be tipped mesially during orthodontic treatment, and this constitutes a type of anchorage loss that orthodontists should consider carefully. Compared to treatment-related factors, patients' physiologic characteristics have a greater influence on changes in the angulation of the upper first molars during orthodontic treatment. The more distally tipped the upper first molars are before treatment, the more they will tip mesially during treatment. Mesial tipping of the upper first molars, and therefore, anchorage loss, is more likely to occur in adolescents, males, patients with class II malocclusion and patients who have undergone maxillary premolar extraction. This finding is of clinical significance to orthodontists who wish to prevent iatrogenic anchorage loss by tipping originally distally tipped upper molars forward, and provides a new perspective on anchorage during orthodontic treatment planning.
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A novel DFNA36 mutation in TMC1 orthologous to the Beethoven (Bth) mouse associated with autosomal dominant hearing loss in a Chinese family.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mutations in the transmembrane channel-like gene 1 (TMC1) can cause both DFNA36 and DFNB7/11 hearing loss. More than thirty DFNB7/11 mutations have been reported, but only three DFNA36 mutations were reported previously. In this study, we found a large Chinese family with 222 family members showing post-lingual, progressive sensorineural hearing loss which were consistent with DFNA36 hearing loss. Auditory brainstem response (ABR) test of the youngest patient showed a special result with nearly normal threshold but prolonged latency, decreased amplitude, and the abnormal waveform morphology. Exome sequencing of the proband found four candidate variants in known hearing loss genes. Sanger sequencing in all family members found a novel variant c.1253T>A (p.M418K) in TMC1 at DFNA36 that co-segregated with the phenotype. This mutation in TMC1 is orthologous to the mutation found in the hearing loss mouse model named Bth ten years ago. In another 51 Chinese autosomal dominant hearing loss families, we screened the segments containing the dominant mutations of TMC1 and no functional variants were found. TMC1 is expressed in the hair cells in inner ear. Given the already known roles of TMC1 in the mechanotransduction in the cochlea and its expression in inner ear, our results may provide an interesting perspective into its function in inner ear.
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Immune mechanism and clinical significance of macrophage to medullary hematopoietic injury of immune-related hematocytopenia patients.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Immune-related hematocytopenia (IRH) is considered to be related with the production of autoantibody, as well as the activation of humoral immunity which is stimulated by B lymphocyte. This study aimed to observe the levels of various cytokines in the blood serum and the in situ active state of macrophage (M?) in the medullary hematopoietic microenvironment of IRH patients, and to probe into the immune mechanism and clinical significance of M? in hematopoietic cell injury.
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Improved bioactivity of PAN-based carbon nanofibers decorated with bioglass nanoparticles.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Composite nanofibers composed of polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based carbon nanofibers and bioactive glass (BG) nanoparticles have been prepared by electrospinning and in situ sintering. Morphology observation showed that the BG nanoparticles of size 20-50?nm were uniformly distributed on the surface of composite nanofibers with 350?nm average diameter after carbonization. Biological mineralization indicated the formation of apatite-like layer on the surface of composite nanofibers, in which the composition of carbonate hydroxyapatite was proved by FTIR and XRD analysis. Cell growth dynamics according to cellular morphology, CCK-8 assay, and alkaline phosphatase activity assay exhibited better cell adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic induction of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured on the composite nanofibers, which suggested the higher bioactivity of composite nanofibers compared to pure PAN-based carbon nanofibers.
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Correlation analysis of genotypes, auditory function, and vestibular size in Chinese children with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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In children with enlarged vestibular aqueduct syndrome (EVAS), their hearing was more related to genotype than VA size, and VA size was related to genotype.
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Transcriptional regulatory network and protein-protein interaction to reveal the mechanism of pancreatic cancer.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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The development of pancreatic cancer (PC) may involve the over-expression of oncogenes, inactivation tumor suppressor genes or the deregulation of various signaling proteins. Thus identification and analysis of transcriptional regulatory relationship as well as protein-protein interaction (PPI) in PC to provide deep insights into the pathogenetic mechanism of pancreatic cancer. In this study, we downloaded the gene expression profile of PC from Gene Expression Omnibus and identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in PC patients compared with controls. To further understand how these DEGs act together to account for the initiation of pancreatic cancer, a transcriptional regulatory network was constructed to find the notes for GO function and KEGG pathways annotation, aiming to explore the clusters and pathways in PC. A total of 1,821 transcriptional regulatory relationships were identified. Then, a PPI network was constructed and noted by GO and KEGG, and some special modules, clusters and pathways were identified to involved in PC. Finally, we constructed the transcriptional regulatory network and PPI network of pancreatic cancer. Comparing the pathways involved in Transcriptional regulatory network and PPI network, pathway in cancer, PC, p53 signaling pathway, Hematopoietic cell lineage and graft-versus-host disease co-existed in these two network, so we predict these pathways may play key factors in development of cancer.
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Hydrazone radical promoted vicinal difunctionalization of alkenes and trifunctionalization of allyls: synthesis of pyrazolines and tetrahydropyridazines.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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The intramolecular addition of hydrazone radicals to carbon-carbon double bonds was achieved by using TEMPO (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy) or DIAD (diisopropyl azodicarboxylate) as the hydrazone radical initiator as well as the carbon radical scavenger. Consequently, alkenes were difunctionalized to afford pyrazolines and tetrahydropyridazines via C-N forming 5-exo-trig and 6-exo-trig cyclizations, respectively, and allyls were trifunctionalized to afford pyrazolines via C-N forming tandem 1,5-H-shift/5-exo-trig cyclizations under metal-free neutral conditions.
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[Clinical analysis of sudden sensorineural hearing loss in patients with different ages].
Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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To investigate the clinical materials of sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) in different ages of patients, and explore their clinical characteristics and prognosis.
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[Congenital dyserythropoietic anemia type II with novel mutations in SEC23B and EFE2 genes: a Chinese family survey].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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To report novel mutations SEC23B gene in congenltal dyserythropoietic anemia(CDA).
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Rectal NSAIDs for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
Surgeon
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Acute pancreatitis is the most frequent complication of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rectal nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP).
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[Ex vivo expansion and clonal variation of CD34(+)CD59(+) cells from bone marrow in children with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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To investigate the isolation, purification and ex vivo expansion of CD34(+)CD59(+) cells from the bone marrow of children with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), to evaluate the capability of long-term hematopoietic reconstruction of the expanded CD34(+)CD59(+) cells, and to provide a laboratory basis for novel treatment of PNH.
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Specific recruitment of ?? regulatory T cells in human breast cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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Understanding the role of different subtypes of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment is essential for improving cancer treatment. Enriched ??1 T-cell populations in TILs suppress T-cell responses and dendritic cell maturation in breast cancer, where their presence is correlated negatively with clinical outcomes. However, mechanism(s) that explain the increase in this class of regulatory T cells (?? Treg) in patients with breast cancer have yet to be elucidated. In this study, we show that IP-10 secreted by breast cancer cells attracted ?? Tregs. Using neutralizing antibodies against chemokines secreted by breast cancer cells, we found that IP-10 was the only functional chemokine that causes ?? Tregs to migrate toward breast cancer cells. In a humanized NOD-scid IL-2R?(null) (NSG) mouse model, human breast cancer cells attracted ?? Tregs as revealed by a live cell imaging system. IP-10 neutralization in vivo inhibited migration and trafficking of ?? Tregs into breast tumor sites, enhancing tumor immunity mediated by tumor-specific T cells. Together, our studies show how ?? Tregs accumulate in breast tumors, providing a rationale for their immunologic targeting to relieve immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment.
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Sustained delivery of a HIF-1 antagonist for ocular neovascularization.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Doxorubicin (DXR) and daunorubicin (DNR) inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) transcriptional activity by blocking its binding to DNA. Intraocular injections of DXR or DNR suppressed choroidal and retinal neovascularization (NV), but also perturbed retinal function as demonstrated by electroretinograms (ERGs). DXR was conjugated to novel copolymers of branched polyethylene glycol and poly(sebacic acid) (DXR-PSA-PEG3) and formulated into nanoparticles that when placed in aqueous buffer, slowly released small DXR-conjugates. Intraocular injection of DXR-PSA-PEG3 nanoparticles (1 or 10?g DXR content) reduced HIF-1-responsive gene products, strongly suppressed choroidal and retinal NV, and did not cause retinal toxicity. In transgenic mice that express VEGF in photoreceptors, intraocular injection of DXR-PSA-PEG3 nanoparticles (10?g DXR content) suppressed NV for at least 35days. Intraocular injection of DXR-PSA-PEG3 nanoparticles (2.7mg DXR content) in rabbits resulted in sustained DXR-conjugate release with detectable levels in aqueous humor and vitreous for at least 105days. This study demonstrates a novel HIF-1-inhibitor-polymer conjugate formulated into controlled-release particles that maximizes efficacy and duration of activity, minimizes toxicity, and provides a promising new chemical entity for treatment of ocular NV.
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TTG2-regulated development is related to expression of putative AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR genes in tobacco.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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The phytohormone auxin mediates a stunning array of plant development through the functions of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs), which belong to transcription factors and are present as a protein family comprising 10-43 members so far identified in different plant species. Plant development is also subject to regulation by TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA (TTG) proteins, such as NtTTG2 that we recently characterized in tobacco Nicotiana tabacum. To find the functional linkage between TTG and auxin in the regulation of plant development, we performed de novo assembly of the tobacco transcriptome to identify candidates of NtTTG2-regulated ARF genes.
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Amelioration of ?-amyloid-induced cognitive dysfunction and hippocampal axon degeneration by curcumin is associated with suppression of CRMP-2 hyperphosphorylation.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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The Alzheimers disease (AD) brain is characterized by ?-amyloid deposition, hyperphosphorylation of microtubule-associated proteins, formation of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and degeneration of specific neuronal populations. Collapsin response mediator protein 2 (CRMP-2) hyperphosphorylation has been implicated in AD-associated neural process regression and neurofibrillary tangle formation. Curcumin is a promising AD drug with incompletely defined therapeutic mechanisms. One possibility is that curcumin prevents ?-amyloid-induced CRMP-2 hyperphosphorylation, thereby protecting against axonal regression and (or) promoting axonal regrowth. We examined spatial learning in the Morris water maze, hippocampal expression levels of CRMP-2 and phosphorylated CRMP-2 (p-CRMP-2) by Western blot, and NF-200 (an axon-specific marker) by immunohistochemistry in Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to a single intrahippocampal injection of A?1-40 alone or A?1-40 followed by curcumin (i.p. daily for 7 days). Compared to controls, spatial learning was significantly impaired in these A?1-40-injected AD model rats (P<0.05). In addition, hippocampal expression levels of CRMP-2 and NF-200 were reduced while p-CRMP-2 expression was significantly enhanced (P<0.05 for all). Overexpression of p-CRMP-2 was correlated with NF-200 underexpression (r(2)=-0.67308, P<0.05), suggesting that A?1-40 damaged hippocampal axons. Spatial learning deficits were reversed, CRMP-2 and NF-200 expression levels increased, and p-CRMP-2 expression reduced in curcumin-treated rats (all P<0.05). We propose that curcumin improves spatial learning by inhibiting CRMP-2 hyperphosphorylation, thus protecting against ?-amyloid-induced hippocampal damage or promoting regeneration.
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Salt-free catanionic surface active ionic liquids 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolium alkylsulfate: aggregation behavior in aqueous solution.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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A series of salt-free catanionic surface active ionic liquids (SAILs), 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolim alkyl sulfates (denoted as [Cnmim][CmSO4], n=6, 8, 10; m=12 and n=4; m=10, 14) were synthesized by an ion exchange reaction and their surface properties in aqueous solution were examined systematically by surface tension, fluorescence and electrical conductivity measurements. As catanionic surfactants, these SAILs exhibit notably higher surface activity, compared to the cationic or anionic analogues. Increment in both cationic and anionic alkyl chain lengths for [Cnmim][CmSO4] can both improve the amphiphilic character remarkably. This can be ascribed to cooperative interactions as formation of catanionic pairs between alkyl-substituted imidazolium cations and alkyl sulfate anions. The negative micellization Gibbs free energy values prove that the micellization of all the 1-alkyl-3-methylimidazolim alkyl sulfates investigated is a spontaneous process. Any additional CH2 group makes the micellization process easier regardless if it is on a cation or an anion. When keeping the total carbon atom number constant, we find that the [Cnmim][CmSO4] molecules with greater asymmetric alkyl chains display superior surface activity. This work indicates that the self-assembly of these imidazolium-based salt-free catanionic SAILs can be tailored by adjusting the mismatch of alkyl chains. These SAILs are expected to have potential applications in the fields of colloidal and interface and nanomaterial synthesis.
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Association between glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype and risk of gallbladder cancer: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of enzymes which are involved in the detoxification of potential carcinogens. Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype can impair the enzyme activity of GSTs and is suspected to increase the susceptibility to gallbladder cancer. Previous studies investigating the association between GSTM1 null genotype and risk of gallbladder cancer reported inconsistent findings. To quantify the association between GSTM1 null genotype and risk of gallbladder cancer, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Wanfang databases for all possible studies. We estimated the pooled odds ratio (OR) with its 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) to assess the association. Meta-analysis of total included studies showed that GSTM1 null genotype was not associated with gallbladder cancer risk (OR?=?1.13, 95 % CI 0.88-1.46, P?=?0.332). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that there was no association between GSTM1 null genotype and risk of gallbladder cancer in both Caucasians and Asians. However, meta-analysis of studies with adjusted estimations showed that GSTM1 null genotype was associated with increased risk of gallbladder cancer (OR?=?1.46, 95 % CI 1.02-2.09, P?=?0.038). Thus, this meta-analysis shows that GSTM1 null genotype is likely to be associated with risk of gallbladder cancer. More studies with well design and large sample size are needed to further validate the association between GSTM1 null genotype and gallbladder cancer.
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Hippolachnin A, a new antifungal polyketide from the South China Sea sponge Hippospongia lachne.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Hippolachnin A (1), a polyketide possessing an unprecedented carbon skeleton with a four-membered ring, was isolated from the South China Sea sponge Hippospongia lachne. The structure was elucidated using MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses, and the absolute configuration was determined using a calculated ECD method. Hippolachnin A demonstrated potent antifungal activity against three pathogenic fungi, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, and Microsporum gypseum, with a MIC value of 0.41 ?M for each fungus.
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A Nonhuman Primate Model of Human Radiation-Induced Venocclusive Liver Disease and Hepatocyte Injury.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Human liver has an unusual sensitivity to radiation that limits its use in cancer therapy or in preconditioning for hepatocyte transplantation. Because the characteristic veno-occlusive lesions of radiation-induced liver disease do not occur in rodents, there has been no experimental model to investigate the limits of safe radiation therapy or explore the pathogenesis of hepatic veno-occlusive disease.
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Controllable optical activity of gold nanorod and chiral quantum dot assemblies.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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The optical coupling between Au nanorods (Au?NRs) and chiral quantum dots (QDs) in assemblies is investigated by both experiment and theoretical calculations. The coupled optical activity in the visible-light region can be manipulated by changing either the aspect ratio of Au?NRs or the size of QDs (left).
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Significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma risk: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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Previous studies investigated the association between methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma risk, but the impact of MTHFR C677T polymorphism on hepatocellular carcinoma was still unclear, owing to the obvious inconsistence from those studies. This study aimed to quantify the strength of the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma risk by performing a meta-analysis. We searched the PubMed and Wanfang databases for studies on the association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and hepatocellular carcinoma risk. We estimated the pooled odds ratios (ORs) with their 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) to assess the association. Fifteen studies with 8,625 participants were finally included into the meta-analysis. Meta-analyses of total 15 studies suggested that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma under two main genetic models (for TT versus CC, OR?=?1.19, 95 % CI 1.03-1.37, P?=?0.016; for TT versus CT/CC, OR?=?1.14, 95 % CI 1.01-1.28, P?=?0.032). Subgroup meta-analyses suggested that MTHFR C677T polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in Asians, but not in Caucasians. Thus, individuals with homozygote genotype TT of MTHFR C677T have obviously increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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A novel cost-effective technology to convert sucrose and homocelluloses in sweet sorghum stalks into ethanol.
Biotechnol Biofuels
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Sweet sorghum is regarded as a very promising energy crop for ethanol production because it not only supplies grain and sugar, but also offers lignocellulosic resource. Cost-competitive ethanol production requires bioconversion of all carbohydrates in stalks including of both sucrose and lignocellulose hydrolyzed into fermentable sugars. However, it is still a main challenge to reduce ethanol production cost and improve feasibility of industrial application. An integration of the different operations within the whole process is a potential solution.
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Cytogenetic and clinical risk factors for assessment of ultra high-risk multiple myeloma.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Cytogenetic assessments can improve conventional clinical risk assessment for ultra-high risk (UHR) multiple myeloma (MM) patients.
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Genomic pathway analysis reveals that EZH2 and HDAC4 represent mutually exclusive epigenetic pathways across human cancers.
BMC Med Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Alterations in epigenetic marks, including methylation or acetylation, are common in human cancers. For many epigenetic pathways, however, direct measures of activity are unknown, making their role in various cancers difficult to assess. Gene expression signatures facilitate the examination of patterns of epigenetic pathway activation across and within human cancer types allowing better understanding of the relationships between these pathways.
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Sulfide emissions from different areas of a municipal solid waste landfill in China.
Waste Manag
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Degradation of municipal solid waste in landfills generates sulfide compounds, which are considered one of the main sources of odor emissions. Field sampling was conducted at surfaces of operating, inoperative, and soil-covered areas of a landfill site in northern China to characterize the sulfide compounds. The results showed that dimethyl disulfide dominated the sulfide compounds, accounting for up to 73.6% of the total detected sulfide. With the biggest odor concentration of 365, diethyl sulfide was the most significant sulfide compound. The estimated sulfide emission rates at surfaces of operating and soil-covered areas were similar, and the emission rate of dimethyl disulfide at Surface of Operating Area was up to 345.9?g/m(3)h. Dimethyl disulfide could be released from the fresh waste, and its normalized concentration at 0.2m beneath operating surface was 10.4 times that at 0.4m.
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Newborn hearing concurrent genetic screening for hearing impairment-A clinical practice in 58,397 neonates in Tianjin, China.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Newborn hearing screening (NHS) is used worldwide due to its feasibility and cost-efficiency. However, neonates with late-onset and progressive hearing impairment will be missed by NHS. Genetic factors account for an estimated 60% of congenital profound hearing loss. Our previous cohort studies were carried out in an innovative mode, i.e. hearing concurrent genetic screening, in newborns to improve the abilities or early diagnosis and intervention for the hearing defects. In this study, we performed the first clinical practice of this mode in Tianjin city.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.