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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The external noise normalized gain profile of spatial vision.
J Vis
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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The contrast sensitivity function (CSF), a measure of visual sensitivity to a wide range of spatial frequencies, has been widely used as the gain profile of the front-end filter of the visual system to predict how we perceive spatial patterns. However, the CSF itself is determined by the gain profile and other processing inefficiencies of the visual system; it may be problematic to use the CSF as the gain profile in observer models. Here, we applied the external noise paradigm and the perceptual template model (PTM) to characterize several major properties of the visual system. With the external noise normalized gain profile, nonlinearity, and internal additive and multiplicative noises, the PTM accounted for 92.8% of the variance in the experiment data measured in a wide range of conditions and revealed the major processing components that determine the CSF. Unlike the CSF, the external noise normalized gain profile of the visual system is relatively flat across a wide range of spatial frequencies. The results may have major implications for understanding normal and abnormal spatial vision.
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[Autologous peripheral blood CD34+ stem cells transplanted into 100 patients with advanced cirrhosis].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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To investigate whether transplantation of autologous peripheral blood CD34+ stem cells is a viable approach for treating patients with advanced cirrhosis,which is currently hindered by a shortage in liver donors.
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Chronic Intermittent Low-Level Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation of Auricular Branch of Vagus Nerve Improves Left Ventricular Remodeling in Conscious Dogs With Healed Myocardial Infarction.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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-Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) attenuates left ventricular (LV) remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Our previous study found a noninvasive approach to deliver VNS by transcutaneous electrical stimulation of auricular branch of vagus nerve. So we hypothesize chronic intermittent low-level tragus stimulation (LL-TS) could attenuate LV remodeling in conscious dogs with healed MI.
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Discovery of N-Substituted Oseltamivir Derivatives as Potent and Selective Inhibitors of H5N1 Influenza Neuraminidase.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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To discover group-1-specific neuraminidase (NA) inhibitors that are especially involved in combating the H5N1 virus, two series of oseltamivir derivatives were designed and synthesized by targeting the 150-cavity. Among these, compound 20l was the most potent N1-selective inhibitor, with IC50 values of 0.0019, 0.0038, and 0.0067 ?M against NAs from three H5N1 viruses. These values are better than those of oseltamivir carboxylate. Compound 32 was another potent N1-selective inhibitor that exhibited a 12-fold increase in activity against the H274Y mutant relative to oseltamivir carboxylate. Molecular docking studies revealed that the 150-cavity was an auxiliary binding site that may contribute to the high selectivity of these compounds. The present work is a significant breakthrough in the discovery of potent group-1-specific neuraminidase inhibitors, which may be further investigated for the treatment of infection by the H5N1 virus.
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Vasoprotective effect of PDGF-CC mediated by HMOX1 rescues retinal degeneration.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Blood vessel degeneration is critically involved in nearly all types of degenerative diseases. Therefore strategies to enhance blood vessel protection and survival are highly needed. In this study, using different animal models and cultured cells, we show that PDGF-CC is a potent vascular protective and survival factor. PDGF-CC deficiency by genetic deletion exacerbated blood vessel regression/degeneration in various animal models. Importantly, treatment with PDGF-CC protein not only increased the survival of retinal blood vessels in a model of oxygen-induced blood vessel regression but also markedly rescued retinal and blood vessel degeneration in a disease model of retinitis pigmentosa. Mechanistically, we revealed that heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) activity is critically required for the vascular protective/survival effect of PDGF-CC, because blockade of HMOX1 completely abolished the protective effect of PDGF-CC in vitro and in vivo. We further found that both PDGF receptors, PDGFR-? and PDGFR-?, are required for the vasoprotective effect of PDGF-CC. Thus our data show that PDGF-CC plays a pivotal role in maintaining blood vessel survival and may be of therapeutic value in treating various types of degenerative diseases.
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Facile synthesis of PdPt nanoalloys with sub-2.0 nm islands as robust electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Composition-tunable PdPt bimetallic nanoalloys with sub-2.0 nm islands have been successfully synthesized through a facile aqueous solution approach. Among them, the Pd50Pt50 nanoalloys exhibit considerably higher catalytic activity and durability for methanol oxidation reaction than commercial Pt black.
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Tracing evolutionary relicts of positive selection on eight malaria-related immune genes in mammals.
Innate Immun
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Plasmodium-induced malaria widely infects primates and other mammals. Multiple past studies have revealed that positive selection could be the main evolutionary force triggering the genetic diversity of anti-malaria resistance-associated genes in human or primates. However, researchers focused most of their attention on the infra-generic and intra-specific genome evolution rather than analyzing the complete evolutionary history of mammals. Here we extend previous research by testing the evolutionary link of natural selection on eight candidate genes associated with malaria resistance in mammals. Three of the eight genes were detected to be affected by recombination, including TNF-?, iNOS and DARC. Positive selection was detected in the rest five immunogenes multiple times in different ancestral lineages of extant species throughout the mammalian evolution. Signals of positive selection were exposed in four malaria-related immunogenes in primates: CCL2, IL-10, HO1 and CD36. However, selection signals of G6PD have only been detected in non-primate eutherians. Significantly higher evolutionary rates and more radical amino acid replacement were also detected in primate CD36, suggesting its functional divergence from other eutherians. Prevalent positive selection throughout the evolutionary trajectory of mammalian malaria-related genes supports the arms race evolutionary hypothesis of host genetic response of mammalian immunogenes to infectious pathogens.
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Renal sympathetic denervation modulates ventricular electrophysiology and has a protective effect on ischaemia-induced ventricular arrhythmia.
Exp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Recently, a beneficial effect of renal sympathetic denervation (RSD) has been seen in patients with ventricular electrical storm. However, the effect of RSD on ventricular electrophysiology remains unclear. Thirty-three mongrel dogs were included in the present study. Renal sympathetic denervation was performed by radiofrequency ablation of the adventitial surface of the renal artery. In group 1 (n = 8), programmed stimulation was performed before and after RSD to determine the ventricular effective refractory period (ERP) and action potential duration (APD) restitution properties. The same parameters were measured in five other animals that underwent sham RSD to serve as controls. In group 2 (n = 10), acute myocardial ischaemia (AMI) was induced by ligating the proximal left anterior descending coronary artery after the performance of RSD, and the incidence of ventricular arrhythmia (VA) was calculated during 1 h of recording. In another 10 dogs (group 3), AMI was induced and VA was measured with sham RSD. In group 1, RSD significantly prolonged ventricular ERP and APD, reduced the maximal slope (Smax) of the restitution curve and suppressed APD alternans at each site. Renal sympathetic denervation also significantly decreased the spatial dispersion of ERP, APD and Smax. In the five control animals, no significant electrophysiological change was detected after sham RSD. The occurrence of spontaneous VA during 1 h of AMI in group 2 was significantly lower than that in group 3. These data suggest that RSD stabilizes ventricular electrophysiological properties in normal hearts and reduces the occurrence of VA in hearts experiencing AMI.
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Spinal Cord Stimulation Suppresses Focal Rapid Firing Induced Atrial Fibrillation by Inhibiting Atrial Ganglionated Plexus Activity.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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This study was designed to demonstrate that spinal cord stimulation (SCS) could suppress high-frequency stimulation (HFS) induced focal atrial fibrillation (AF) at atrial and pulmonary veins (PVs) sites by inhibiting atrial ganglionated plexus (GP) activity.
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Carotid baroreceptor stimulation prevents arrhythmias induced by acute myocardial infarction through autonomic modulation.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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: Electrical carotid baroreceptor stimulation (CBS) has shown therapeutic potential for resistant hypertension and heart failure by resetting autonomic nervous system, but the impacts on arrhythmias remains unclear. This study evaluated the effects of CBS on ventricular electrophysiological properties in normal dog heart and arrhythmias after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In the acute protocol, anesthetized open chest dogs were exposed to 1 hour left anterior descending coronary occlusion as AMI model. Dogs were received either sham treatment (Control group, n = 8) or CBS (CBS group, n = 8), started 1 hour before AMI. CBS resulted in pronounced prolongation of ventricular effective refractory period and reduction of the maximum action potential duration restitution slope (from 0.85 ± 0.15 in the baseline state to 0.67 ± 0.09 at the end of 1 hour, P < 0.05) before AMI. Number of premature ventricular contractions (277 ± 168 in the Control group vs. 103 ± 84 in the CBS group, P < 0.05) and episodes of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (7 ± 3 in the Control group vs. 3 ± 2 in the CBS group, P < 0.05) was decreased compared with the control group during AMI. CBS buffered low-frequency/high-frequency ratio raise during AMI. Ischemic size was not affected by CBS. CBS may have a beneficial impact on ventricular arrhythmias induced by AMI through modulation of autonomic tone.
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[Effects of carbamazepine on plasma concentrations of valproic acid and its toxic metabolite in epileptic patients].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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To investigate the effects of carbamazepine (CBZ) on the plasma concentrations of valproic acid (VPA) and its toxic metabolite 2-propyl-4-pentenoic acid (4-ene VPA) in epileptic patients, the plasma concentrations of VPA and 4-ene VPA were determined, and the effect of CBZ on pharmacokinetics of VPA was evaluated. All patients had been divided into two groups (VPA group, n = 87; and VPA+CBZ group, n = 19). As compared to VPA group, the combination of CBZ significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the trough concentration of VPA [VPA group, (69.5 +/- 28.8) microg x mL(-1); VPA+CBZ group, (46.3 +/- 25.6) microg x mL(-1)] and does-adjusted VPA trough concentration [VPA group, (4.89 +/- 2.21) microg x mL(-1) x mg(-1) x kg(-1); VPA+CBZ group, (3.14 +/- 1.74) microg x mL(-1) x mg(-1) x kg(-1)]. However, the addition of CBZ did not influence the concentration of 4-ene VPA. The present study revealed that coadministration of CBZ can reduce VPA plasma concentration and may impact VPA clinical effect, therefore therapeutic drug mornitoring of VPA should be used when combined use of CBZ and VPA.
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Knockdown of mineralocorticoid or angiotensin II type 1 receptor gene expression in the paraventricular nucleus prevents angiotensin II hypertension in rats.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Circulating Ang II activates an aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) - angiotensin II (Ang II) - angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) pathway in the hypothalamus. To obtain insights into the actual neuronal projections involved, adeno-associated virus carrying small interfering RNA against either AT1aR (AAV-AT1aR-siRNA) or MR (AAV-MR-siRNA) were infused into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in Wistar rats. Intra-PVN infusion of AAV-AT1aR-siRNA or AAV-MR-siRNA decreased AT1R or MR expression in the PVN but not in the subfornical organ (SFO) or supraoptic nucleus (SON). Subcutaneous infusion of Ang II at 500 ng kg(-1) min(-1) for 2 weeks increased mean arterial pressure by 60-70 mmHg, and increased AT1R and MR expression in the SFO, SON and PVN. Intra-PVN AT1aR-siRNA prevented the Ang II-induced increase in AT1R but not MR expression in the PVN, and MR-siRNA prevented MR but not AT1R expression in the PVN. The increases in AT1R and MR expression in both the SFO and the SON were not changed by the two AAV-siRNAs. Specific knockdown of AT1R or MR in the PVN by AAV-siRNA each prevented most of the Ang II-induced hypertension. Prevention of the subcutaneous Ang II-induced increase in MR but not the increase in AT1R by knockdown of MR and vice versa suggests an independent regulation of MR and AT1R expression in the PVN. Both AT1R and MR activation in the PVN play a critical role in Ang II-induced hypertension in rats.
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Pt skin on AuCu intermetallic substrate: a strategy to maximize Pt utilization for fuel cells.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The dependence on Pt catalysts has been a major issue of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. Strategies to maximize the Pt utilization in catalysts include two main approaches: to put Pt atoms only at the catalyst surface and to further enhance the surface-specific catalytic activity (SA) of Pt. Thus far there has been no practical design that combines these two features into one single catalyst. Here we report a combined computational and experimental study on the design and implementation of Pt-skin catalysts with significantly improved SA toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Through screening, using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, a Pt-skin structure on AuCu(111) substrate, consisting of 1.5 monolayers of Pt, is found to have an appropriately weakened oxygen affinity, in comparison to that on Pt(111), which would be ideal for ORR catalysis. Such a structure is then realized by substituting the Cu atoms in three surface layers of AuCu intermetallic nanoparticles (AuCu iNPs) with Pt. The resulting Pt-skinned catalyst (denoted as Pt(S)AuCu iNPs) has been characterized in depth using synchrotron XRD, XPS, HRTEM, and HAADF-STEM/EDX, such that the Pt-skin structure is unambiguously identified. The thickness of the Pt skin was determined to be less than two atomic layers. Finally the catalytic activity of Pt(S)AuCu iNPs toward the ORR was measured via rotating disk electrode (RDE) voltammetry through which it was established that the SA was more than 2 times that of a commercial Pt/C catalyst. Taking into account the ultralow Pt loading in Pt(S)AuCu iNPs, the mass-specific catalytic activity (MA) was determined to be 0.56 A/mg(Pt)@0.9 V, a value that is well beyond the DOE 2017 target for ORR catalysts (0.44 A/mg(Pt)@0.9 V). These findings provide a strategic design and a realizable approach to high-performance and Pt-efficient catalysts for fuel cells.
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Mineralocorticoid and AT1 receptors in the paraventricular nucleus contribute to sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac dysfunction in rats post myocardial infarct.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Intracerebroventricular infusion of a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) or angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blocker in rats attenuates sympathetic hyperactivity and progressive left ventricular (LV) dysfunction post myocardial infarction (MI). The present study examined whether knockdown of MRs or AT1Rs specifically in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) contributes to these effects, and compared cardiac effects with those of systemic treatment with the ?1-adrenergic receptor blocker metoprolol. The PVN of rats was infused with adeno-associated virus carrying small interfering RNA against either MR (AAV-MR-siRNA) or AT1R (AAV-AT1R-siRNA), or as control scrambled siRNA. At 4 weeks post MI, AT1R but not MR expression was increased in the PVN, excitatory renal sympathetic nerve activity and pressor responses to air stress were enhanced, and arterial baroreflex function was impaired; LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP) was increased and LV peak systolic pressure (LVPSP), ejection fraction (EF) and dP/dtmax decreased. AAV-MR-siRNA and AAV-AT1R-siRNA both normalized AT1R expression in the PVN, similarly ameliorated sympathetic and pressor responses to air stress, largely prevented baroreflex desensitization, and improved LVEDP, EF and dP/dtmax as well as cardiac interstitial (but not perivascular) fibrosis. In a second set of rats, metoprolol at 70 or 250 mg kg(-1) day(-1) in the drinking water for 4 weeks post MI did not improve LV function except for a decrease in LVEDP at the lower dose. These results suggest that in rats MR-dependent upregulation of AT1Rs in the PVN contributes to sympathetic hyperactivity, and LV dysfunction and remodelling post MI. In rats, normalizing MR-AT1R signalling in the PVN is a more effective strategy to improve LV dysfunction post MI than systemic ?1 blockade.
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1-Cyclo-hexyl-6,7-dimeth-oxy-1,4-di-hydro-naphthalene.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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The title compound, C18H24O2, was isolated from the leaves extract of Ficus carica L. The cyclo-hexane ring displays a chair conformation whereas the cyclo-hexa-1,4-diene ring adopts a flattened boat conformation with methyl C atoms at the prow and stern. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H?O hydrogen bonds into supra-molecular chains propagated along the b-axis direction.
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RhPt flowerlike bimetallic nanocrystals with tunable composition as superior electrocatalysts for methanol oxidation.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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For the first time, composition-tunable, high-yield, RhPt flowerlike bimetallic nanocrystals were successfully synthesized through an aqueous solution approach. The electrocatalytic activity of these RhPt nanoalloys toward methanol oxidation was investigated and compared to the activity of commercial Pt black and commercial Ru50Pt50/C. The RhPt flowerlike bimetallic nanoallys have shown composition-dependent and superior catalytic properties relative to those of commercial Pt black and commercial Ru50Pt50/C. The peak current density and mass current value of Rh19Pt81 nanoalloys are 0.75 mA cm(-2) and 0.12 mA ?g(-1), respectively. For commercial Pt black, they are 0.48 mA cm(-2) and 0.074 mA ?g(-1), and for commercial Ru50Pt50/C, they are 0.28 mA cm(-2) and 0.10 mA ?g(-1). Moreover, the chronoamperometric measurements show that the RhPt flowerlike nanoalloys have excellent stability over commercial Pt black and commercial Ru50Pt50/C.
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Congo red modulates ACh-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in single pancreatic acinar cells of mice.
Acta Pharmacol. Sin.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Aim:Congo red, a secondary diazo dye, is usually used as an indicator for the presence of amyloid fibrils. Recent studies show that congo red exerts neuroprotective effects in a variety of models of neurodegenerative diseases. However, its pharmacological profile remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of congo red on ACh-induced Ca(2+) oscillations in mouse pancreatic acinar cells in vitro.Methods:Acutely dissociated pancreatic acinar cells of mice were prepared. A U-tube drug application system was used to deliver drugs into the bath. Intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations were monitored by whole-cell recording of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents and by using confocal Ca(2+) imaging. For intracellular drug application, the drug was added in pipette solution and diffused into cell after the whole-cell configuration was established.Results:Bath application of ACh (10 nmol/L) induced typical Ca(2+) oscillations in dissociated pancreatic acinar cells. Addition of congo red (1, 10, 100 ?mol/L) dose-dependently enhanced Ach-induced Ca(2+) oscillations, but congo red alone did not induce any detectable response. Furthermore, this enhancement depended on the concentrations of ACh: congo red markedly enhanced the Ca(2+) oscillations induced by ACh (10-30 nmol/L), but did not alter the Ca(2+) oscillations induced by ACh (100-10000 nmol/L). Congo red also enhanced the Ca(2+) oscillations induced by bath application of IP3 (30 ?mol/L). Intracellular application of congo red failed to alter ACh-induced Ca(2+) oscillations.Conclusion:Congo red significantly modulates intracellular Ca(2+) signaling in pancreatic acinar cells, and this pharmacological effect should be fully considered when developing congo red as a novel therapeutic drug.
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Atrial tachyarrhythmias induced by the combined effects of ?1/2-adrenergic autoantibodies and thyroid hormone in the rabbit.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Activating autoantibodies (AAb) to ?-adrenergic receptors (?AR) are associated with atrial fibrillation in patients with Graves' disease. In the present study, we examined the interaction of thyroid hormone with ?1/2AR-AAb in inducing atrial tachyarrhythmias in the rabbit. Immunization of rabbits with a ?1AR or ?2AR second extracellular loop peptide produced high titers of ?1AR-AAb or ?2AR-AAb. Thyroid hormone in combination with ?1AR-AAb or ?2AR-AAb induced a significant number of sustained sinus tachycardia and atrial tachycardia, respectively. Both combinations resulted in significantly increased inductions of sustained arrhythmias compared to AAb alone. Thyroid hormone alone induced sustained sinus and junctional tachycardia. Sera from immunized rabbits specifically bound to and activated ?1AR or ?2AR in transfected cells in vitro. This study demonstrates thyroid hormone qualitatively accentuates the specific arrhythmogenic action of these AAb and quantitatively enhances their rate. Our data support a dual role of AAb and thyroid hormone in Graves'-associated tachyarrhythmias.
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Left renal nerves stimulation facilitates ischemia-induced ventricular arrhythmia by increasing nerve activity of left stellate ganglion.
J. Cardiovasc. Electrophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Renal sympathetic nerve (RSN) activity plays a key role in systemic sympathetic hyperactivity. Previous studies have shown that cardiac sympathetic hyperactivity, especially the left stellate ganglion (LSG), contributes to the pathogenesis of ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
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Reversal of tumor growth by gene modification of mesenchymal stem cells using spermine-pullulan/DNA nanoparticles.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a promising tool for delivering of therapeutic agents in cancer treatment. In the present study, our findings suggested that both i.v. and intratumoral injection of MSCs could favor tumor growth under physiologic conditions. However, the anti-tumor effects of MSC-IL-12 were achieved using our strategy. Unlike the previously reported method, the genetic engineering of MSCs was conducted by non-viral transfection using the new vector, spermine-pullulan. The transfection, cytotoxicity, and the cellular internalization of this vector were evaluated. Then, the therapeutical gene, IL-12, was delivered to the MSCs using this vector. The in vitro secretions of IL-12 by MSC-IL-12 confirmed the success of using spermine-pullulan/DNA nanoparticles for the gene transfection. We used the MSC-IL-12 for the in vivo treatment of both B16F10 metastasis tumor and the established subcutaneous B16BL6 tumor. For the B16F10 metastasis tumor, treatment with MSC-IL-12 significantly reduced lung metastases. For the established subcutaneous B16BL6 tumor, intratumoral injected MSC-IL-12 cells considerably retarded tumor growth. Prolonged survival was observed when MSC-IL-12 cells were injected through the tail vein or intratumorally, indicating that the MSCs engineered with the therapeutic gene could reverse the tumor-promoting effects of MSCs using the nonviral transduction method. However, the intravenous injected MSC-IL-12 did not prevent the tumor growth of the established subcutaneous B16BL6 tumor. Thus, we examined the the in vivo distribution of MSCs in different organs and it was found that MSCs were mainly distributed in the lungs, which may explain the inability of intravenously injected MSC-IL-12 to inhibit the growth of the established subcutaneous tumor.
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CT-guided percutaneous infrazygomatic radiofrequency neurolysis through foramen rotundum to treat V2 trigeminal neuralgia.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Percutaneous radiofrequency thermocoagulation or neurolysis of Gasserian ganglion through foramen ovale (FO) is the classical approach to treat trigeminal neuralgia (TN). However, it has been technically challenging when individual trigeminal sub-branch nerve block is desired through this approach. We have thus developed a novel computed tomograph-guided technique to block the V2 trigeminal nerve through foramen rotundum (FR). With this technique, we have conducted a study of 27 patients with isolated V2 TN. We hypothesize that this new technique will have comparable clinical outcome with the conventional FO approach.
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Clinical outcome of autologous hematopoietic stem cell infusion via hepatic artery or portal vein in patients with end-stage liver diseases.
Chin. Med. Sci. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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To investigate the efficacy of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) transplantation via the hepatic artery vs. the portal vein for end-stage liver disease (ESLD).
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Widely tunable band gaps of graphdiyne: an ab initio study.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Functionalization of graphdiyne, a two-dimensional atomic layer of sp-sp(2) hybrid carbon networks, was investigated through first-principles calculations. Hydrogen or halogen atoms preferentially adsorb on sp-bonded carbon atoms rather than on sp(2)-bonded carbon atoms, forming sp(2)- or sp(3)-hybridization. The energy band gap of graphdiyne is increased from ~0.5 eV to ~5.2 eV through the hydrogenation or halogenation. Unlike graphene, segregation of adsorbing atoms is energetically unfavourable. Our results show that hydrogenation or halogenation can be utilized for modifying the electronic properties of graphdiyne for applications to nano-electronics and -photonics.
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Design, synthesis and structure-activity relationship of novel oxime ether strobilurin derivatives containing substituted benzofurans.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Strobilurins are one of the most important classes of agricultural fungicides. To discover new strobilurin analogues with broad spectrum and high activity, a series of novel oxime ether strobilurin derivatives containing substituted benzofurans in the side chain were synthesised and bioassayed.
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Characterization of a novel influenza virus in cattle and Swine: proposal for a new genus in the Orthomyxoviridae family.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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We have recently reported the isolation of a novel virus, provisionally designated C/swine/Oklahoma/1334/2011 (C/OK), with 50% overall homology to human influenza C viruses (ICV), from a pig in Oklahoma. Deep RNA sequencing of C/OK virus found a matrix 1 (M1) protein expression strategy that differed from that of ICV. The novelty of C/OK virus prompted us to investigate whether C/OK virus could exist in a nonswine species. Significantly, we found that C/OK virus was widespread in U.S. bovine herds, as demonstrated by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and serological assays. Genome sequencing of three bovine viruses isolated from two herds in different states further confirmed these findings. To determine whether swine/bovine C/OK viruses can undergo reassortment with human ICV, and to clarify the taxonomic status of C/OK, in vitro reassortment and serological typing by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) were conducted. In vitro reassortment using two human ICV and two swine and bovine C/OK viruses demonstrated that human ICV and C/OK viruses were unable to reassort and produce viable progeny. Antigenically, no cross-recognition of detergent split virions was observed in AGID between human and nonhuman viruses by using polyclonal antibodies that were reactive to cognate antigens. Taken together, these results demonstrate that C/OK virus is genetically and antigenically distinct from ICV. The classification of the new virus in a separate genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family is proposed. The finding of C/OK virus in swine and bovine indicates that this new virus may spread and establish infection in other mammals, including humans. IMPORTANCE Influenza C viruses (ICV) are common human pathogens, infecting most people during childhood and adolescence, and typically cause mild respiratory symptoms. While ICV have been isolated from both pigs and dogs, humans are thought to be the natural viral reservoir. Previously, we characterized an ICV-like virus isolated from pigs exhibiting symptoms of influenza virus-like illness. Here, we show molecular and serological data demonstrating widespread circulation of similar viruses in bovines. Deep RNA sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, and in vitro reassortment experiments demonstrate that animal ICV-like viruses are genetically distinct from human ICV. Antigenically, we show that ICV-like viruses are not recognized by ICV antibodies. En masse, these results suggest that bovine influenza virus warrants classification as a new genus of influenza virus. The finding of this novel virus that can infect multiple mammalian species warrants further research into its role in human health.
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False esophageal hiatus hernia caused by a foreign body: A fatal event.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Foreign body ingestion is a common complaint in gastrointestinal clinics. It is usually not difficult to diagnose because most of the patients report a definitive history of accidental foreign body ingestion. However, in rare cases, patients do not have a clear history. Thus, the actual condition of the patient is difficult to diagnosis or is misdiagnosed; consequently, treatment is delayed or the wrong treatment is administered, respectively. This report describes a fatal case of esophageal perforation caused by an unknowingly ingested fishbone, which resulted in lower esophageal necrosis, chest cavity infection, posterior mediastinum fester, and significant upper gastrointestinal accumulation of blood. However, his clinical symptoms and imaging data are very similar with esophageal hiatal hernia. Unfortunately, because the patient was too late in consulting a physician, he finally died of chest infection and hemorrhage caused by thoracic aortic rupture. First, this case report underlines the importance of immediate consultation with a physician as soon as symptoms are experienced so as not to delay diagnosis and treatment, and thus avoid a fatal outcome. Second, diagnostic imaging should be performed in the early stage, without interference by clinical judgment. Third, when computed tomography reveals esophageal hiatus hernia with stomach incarceration, posterior mediastinal hematoma, and pneumatosis caused by esophageal, a foreign body should be suspected. Finally, medical professionals are responsible for making people aware of the danger of foreign body ingestion, especially among children, those who abuse alcohol, and those who wear dentures, particularly among the elderly, whose discriminability of foreign bodies is decreased, to avoid dire consequences.
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Exploring the impact of access designs on crash injury severity on multilane highways.
Traffic Inj Prev
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Access design is a critical factor that influences the safety and mobility of urban/suburban multilane highways due to the interactions between access movements and through traffic. An effective way for improving the safety and mobility of multilane highways is to control access maneuvers by implementing appropriate access designs. Understanding the impact of access designs on crash injury severity is beneficial for implementing effective countermeasures to mitigate crash injury at access points. Thus, the objectives of this article are to investigate the impact of access designs on crash injury severity and identify contributing factors of crash injury severity at access points of multilane highways.
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Molecular cloning and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase gene from Eimeria tenella.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a key enzyme in the glycolytic pathway and is crucial for parasite survival. In this study, we cloned and expressed the LDH of Eimeria tenella (EtLDH). Real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of EtLDH was developmentally regulated at the messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels. EtLDH mRNA levels were higher in second-generation merozoites than in other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts, and sporozoites). EtLDH protein expression levels were most prominent in second-generation merozoites, moderately expressed in unsporulated oocysts and sporulated oocysts, and weakly detected in sporozoites. Immunostaining with anti-recombinant EtLDH (rEtLDH) antibody indicated that EtLDH was mainly located in the anterior region in free sporozoites and became concentrated in the anterior region of intracellular sporozoites except for the apex after invasion into DF-1 cells. Specific staining of EtLDH protein was more intense in trophozoites and immature first-generation schizonts, but decreased in mature first-generation schizonts. Inhibition of EtLDH function using specific antibodies cannot efficiently reduce the ability of E. tenella sporozoites to invade host cells. These results suggest that EtLDH may be involved in glycolysis during the first-generation merogony stage in E. tenella and has little role in host invasion.
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Structural characterization and DPPH· radical scavenging activity of a polysaccharide from Guara fruits.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The crude polysaccharides were extracted from fruits of Psidium guajava Linn. by hot water. After removal of proteins, isolation and purification by DEAE-52 Cellulose chromatography and Sephadex G-75 gel filtration, a polysaccharide (GP70-2) was obtained and structurally characterized. GP70-2 has a relative molecular weight of 74 kDa and was composed of D-galactose and L-arabinose in the ratio of 1:1, with a specific optical rotation of [a]D(25) = +101°. Structural characterization of this novel polysaccharide was carried out using infrared spectroscopy, methylation analyses, and NMR studies ((1)H, (13)C, (1)H-(1)H-COSY, HMQC, and HMBC). Based on the above data, the following structure was assigned to the repeated core unit of GP70-2: [Formula: see text]. This polysaccharide showed a concentration dependent DPPH· radical scavenging activity.
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Perceptual learning improves stereoacuity in amblyopia.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Amblyopia is a developmental disorder that results in both monocular and binocular deficits. Although traditional treatment in clinical practice (i.e., refractive correction, or occlusion by patching and penalization of the fellow eye) is effective in restoring monocular visual acuity, there is little information on how binocular function, especially stereopsis, responds to traditional amblyopia treatment. We aim to evaluate the effects of perceptual learning on stereopsis in observers with amblyopia in the current study.
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Optimal inductive and cultural conditions of Polygonum multiflorum transgenic hairy roots mediated with Agrobacterium rhizogenes R1601 and an analysis of their anthraquinone constituents.
Pharmacogn Mag
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Polygonum multiflorum is an important medicinal plant. Hairy roots systems obtained by transforming plant tissues with the natural genetic engineer Agrobacterium rhizogenes can produce valuable biological active substances, which have immense potential in the pharmaceutical industry.
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Does curve convexity affect the surgical outcomes of thoracic adolescent idiopathic scoliosis?
Eur J Orthop Surg Traumatol
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Major left thoracic (LT) curve is an atypical type in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and showed independent clinical characteristics and natural history compared to major right thoracic (RT) curve. However, it's unclear whether the convexity of major thoracic curve would affect the surgical outcomes and risk of complications. A retrospective follow-up study was conducted to investigate whether the convexity of major thoracic curve would affect the surgical outcomes of patients with main thoracic AIS.
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Synthesis and fungicidal activities of novel benzothiophene-substituted oxime ether strobilurins.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Twenty-one novel benzothiophene-substituted oxime ether strobilurins, which employed a benzothiophene group to stabilise the E-styryl group in Enoxastrobin (an unsaturated oxime strobilurin fungicide developed by Shenyang Research Institute of Chemical Industry, China) were designed and synthesised. The biological assay indicated that most compounds exhibited good or excellent fungicidal activities, especially against Colletotrichum lagenarium and Puccinia sorghi Schw. In addition, methyl 3-methoxypropenoate oxime ethers and N-methoxy-carbamic acid methyl esters exhibited good in vivo fungicidal activities against Erysiphe graminis, Colletotrichum lagenarium and Puccinia sorghi Schw. under the tested concentrations. Notably, (E,E)-methyl 3-methoxy-2-(2-((((6-chloro-1-(1H-benzo[b]thien-2-yl)ethylidene)amino)oxy)methyl)phenyl)propenoate (5E) exhibited more potent in vivo fungicidal activities against nearly all of the tested fungi at a concentration of 0.39 mg/L compared to Enoxastrobin.
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The role of HMGB1-RAGE axis in migration and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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High mobility group protein box1 (HMGB1) and its receptor-receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) are pivotal factors in the development and progression of many types of tumor, but the role of HMGB1-RAGE axis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) especially its effects on metastasis and recurrence remains obscure. Here, we report the role of HMGB1-RAGE axis in the biological behaviors of HCC cell lines and the underlying molecular mechanism. We show that the expressions of HMGB1, RAGE, and extracellular HMGB1 increase consistently according to cell metastasis potentials, while the concentration of soluble form of RAGE (sRAGE) is inversely related to metastasis potential of HCC cells. Furthermore, our data show that rhHMGB1 promotes cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion, and increases the level of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), while administrations of HMGB1-siRNA, RAGE-siRNA, anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody, anti-RAGE neutralizing antibody, and sRAGE inhibit cellular proliferation, migration, and invasion. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the expression of NF-?B is inhibited by knockdown of HMGB1 or RAGE. Collectively, these data demonstrate that HMGB1 activates RAGE signaling pathways and induces NF-?B activation to promote cellular proliferation, invasion, and metastasis, in HCC cell lines. Taken together, HMGB1-RAGE axis may become a potential target in HCC therapy.
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Ultrasonic approach to the synthesis of HMX@TATB core-shell microparticles with improved mechanical sensitivity.
Ultrason Sonochem
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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To improve the safety of sensitive explosive HMX while maintaining explosion performance, a moderately powerful but insensitive explosive TATB was used to coat HMX microparticles via a facile ultrasonic method. By using Estane as surface modifier and nano-sized TATB as the shell layer, the HMX@TATB core-shell microparticles with a monodisperse size and compact shell structure were successfully constructed. Both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results confirmed the formation of perfect core-shell structured composites. Based on a systematic and comparative study of the effect of experimental conditions, a possible formation mechanism of core-shell structure was proposed in detail. Moreover, the perfect core-shell HMX@TATB microparticles exhibited a unique thermal behavior and significantly improved mechanical sensitivity compared with that of the physical mixture.
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ALK gene copy number gain and its clinical significance in hepatocellular carcinoma.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To examine the status and clinical significance of anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene alterations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients.
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Endotoxin molecule lipopolysaccharide-induced zebrafish inflammation model: a novel screening method for anti-inflammatory drugs.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin molecule, has been used to induce inflammatory responses. In this study, LPS was used to establish an in vivo inflammation model in zebrafish for drug screening. We present an experimental method that conveniently and rapidly assesses the anti-inflammatory properties of drugs. The yolks of 3-day post-fertilization (dpf) larvae were injected with 0.5 mg/mL LPS to induce fatal inflammation. After LPS stimulation, macrophages were tracked by NR and SB staining and neutrophil migration was observed using the MPO:GFP line. Larval mortality was used as the primary end-point. Expression levels of key cytokines involved in the inflammatory response including IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-?, were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Macrophages and neutrophils were both recruited to the LPS-injected site during the inflammatory response. Mortality was increased by LPS in a dose-dependent manner within 48 h. Analyses of IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? expression levels revealed the upregulation of the inflammatory response in the LPS-injected larvae. Further, the anti-inflammatory activity of chlorogenic acid (CA) was evaluated in this zebrafish model to screen for anti-inflammatory drugs. A preliminary result showed that CA revealed a similar effect as the corticosteroid dexamethasone (DEX), which was used as a positive control, by inhibiting macrophage and neutrophil recruitment to the LPS site and improving survival. Our results suggest that this zebrafish screening model could be applied to study inflammation-mediated diseases. Moreover, the Traditional Chinese Medicine CA displays potential anti-inflammatory activity.
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BHBA suppresses LPS-induced inflammation in BV-2 cells by inhibiting NF-?B activation.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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?-Hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) has neuroprotective effects, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are unclear. Microglial activation plays an important role in neurodegenerative diseases by producing several proinflammatory enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines. The current study investigates the potential mechanisms whereby BHBA affects the expression of potentially proinflammatory proteins by cultured murine microglial BV-2 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that BHBA significantly reduced LPS-induced protein and mRNA expression levels of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6. Blocking of GPR109A by PTX resulted in a loss of this anti-inflammatory effect in BV-2 cells. Western blot analysis showed that BHBA reduced LPS-induced degradation of I?B-? and translocation of NF-?B, while no effect was observed on MAPKs phosphorylation. All results imply that BHBA significantly reduces levels of proinflammatory enzymes and proinflammatory cytokines by inhibition of the NF-?B signaling pathway but not MAPKs pathways, and GPR109A is essential to this function. Overall, these data suggest that BHBA has a potential as neuroprotective drug candidate in neurodegenerative diseases.
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Low-Level Carotid Baroreceptor Stimulation Suppresses Ventricular Arrhythmias during Acute Ischemia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The autonomic imbalance during acute ischemia is involved in the occurrence of life-threatening arrhythmias.
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Neuroendocrine humoral and vascular components in the pressor pathway for brain angiotensin II: a new axis in long term blood pressure control.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Central nervous system (CNS) administration of angiotensin II (Ang II) raises blood pressure (BP). The rise in BP reflects increased sympathetic outflow and a slower neuromodulatory pressor mechanism mediated by CNS mineralocorticoid receptors (MR). We investigated the hypothesis that the sustained phase of hypertension is associated also with elevated circulating levels of endogenous ouabain (EO), and chronic stimulation of arterial calcium transport proteins including the sodium-calcium exchanger (NCX1), the type 6 canonical transient receptor potential protein (TRPC6), and the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2). Wistar rats received a chronic intra-cerebroventricular infusion of vehicle (C) or Ang II (A, 2.5 ng/min, for 14 days) alone or combined with the MR blocker, eplerenone (A+E, 5 µg/day), or the aldosterone synthase inhibitor, FAD286 (A+F, 25 µg/day). Conscious mean BP increased (P<0.05) in A (123 ± 4 mm Hg) vs all other groups. Blood, pituitary and adrenal samples were taken for EO radioimmunoassay (RIA), and aortas for NCX1, TRPC6 and SERCA2 immunoblotting. Central infusion of Ang II raised plasma EO (0.58 ± 0.08 vs C 0.34 ± 0.07 nM (P<0.05), but not in A + E and A + F groups as confirmed by off-line liquid chromatography (LC)-RIA and LC-multistage mass spectrometry. Two novel isomers of EO were elevated by Ang II; the second less polar isomer increased >50-fold in the A+F group. Central Ang II increased arterial expression of NCX1, TRPC6 and SERCA2 (2.6, 1.75 and 3.7-fold, respectively; P<0.01)) but not when co-infused with E or F. Adrenal and pituitary EO were unchanged. We conclude that brain Ang II activates a CNS-humoral axis involving plasma EO. The elevated EO reprograms peripheral ion transport pathways known to control arterial Na(+) and Ca(2+) homeostasis; this increases contractility and augments sympathetic effects. The new axis likely contributes to the chronic pressor effect of brain Ang II.
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Molecular characterization and analysis of a novel protein disulfide isomerase-like protein of Eimeria tenella.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) and PDI-like proteins are members of the thioredoxin superfamily. They contain thioredoxin-like domains and catalyze the physiological oxidation, reduction and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds, which are involved in cell function and development in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, EtPDIL, a novel PDI-like gene of Eimeria tenella, was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) according to the expressed sequence tag (EST). The EtPDIL cDNA contained 1129 nucleotides encoding 216 amino acids. The deduced EtPDIL protein belonged to thioredoxin-like superfamily and had a single predicted thioredoxin domain with a non-classical thioredoxin-like motif (SXXC). BLAST analysis showed that the EtPDIL protein was 55-59% identical to PDI-like proteins of other apicomplexan parasites. The transcript and protein levels of EtPDIL at different development stages were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR and western blot. The messenger RNA and protein levels of EtPDIL were higher in sporulated oocysts than in unsporulated oocysts, sporozoites or merozoites. Protein expression was barely detectable in unsporulated oocysts. Western blots showed that rabbit antiserum against recombinant EtPDIL recognized only a native 24 kDa protein from parasites. Immunolocalization with EtPDIL antibody showed that EtPDIL had a disperse distribution in the cytoplasm of whole sporozoites and merozoites. After sporozoites were incubated in complete medium, EtPDIL protein concentrated at the anterior of the sporozoites and appeared on the surface of parasites. Specific staining was more intense and mainly located on the parasite surface after merozoites released from mature schizonts invaded DF-1 cells. After development of parasites in DF-1 cells, staining intensified in trophozoites, immature schizonts and mature schizonts. Antibody inhibition of EtPDIL function reduced the ability of E. tenella to invade DF-1 cells. These results suggested that EtPDIL might be involved in sporulation in external environments and in host cell adhesion, invasion and development of E. tenella.
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Noise provides new insights on contrast sensitivity function.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Sensitivity to luminance difference, or contrast sensitivity, is critical for animals to survive in and interact with the external world. The contrast sensitivity function (CSF), which measures visual sensitivity to spatial patterns over a wide range of spatial frequencies, provides a comprehensive characterization of the visual system. Despite its popularity and significance in both basic research and clinical practice, it hasn't been clear what determines the CSF and how the factors underlying the CSF change in different conditions. In the current study, we applied the external noise method and perceptual template model to a wide range of external noise and spatial frequency (SF) conditions, and evaluated how the various sources of observer inefficiency changed with SF and determined the limiting factors underlying the CSF. We found that only internal additive noise and template gain changed significantly with SF, while the transducer non-linearity and coefficient for multiplicative noise were constant. The 12-parameter model provided a very good account of all the data in the 200 tested conditions (86.5%, 86.2%, 89.5%, and 96.4% for the four subjects, respectively). Our results suggest a re-consideration of the popular spatial vision model that employs the CSF as the front-end filter and constant internal additive noise across spatial frequencies. The study will also be of interest to scientists and clinicians engaged in characterizing spatial vision deficits and/or developing rehabilitation methods to restore spatial vision in clinical populations.
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HCV genomic RNA activates the NLRP3 inflammasome in human myeloid cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Elevated plasma levels of IL-1? and IL-18 from patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection indicate a possible activation of inflammasome by HCV.
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Chinese herbal medicine Xinfeng Capsule in treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial.
J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), as a common systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease, affects approximately 1 in 100 individuals. Effective treatment for RA is not yet available because current research does not have a clear understanding of the etiology and pathogenesis of RA. Xinfeng Capsule, a patent Chinese herbal medicine, has been used in the treatment of RA in recent years. Despite its reported clinical efficacy, there are no large-sample, multicenter, randomized trials that support the use of Xinfeng Capsule for RA. Therefore, we designed a randomized, double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled trial to assess the efficacy and safety of Xinfeng Capsule in the treatment of RA.
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[Combined inflating lung and insufflating calf pulmonary surfactant under general anesthesia in the treatment of postoperative intractable atelectasis].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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To explore the efficacy and safety of combined inflating lung and insufflating calf pulmonary surfactant under general anesthesia for treating postoperative intractable atelectasis.
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Activating Ag by even more inert Au: a peculiar effect on electrocatalysis toward oxygen reduction in alkaline media.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Combined computational and experimental studies reveal a noble, non-d-band effect on Ag activation and electrocatalysis: upon coating Ag onto the even more inert Au surface, the catalytic activity toward the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline media can be improved by about half an order of magnitude in comparison to the usual Ag surface.
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Identification and characterization of an Eimeria-conserved protein in Eimeria tenella.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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The precocious lines of Eimeria spp. have unique phenotypes. However, the genetic basis of the precocious phenotype is still poorly understood. The identification of Eimeria genes controlling the precocious phenotype is of immense importance in the fight against coccidiosis. In the present study, a novel gene of Eimeria maxima was cloned using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) based on the expressed sequence tag (EST). Homologous genes were also found in Eimeria tenella and Eimeria acervulina. Alignment of the amino acid sequences from E. tenella, E. maxima, and E. acervulina showed 80-86 % identity, demonstrating a conserved protein in different Eimeria spp. This gene, designated Eimeria-conserved protein (ECP), contained 235 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 25.4 kDa and had 100 % identity with one annotated protein from E. maxima (Emax_0517). Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of ECP at mRNA and protein level in E. tenella is developmentally regulated. Messenger RNA levels from the ECP gene were higher in sporozoites than in other developmental stages (unsporulated oocysts, sporulated oocysts, and second-generation merozoites). Expression of ECP protein was detected in unsporulated oocysts, increased in abundance in sporulated oocysts, and was most prominent in sporozoites. Thereafter, the level of the ECP protein decreased, and no ECP-specific protein was detected in second-generation merozoites. Immunostaining with anti-rECP indicated that ECP is highly concentrated in both refractile bodies (RB) of free sporozoites, but is located at the apical end of the sporozoites after invasion of DF-1 cells. The specific staining of the ECP protein becomes more intense in trophozoites and immature first-generation schizonts, but decreases in mature first-generation schizonts. Inhibition of the function of ECP using specific antibodies reduced the ability of E. tenella sporozoites to invade host cells. Compared with the parent strain, both mRNA and protein expression levels in the sporulated oocyst were downregulated in the precocious line of E. tenella. These results suggest that ECP may be involved in invasion and development of the first-generation merogony stage of E. tenella. Findings of downregulation of ECP mRNA and protein expression in the precocious line enrich the study of the precocious phenotype of Eimeria.
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Cancer stem-like cell characteristics induced by EB virus-encoded LMP1 contribute to radioresistance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma by suppressing the p53-mediated apoptosis pathway.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Emerging evidence confirms that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for the chemoradioresistance of malignancies. EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is associated with tumor relapse and poor prognosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). However, whether LMP1 induces the development of CSCs and the mechanism by which this rare cell subpopulation leads to radioresistance in NPC remain unclear. In the present study, LMP1-transformed NPC cells showed significant radioresistance compared to the empty vector control. We found that LMP1 up-regulated the expression of several stemness-related genes, increased the cell number of side population (SP) by flow cytometry analysis, enhanced the self-renewal properties of the cells in a spherical culture and enhanced the in vivo tumor initiation ability. We also found that LMP1 positively regulated the expression of the CSC marker CD44. The CD44(+/High) subpopulation of the LMP1-transformed NPC cells displayed more significant CSC characteristics than the CD44(-/Low) subpopulation of the LMP1-transformed NPC cells; these characteristics included the upregulation of stemness-related genes, in vitro self-renewal and in vivo tumor initiation ability. Importantly, the CD44(+/High) subpopulation displayed more radioresistance than the CD44(-/Low) subpopulation. Our results also demonstrated that phosphorylation of the DNA damage response (DDR) proteins, ATM, Chk1, Chk2 and p53, was inactivated in the LMP1-induced CD44(+/High) cells in response to DNA damage, and this was accompanied by a downregulation of the p53-targeted proapoptotic genes, which suggested that the inactivation of the p53-mediated apoptosis pathway was responsible for the radioresistance in the CD44(+/High) cells. Taken together, we found that LMP1 induced an increase in CSC-like CD44(+/High) cells, and we determined the molecular mechanism underlying the radioresistance of the LMP1-activated CSCs, highlighting the need of CSC-targeted radiotherapy in EBV-positive NPC.
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[Effect of Xinfeng Capsule on lung function in rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis and its mechanism].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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To investigate the effects of Xinfeng Capsule (XFC) on pulmonary function and related mechanism in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AA) rats.
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Further discovery of caffeic acid derivatives as novel influenza neuraminidase inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Eight series of compounds, each series containing two to five compounds were prepared by structural modifications of a lead, which was previously discovered as a mild influenza neuraminidase (NA) inhibitor. On the basis of the biological result, a detailed structure-activity relationship (SAR) was derived and discussed. Several caffeic acid derivatives that acted as non-competitive inhibitors were close or superior to the lead and also presented good antiviral activities in cells. Besides, it was interesting to find that modifications of the lead with different strategies could result in selective inhibition against N1 or N2. The preliminary docking analysis indicated that the 150-cavity of the enzymes played an important role in the selective inhibition.
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RanBPM interacts with T?RI, TRAF6 and curbs TGF induced nuclear accumulation of T?RI.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?), a cytokine, and its receptors play a vital role during normal embryogenesis, cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis and migration. Ran-binding protein in the microtubule-organizing center (RanBPM) serves as a scaffold protein that has been shown to interact with many other proteins, such as MET, Axl/Sky, TRAF6, IFNR, TrKA and TrkB in addition to p75NTR. In the current study, we have identified RanBPM as a novel binding partner of T?RI by yeast two-hybrid assay. The T?RI and RanBPM association was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down experiments. Additionally, expression of RanBPM abrogated the interaction between T?RI and TRAF6. Furthermore, RanBPM could depress TGF-? induced TRAF6 ubiquitination, subsequent NF-?B signaling pathway, and block TGF-? induced T?RI nuclear accumulation. Taken together, our results reveal that RanBPM may modulate TGF-?-mediated downstream signaling and biological functions.
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Short-chain fatty acids inhibit growth hormone and prolactin gene transcription via cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) play a key role in altering carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, influence endocrine pancreas activity, and as a precursor of ruminant milk fat. However, the effect and detailed mechanisms by which SCFAs mediate bovine growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) gene transcription remain unclear. In this study, we detected the effects of SCFAs (acetate, propionate, and butyrate) on the activity of the cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway, GH, PRL, and Pit-1 gene transcription in dairy cow anterior pituitary cells (DCAPCs). The results showed that SCFAs decreased intracellular cAMP levels and a subsequent reduction in PKA activity. Inhibition of PKA activity decreased CREB phosphorylation, thereby inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. Furthermore, PTX blocked SCFAs- inhibited cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway. These data showed that the inhibition of GH and PRL gene transcription induced by SCFAs is mediated by Gi activation and that propionate is more potent than acetate and butyrate in inhibiting GH and PRL gene transcription. In conclusion, this study identifies a biochemical mechanism for the regulation of SCFAs on bovine GH and PRL gene transcription in DCAPCs, which may serve as one of the factors that regulate pituitary function in accordance with dietary intake.
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Centrosomal Abnormalities Characterize Human and Rodent Cystic Cholangiocytes and Are Associated with Cdc25A Overexpression.
Am. J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Hepatic cystogenesis in polycystic liver diseases is associated with abnormalities of cholangiocyte cilia. Given the crucial association between cilia and centrosomes, we tested the hypothesis that centrosomal defects occur in cystic cholangiocytes of rodents (Pkd2(WS25/-) mice and PCK rats) and of patients with polycystic liver diseases, contributing to disturbed ciliogenesis and cyst formation. We examined centrosomal cytoarchitecture in control and cystic cholangiocytes, the effects of centrosomal abnormalities on ciliogenesis, and the role of the cell-cycle regulator Cdc25A in centrosomal defects by depleting cholangiocytes of Cdc25A in vitro and in vivo and evaluating centrosome morphology, cell-cycle progression, proliferation, ciliogenesis, and cystogenesis. The cystic cholangiocytes had atypical centrosome positioning, supernumerary centrosomes, multipolar spindles, and extra cilia. Structurally aberrant cilia were present in cystic cholangiocytes during ciliogenesis. Depletion of Cdc25A resulted in i) a decreased number of centrosomes and multiciliated cholangiocytes, ii) an increased fraction of ciliated cholangiocytes with longer cilia, iii) a decreased proportion of cholangiocytes in G1/G0 and S phases of the cell cycle, iv) decreased cell proliferation, and v) reduced cyst growth in vitro and in vivo. Our data support the hypothesis that centrosomal abnormalities in cholangiocytes are associated with aberrant ciliogenesis and that accelerated cystogenesis is likely due to overexpression of Cdc25A, providing additional evidence that pharmacological targeting of Cdc25A has therapeutic potential in polycystic liver diseases.
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Lower citrinin production by gene disruption of ctnB involved in citrinin biosynthesis in Monascus aurantiacus Li AS3.4384.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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The filamentous fungi Monascus spp. have been used in the production of food colorants and health remedies for more than 1000 years in Asia. However, greater attention has been given to the safety of Monascus products because they contain citrinin, which is harmful to the hepatic and renal systems. The citrinin biosynthetic gene cluster has been characterized in Monasucs aurantiacus . The ctnB gene encoding an oxidoreductase is located between pksCT and ctnA. In this study, a ctnB replacement vector (pCTNB-HPH) was constructed to disrupt the ctnB gene with a hygromycin resistance gene as the selection marker. The linear vector was transformed into M. aurantiacus using the protoplast CaCl2/polyethylene glycol (PEG) method. Three ctnB-disrupted strains were obtained by homologous recombination. In comparison to the parental strain, the ?ctnB mutants barely produced citrinin. These data confirmed that the ctnB gene is directly involved in citrinin biosynthesis. Moreover, the yields of the pigments of two disruptants were similar to that of the wild-type strain, but the yield of another mutant was slightly higher than that of the latter strain. These results indicate that the production of the mycotoxin citrinin was successfully eliminated through genetic engineering.
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Role of brain corticosterone and aldosterone in central angiotensin II-induced hypertension.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
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Circulating angiotensin II (Ang II) activates a central aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor neuromodulatory pathway, which mediates most of the Ang II-induced hypertension. This study examined whether specific central infusion of Ang II also activates this central aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor pathway. Intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang II at 1.0, 2.5, and 12.5 ng/min for 2 weeks caused dose-related increases in water intake, Ang II concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid, and blood pressure. Intracerebroventricular Ang II, at 2.5 and 12.5 ng/min, increased hypothalamic aldosterone and corticosterone, as well as plasma aldosterone and corticosterone without affecting plasma Ang II levels. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the aldosterone synthase inhibitor FAD286-but not the mineralocorticoid receptor blocker eplerenone-inhibited by ?60% the Ang II-induced increase in hypothalamic aldosterone. Both blockers attenuated by ?50% the increase in plasma aldosterone and corticosterone with only minimal effects on hypothalamic corticosterone. By telemetry, intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang II maximally increased blood pressure within the first day with no further increase over the next 2 weeks. Intracerebroventricular infusion of FAD286 or eplerenone did not affect the initial pressor responses but similarly prevented 60% to 70% of the chronic pressor responses to intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang II. These results indicate distinctly different patterns of blood pressure increase by circulating versus central Ang II and support the involvement of a brain aldosterone-mineralocorticoid receptor-activated neuromodulatory pathway in the chronic hypertension caused by both circulating and central Ang II.
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Contrast gain-control in stereo depth and cyclopean contrast perception.
J Vis
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Although human observers can perceive depth from stereograms with considerable contrast difference between the images presented to the two eyes (Legge & Gu, 1989), how contrast gain control functions in stereo depth perception has not been systematically investigated. Recently, we developed a multipathway contrast gain-control model (MCM) for binocular phase and contrast perception (Huang, Zhou, Lu, & Zhou, 2011; Huang, Zhou, Zhou, & Lu, 2010) based on a contrast gain-control model of binocular phase combination (Ding & Sperling, 2006). To extend the MCM to simultaneously account for stereo depth and cyclopean contrast perception, we manipulated the contrasts (ranging from 0.08 to 0.4) of the dynamic random dot stereograms (RDS) presented to the left and right eyes independently and measured both disparity thresholds for depth perception and perceived contrasts of the cyclopean images. We found that both disparity threshold and perceived contrast depended strongly on the signal contrasts in the two eyes, exhibiting characteristic binocular contrast gain-control properties. The results were well accounted for by an extended MCM model, in which each eye exerts gain control on the other eyes signal in proportion to its own signal contrast energy and also gain control over the other eyes gain control; stereo strength is proportional to the product of the signal strengths in the two eyes after contrast gain control, and perceived contrast is computed by combining contrast energy from the two eyes. The new model provided an excellent account of our data (r(2) = 0.945), as well as some challenging results in the literature.
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MicroRNA expression profiling during neural differentiation of mouse embryonic carcinoma P19 cells.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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The Mouse P19 cell line was derived from an embryonal carcinoma. The pluripotent P19 cells can be induced to differentiate into neuronal and glial cells. Here, we describe an miRNA microarray method to monitor the miRNA expression profiles during the course of P19 cells neuronal differentiation. The results indicated that there were significant differences between the miRNA expression in P19 EC cells and the resultant differentiated neural stem cells.
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Chemical functionalization of silicene: spontaneous structural transition and exotic electronic properties.
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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The use of newly discovered silicene for various optoelectronic applications depends largely on the possibility of controlling its electronic properties by chemical functionalization. To investigate this possibility, we systemically study the structural and electronic properties of chemically functionalized silicene by employing first-principles calculations combined with the cluster expansion approach. Interestingly, we find that chemically functionalized epitaxial silicene is generally accompanied by a spontaneous structural transition, which originates from the preference of sp(3) hybridization of silicon. To realized continuously tunable band gaps, chemical functionalization of freestanding silicene at ~900 K is proposed. Finally, we predict that metastable silicene can also be used as an important host material to produce novel functional materials via substitutional doping. For example, the discovered ordered Si(8)P(4) could be a strong candidate for thin-film solar cell absorbers beyond bulk Si.
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Comprehensive profiling of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded miRNA species associated with specific latency types in tumor cells.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an etiological cause of many human lymphocytic and epithelial malignancies. EBV expresses different genes that are associated with three latency types. To date, as many as 44 EBV-encoded miRNA species have been found, but their comprehensive profiles in the three types of latent infection that are associated with various types of tumors are not well documented.
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Pre-induced adult human peripheral blood mononuclear cells migrate widely into the degenerative retinas of rd1 mice.
Cytotherapy
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Recent advances in stem cell research have raised the possibility of stem cells repairing or replacing retinal photoreceptor cells that are either dysfunctional or lost in many retinal diseases. Various types of stem cells have been used to replace retinal photoreceptor cells. Recently, peripheral blood stem cells, a small proportion of pluripotent stem cells, have been reported to mainly exist in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
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Comparison of the efficacy of Lamivudine plus adefovir versus entecavir in the treatment of Lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Hepatitis B virus infection remains 1 of the major health threats worldwide. Currently, lamivudine plus adefovir combination therapy or entecavir monotherapy is usually used for the treatment of patients with lamivudine-resistant chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, there are few systematic comparisons between the efficacy of lamivudine plus adefovir and the efficacy of entecavir in the treatment of these patients.
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HMGB1 release by human liver L02 and HepG2 cells induced by lipopolysaccharide.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Liver cells release the high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) protein when exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). However, the timing and levels of protein released remain unclear. The present study aimed to characterize the secretion of the late pro-inflammatory cytokine HMGB1 by liver L02 and HepG2 cells. The human mononuclear macrophage cell line U937 was used as a control. Various concentrations of LPS were added to human U937, L02 and HepG2 cells for different durations, and the cells were analyzed at different time-points following this addition. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure cellular HMGB1 mRNA levels, western blotting was performed to detect HMGB1 in cellular supernatants and the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytosol was examined using immunofluorescence staining. L02 and HepG2 cells exhibited higher HMGB1 mRNA levels compared with the control U937 cells 20 and 24 h following continuous exposure to LPS. U937 cells exhibited higher HMGB1 mRNA levels compared with the corresponding L02 and HepG2 cells 16 h following LPS exposure. The phase of HMGB1 protein detected in the cellular supernatants of L02 and HepG2 cells (16 h) was later than that of U937 cells (8 h). For the three cell lines, HMGB1 levels demonstrated a time dependency; however, the protein level was the highest in U937 cells. In the three cell lines, translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the cytosol occurred; however, the phases of HMGB1 translocation in L02 and HepG2 cells occurred later than in U937 cells. LPS-induced secretion of the late pro?inflammatory cytokine HMGB1 by liver cells is characterized by a late phase of release and smaller quantity, and the process of HMGB1 secretion appears to be associated with HMGB1 translocation.
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[?-arrestin2 plays a critical role in reward behaviors induced by cocaine].
Sheng Li Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Besides its role in desensitization and internalization of receptors, ?-arrestin2 facilitates G protein-independent signaling through its ability to scaffold various signaling molecules. ?-arrestin2 is widely distributed in the central nervous system, and mediates signal transduction of brain circuit. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of ?-arrestin2 in reward behaviors induced by cocaine. We assessed the conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by low (10 mg/kg), moderate (20 mg/kg) and high (30 mg/kg) doses of cocaine in Arrb2(-/-) mice and Arrb2(+/+) controls. In the Arrb2(-/-) mice, moderate and high, but not low, dose of cocaine induced pronounced increases of CPP scores, which were higher than those in the Arrb2(+/+) mice. Moreover, cocaine-induced locomotor activity was significantly lower in Arrb2(-/-) mice than that of Arrb2(+/+) littermate controls. Taken together, our results suggest a potential role of ?-arrestin2 in the cocaine-induced rewarding behaviors.
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The effect of unilateral mean luminance on binocular combination in normal and amblyopic vision.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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Luminance plays a modulating role in the processes of several visual tasks, which in turn provides significant information for the understanding of visual processing. Here, using a binocular phase combination paradigm, we studied the effect of unilateral changes in mean luminance on binocular combination in both normal and amblyopic vision. We found, in normal observers, attenuation of one eyes stimulus luminance with neutral density filters produces binocular phase combination similar to those of amblyopic subjects. Correspondingly, in amblyopic observers, reduction of the fellow eyes stimulus luminance produces binocular phase combination similar to those of normal subjects. These phenomena could be explained by an attenuated contribution of the filtered eye to the binocular phase percept due to reduced gain-control. The findings have major implications both for the study of binocular combination and for amblyopia treatment.
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Asymmetric introgression in the horticultural living fossil cycas sect. Asiorientales using a genome-wide scanning approach.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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The Asian cycads are mostly allopatric, distributed in small population sizes. Hybridization between allopatric species provides clues in determining the mechanism of species divergence. Horticultural introduction provides the chance of interspecific gene flow between allopatric species. Two allopatrically eastern Asian Cycas sect. Asiorientales species, C. revoluta and C. taitungensis, which are widely distributed in Ryukyus and Fujian Province and endemic to Taiwan, respectively, were planted in eastern Taiwan for horticultural reason. Higher degrees of genetic admixture in cultivated samples than wild populations in both cycad species were detected based on multilocus scans by neutral AFLP markers. Furthermore, bidirectional but asymmetric introgression by horticultural introduction of C. revoluta is evidenced by the reanalyses of species associated loci, which are assumed to be diverged after species divergence. Partial loci introgressed from native cycad to the invaders were also detected at the loci of strong species association. Consistent results tested by all neutral loci, and the species-associated loci, specify the recent introgression from the paradox of sharing of ancestral polymorphisms. Phenomenon of introgression of cultivated cycads implies niche conservation among two geographic-isolated cycads, even though the habitats of the extant wild populations of two species are distinct.
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A new access density definition and its correlation with crash rates by microscopic traffic simulation method.
Accid Anal Prev
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Better access management can improve highway safety by reducing potential crashes and conflicts. To make adequate access management decisions, it is essential to understand the impact of different access types on roadway safety, usually represented by the crash rate of a roadway segment. The objective of this paper is to propose a new access density definition reflecting the impact of traffic speed variation of different access types. The traffic speed variation was obtained from a microscopic traffic simulation software package TSIS-CORSIM. A sample roadway Temple Terrace Highway was selected to perform traffic simulation. Access Weight was obtained from traffic speed variation, and access density was obtained from access weight. The proposed access density was then compared with the existing definition by analyzing their correlations with crash rates on one suburban street in Temple Terrace, Florida. The comparison demonstrates that crash rates are more highly correlated with the proposed access density than that in the previous study, which is helpful for Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), and transportation consulting companies to regulate the construction, management and design of roadway segments.
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Pasireotide is more effective than octreotide in reducing hepatorenal cystogenesis in rodents with polycystic kidney and liver diseases.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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In polycystic liver (PLD) and kidney (PKD) diseases, increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels trigger hepatorenal cystogenesis. A reduction of the elevated cAMP by targeting somatostatin receptors (SSTRs) with octreotide (OCT; a somatostatin analog that preferentially binds to SSTR2) inhibits cyst growth. Here we compare the effects of OCT to pasireotide (PAS; a more potent somatostatin analog with broader receptor specificity) on: (1) cAMP levels, cell cycle, proliferation, and cyst expansion in vitro using cholangiocytes derived from control and PCK rats (a model of autosomal recessive PKD [ARPKD]), healthy human beings, and patients with autosomal dominant PKD (ADPKD); and (2) hepatorenal cystogenesis in vivo in PCK rats and Pkd2(WS25/-) mice (a model of ADPKD). Expression of SSTRs was assessed in control and cystic cholangiocytes of rodents and human beings. Concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (both involved in indirect action of somatostatin analogs), and expression and localization of SSTRs after treatment were evaluated. We found that PAS was more potent (by 30%-45%) than OCT in reducing cAMP and cell proliferation, affecting cell cycle distribution, decreasing growth of cultured cysts in vitro, and inhibiting hepatorenal cystogenesis in vivo in PCK rats and Pkd2(WS25/-) mice. The levels of IGF1 (but not VEGF) were reduced only in response to PAS. Expression of SSTR1 and SSTR2 (but not SSTR3 and SSTR5) was decreased in cystic cholangiocytes compared to control. Although both OCT and PAS increased the immunoreactivity of SSTR2, only PAS up-regulated SSTR1; neither drug affected cellular localization of SSTRs. Conclusion: PAS is more effective than OCT in reducing hepatorenal cystogenesis in rodent models; therefore, it might be more beneficial for the treatment of PKD and PLD.
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Hepatitis C virus NS4B blocks the interaction of STING and TBK1 to evade host innate immunity.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2013
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major human viral pathogen that causes chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. In most cases, acute HCV infection becomes persistent, at least in part due to viral evasion of host innate immune response. Although HCV genomic RNA contains pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) that is able to induce host interferon responses, HCV can shut down the responses by using the viral NS3/4A protease to cleave MAVS/VISA and TRIF, two key adaptor molecules essential for the interferon signaling activation. The aim of this study was to explore a novel NS3/4A-independent mechanism HCV utilizes to evade host innate immune responses.
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Role of angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the subfornical organ in the pressor responses to central sodium in rats.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Central infusion of Na(+)-rich artificial cerebro-spinal fluid (aCSF) activates the brain renin-angiotensin system and causes sympatho-excitatory and pressor responses. We evaluated the role of the subfornical organ (SFO) and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptors in the SFO in mediating the central Na(+)-induced pressor response. In conscious Wistar rats, intra SFO infusions of Na(+)-rich aCSF containing 0.45 and 0.6M Na(+) at 10 nl/min or injection of angiotensin II (Ang II) at 80 ng increased blood pressure (BP) by 15-22 mmHg, whereas mannitol with the same osmolarity as the Na(+)-rich aCSF had no effects. Intra SFO infusion of the AT1 receptor blocker candesartan abolished the pressor response induced by intra SFO administration of Na(+)-rich aCSF or Ang II. Intra cerebro-ventricular (icv) infusion of Na(+)-rich aCSF (0.3M Na(+)) at 3.8 ?l/min for 10 min increased BP by 15-20 mmHg. Electrolytic lesion of the SFO attenuated these BP increases by 50-70%. Intra SFO infusion of candesartan also prevented 50% of these pressor responses. These data suggest that SFO neurons are indeed sensitive to Na(+), the SFO is a major - but not only - site in the brain to sense an increase in CSF [Na(+)], and activation of AT1 receptors in the SFO mediates the SFO component of the Na(+)-induced pressor response.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.