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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Variations in the active characteristics of sludge during the operation of an aerobic membrane bioreactor and their effects on membrane fouling].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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The present work investigated the variations in the active characteristics of sludge during the operation period of an aeration membrane bioreactor, as well as their effects on the fouling of membrane module. Through discharging the excess sludge, the concentration of the mixed liquor was maintained at around 4 000 mg x L(-1) for 75 days, during which the characteristics of sludge were carefully tested every day to reflect its variation. Results indicated the dehydrogenase activity increased with the prolonging operation time. The increased activity of dehydrogenase had two effects on the operation of the bioreactor, one was the enhancement of pollutant removal by the microorganisms, while the other effect was the increase of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), which led to a deteriorative effect on the membrane fouling. During the operation of the bioreactor, the sludge yield coefficient first increased, and then decreased to a certain degree with obvious decrease in particle size and increase in the amount of EPS, which also enhanced the quality of the effluent. At the same time, protozoon and metazoan were observed in the whole bioreactor at the late operational phase but relatively rare at the initial phase. Analysis of membrane fouling showed that the fouling rate of the membrane module increased during the late operational period, which was attributed to the deposition of fine sludge particles and EPS caused by the decreased particle size of the sludge and the increased amount of EPS.
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CARD9 mediates Dectin-1-induced ERK activation by linking Ras-GRF1 to H-Ras for antifungal immunity.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Dectin-1 functions as a pattern recognition receptor for sensing fungal infection. It has been well-established that Dectin-1 induces innate immune responses through caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 9 (CARD9)-mediated NF-?B activation. In this study, we find that CARD9 is dispensable for NF-?B activation induced by Dectin-1 ligands, such as curdlan or Candida albicans yeast. In contrast, we find that CARD9 regulates H-Ras activation by linking Ras-GRF1 to H-Ras, which mediates Dectin-1-induced extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation and proinflammatory responses when stimulated by their ligands. Mechanistically, Dectin-1 engagement initiates spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk)-dependent Ras-GRF1 phosphorylation, and the phosphorylated Ras-GRF1 recruits and activates H-Ras through forming a complex with CARD9, which leads to activation of ERK downstream. Finally, we show that inhibiting ERK activation significantly accelerates the death of C. albicans-infected mice, and this inhibitory effect is dependent on CARD9. Together, our studies reveal a molecular mechanism by which Dectin-1 induces H-Ras activation that leads to ERK activation for host innate immune responses against fungal infection.
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[Experimental study on relationship between pungent-hot herb property express and calmodulin].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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To explain the essence of pungent-hot herb property express according to in vivo and in vitro studies on its effect on calmodulin on the base of the observation of the adjustment in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad axis functions of Aconiti Lateralis Radix Praeparata, Curculiginis Rhizoma, Cinnamomi Cortex and bitter-cold herb Phellodendri Chinensis Cortex in rats under the state of yang deficiency.
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An upconverted photonic nonvolatile memory.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Conventional flash memory devices are voltage driven and found to be unsafe for confidential data storage. To ensure the security of the stored data, there is a strong demand for developing novel nonvolatile memory technology for data encryption. Here we show a photonic flash memory device, based on upconversion nanocrystals, which is light driven with a particular narrow width of wavelength in addition to voltage bias. With the help of near-infrared light, we successfully manipulate the multilevel data storage of the flash memory device. These upconverted photonic flash memory devices exhibit high ON/OFF ratio, long retention time and excellent rewritable characteristics.
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Intermittent cold stress enhances features of atherosclerotic plaque instability in apolipoprotein E?deficient mice.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The cold weather is associated with an increased occurrence of acute coronary events. However, the mechanisms underlying cold?induced myocardial infarctions have not yet been fully elucidated. In the present study, 20 male, eight week?old, apolipoprotein E (ApoE)?deficient mice were subjected to either control conditions or intermittent cold exposure for eight weeks. Mice in the cold group were placed in a cold room at 4?C for 4 h per day, while the mice in the control group were kept in a room at 24?C. Cold?exposed mice did not significantly differ from control mice in body weight, fasting glucose concentration and plasma lipid levels, including triglyceride, total cholesterol, low?density lipoprotein and high?density lipoprotein. The hematoxylin and eosin?stained sections of the aortic root demonstrated increased plaque size in the cold group compared with the control group (P<0.01). Furthermore, cold?treated mice exhibited significantly decreased plaque collagen and vascular smooth muscle cell deposition and increased macrophage and lymphocyte content (P<0.05 or P<0.01), which are typical features of atherosclerotic plaque instability. Additionally, the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)?2, MMP?9 and MMP?14 were significantly increased (P<0.05 or P<0.01), whereas tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP)?1 expression was decreased (P<0.05) following exposure to a cold environment. The present study demonstrated that chronic intermittent cold stress may increase atherosclerotic plaque size and promote plaque instability in ApoE?deficient mice by altering the balance of MMPs and TIMPs. These findings may provide mechanistic insights into sudden cardiac death in cold environments.
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Spatiotemporal Expression of Cdx4 in the Developing Anorectum of Rat Embryos with Ethylenethiourea-Induced Anorectal Malformations.
Cells Tissues Organs (Print)
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the expression of Cdx4 (caudal-type homeobox gene-4) during anorectal development in normal and ethylenethiourea (ETU)-induced anorectal malformation (ARM) embryos with a view to establishing the possible role of Cdx4 in ARM pathogenesis. Materials and Methods: ARM was induced by ETU on the 10th gestational day (GD10) in rat embryos. Cesarean deliveries were then performed to harvest the embryos. Spatiotemporal expression of Cdx4 was evaluated in normal rat embryos (n = 354) and ARM embryos (n = 378) from GD13 to GD16. Results: Immunohistochemical staining and immunofluorescence revealed that, in normal embryos, Cdx4 expression was extensively detected on the epithelium of the cloaca on GD13. On GD14, the Cdx4-positive cells were intensively detected on the hindgut. On GD15, the anal membrane was constantly immunoreactive to Cdx4. On GD16, Cdx4-labeled cells were observed on the epithelium of the anus. In the ARM embryos, the epithelium of the cloaca, urorectal septum (URS) and anorectum was negative or faint for Cdx4. In the normal embryo group, Cdx4 protein and mRNA expression showed time-dependent changes in the developing hindgut from GD13 to GD16 on Western blot and real-time reverse transcription plus polymerase chain reaction. Once the URS divided the cloaca into the primitive rectum and urogenital sinus (UGS) on GD15, Cdx4 expression began to decrease. In addition, the expression level of Cdx4 in the ARM group from GD13 to GD15 was significantly lower than that in the normal group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: In ARM embryos, an imbalance in the spatiotemporal expression of Cdx4 was noted during anorectal morphogenesis from GD13 to GD16. This suggests that ETU may cause downregulation of Cdx4 expression. Downregulation of Cdx4 at the time of cloacal separation into the primitive rectum and UGS might thus be related to the development of ARM. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Chitin accelerates activation of a novel haloarchaeal serine protease that deproteinizes chitin-containing biomass.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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The haloarchaeon Natrinema sp. strain J7-2 has the ability to degrade chitin, and its genome harbors a chitin metabolism-related gene cluster that contains a halolysin gene, sptC. The sptC gene encodes a precursor composed of a signal peptide, an N-terminal propeptide consisting of a core domain (N*) and a linker peptide, a subtilisin-like catalytic domain, a polycystic kidney disease domain (PkdD), and a chitin-binding domain (ChBD). Here we report that the autocatalytic maturation of SptC is initiated by cis-processing of N* to yield an autoprocessed complex (N*-I(WT)), followed by trans-processing/degradation of the linker peptide, the ChBD, and N*. The resulting mature form (M(WT)) containing the catalytic domain and the PkdD showed optimum azocaseinolytic activity at 3 to 3.5 M NaCl, demonstrating salt-dependent stability. Deletion analysis revealed that the PkdD did not confer extra stability on the enzyme but did contribute to enzymatic activity. The ChBD exhibited salt-dependent chitin-binding capacity and mediated the binding of N*-I(WT) to chitin. ChBD-mediated chitin binding enhances SptC maturation by promoting activation of the autoprocessed complex. Our results also demonstrate that SptC is capable of removing proteins from shrimp shell powder (SSP) at high salt concentrations. Interestingly, N*-I(WT) released soluble peptides from SSP faster than did M(WT). Most likely, ChBD-mediated binding of the autoprocessed complex to chitin in SSP not only accelerates enzyme activation but also facilitates the deproteinization process by increasing the local protease concentration around the substrate. By virtue of these properties, SptC is highly attractive for use in preparation of chitin from chitin-containing biomass.
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Quantum breathers in Heisenberg ferromagnetic chains with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction.
Chaos
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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We present an analytical study on quantum breathers in one-dimensional ferromagnetic XXZ chains with Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction by means of the time-dependent Hartree approximation and the semidiscrete multiple-scale method. The stationary localized single-boson wave functions are obtained and these analytical solutions are checked by numerical simulations. With such stationary localized single-boson wave functions, we construct quantum breather states. Furthermore, the role of the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction is discussed.
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Synthesis of porous ZnS:Ag2S nanosheets by ion exchange for photocatalytic H2 generation.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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ZnS:Ag2S porous nanostructures are prepared by a simple ion-exchange route using ZnS nanosheets as sacrificial templates. In solutions of different Ag ion concentrations, ZnS nanosheets are partially converted to Ag2S, resulting in porous ZnS:Ag2S nanosheet composites with different pore sizes. With the Ag2S nanocrystals playing the role of hole scavengers, the porous nanosheets exhibit a high photocatalytic H2 generation rate of 104.9 ?mol/h/g without using any noble metal cocatalyst.
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Dietary capsaicin ameliorates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis through the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Dietary capsaicin plays a protective role in hypertension, atherosclerosis, obesity, and hyperlipidemia through activating the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), a nonselective cation channel. This study was designed to investigate the role of capsaicin in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in a pressure overload model.
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mAChRs activation induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition on lung epithelial cells.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been proposed as a mechanism in the progression of airway diseases and cancer. Here, we explored the role of acetylcholine (ACh) and the pathway involved in the process of EMT, as well as the effects of mAChRs antagonist.
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Evolutionary origin of asymptotically stable consensus.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Consensus is widely observed in nature as well as in society. Up to now, many works have focused on what kind of (and how) isolated single structures lead to consensus, while the dynamics of consensus in interdependent populations remains unclear, although interactive structures are everywhere. For such consensus in interdependent populations, we refer that the fraction of population adopting a specified strategy is the same across different interactive structures. A two-strategy game as a conflict is adopted to explore how natural selection affects the consensus in such interdependent populations. It is shown that when selection is absent, all the consensus states are stable, but none are evolutionarily stable. In other words, the final consensus state can go back and forth from one to another. When selection is present, there is only a small number of stable consensus state which are evolutionarily stable. Our study highlights the importance of evolution on stabilizing consensus in interdependent populations.
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Effectiveness and safety of negative-pressure wound therapy for diabetic foot ulcers: a meta-analysis.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The authors conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of negative-pressure wound therapy for diabetic foot ulcers.
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Expression of mammalian target of rapamycin in atherosclerotic plaques is decreased under diabetic conditions: a mechanism for rapamycin resistance.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Our previous study demonstrated that diabetes increases in-stent restenosis following rapamycin-eluting stent placement, which was defined as rapamycin resistance. However, the underlying mechanisms of rapamycin resistance remain to be determined. In the present study, male apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice were randomly divided into control and diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced by injecting streptozocin (STZ). The hyperglycemic state, defined as a fasting plasma glucose level >13 mmol/l, was maintained for 8 weeks. At the end of the administration, the plasma levels of triglycerides (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were significantly elevated in the diabetic group compared with the control mice (all P<0.01). The present study revealed that diabetes increased the atherosclerotic plaque size of the aortic root (P<0.01) and the content of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in the atherosclerotic lesion (P<0.01). Furthermore, the protein expression and phosphorylation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), 4E-binding protein 1 and ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (P<0.01) were significantly decreased in the diabetic mice compared with the control group. The decrease in the expression and phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream kinases may be one of the molecular mechanisms underlying rapamycin resistance.
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A new insight into resource recovery of excess sewage sludge: feasibility of extracting mixed amino acids as an environment-friendly corrosion inhibitor for industrial pickling.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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The work mainly presented a laboratory-scale investigation on an effective process to extract a value-added product from municipal excess sludge. The functional groups in the hydrolysate were characterized with Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and the contained amino acids were measured by means of an automatic amino acid analyzer. The corrosion-inhibition characteristics of the hydrolysate were determined with weight-loss measurement, electrochemical polarization and scanning electron microscopy. Results indicated that the hydrolysate contained 15 kinds of amino acid, and their adsorption on the surface could effectively inhibit the corrosion reaction of the steel from the acid medium. Polarization curves indicated that the obtained hydrolysate was a mixed-type inhibitor, but mainly restricted metal dissolution on the anode. The adsorption accorded well with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm, involved an increase in entropy, and was a spontaneous, exothermic process.
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Temporal and spatial expression of caudal-type homeobox gene-2 during hindgut development in rat embryos with ethylenethiourea-induced anorectal malformations.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The main aim of this study was to determine Cdx2 expression patterns during anorectal development in normal and anorectal malformation (ARM) embryos with a view to establishing the possible role of Cdx2 in ARM pathogenesis. ARM was induced with ethylenethiourea on the 10th gestational day (GD10) in rat embryos, and Cesarean deliveries were performed to harvest the embryos. The temporal and spatial expression of Cdx2 was evaluated in normal rat embryos (n?=?303) and ARM embryos (n?=?321) from GD13 to GD16. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that, in normal embryos, Cdx2 was mainly expressed on the epithelium of the urorectal septum (URS) and the hindgut on GD13. On GD14, Cdx2-immunopositive cells were extensively detected on the URS, hindgut, and cloacal membrane. On GD15, increased immunopositive tissue staining on the anal membrane was evident. In ARM embryos, the epithelium of the cloaca, URS, and anorectum were negative or faintly immunostaining for Cdx2. Analyses by Western blot and real-time reverse transcription plus the polymerase chain reaction revealed that, in the normal group, Cdx2 protein and mRNA expression showed time-dependent changes in the developing hindgut from GD13 to GD16. Upon the URS division of the cloaca into the primitive rectum and urogenital sinus (UGS) on GD15, Cdx2 expression began to decrease. Moreover, the Cdx2 expression level in the ARM group from GD13 to GD14 was significantly lower than that in the normal group (P?
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Effects of metal ions on stability and activity of hyperthermophilic pyrolysin and further stabilization of this enzyme by modification of a Ca2+-binding site.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Pyrolysin is an extracellular subtilase produced by the marine hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. This enzyme functions at high temperatures in seawater, but little is known about the effects of metal ions on the properties of pyrolysin. Here, we report that the supplementation of Na(+), Ca(2+), or Mg(2+) salts at concentrations similar to those in seawater destabilizes recombinant pyrolysin but leads to an increase in enzyme activity. The destabilizing effect of metal ions on pyrolysin appears to be related to the disturbance of surface electrostatic interactions of the enzyme. In addition, mutational analysis of two predicted high-affinity Ca(2+)-binding sites (Ca1 and Ca2) revealed that the binding of Ca(2+) is important for the stabilization of this enzyme. Interestingly, Asn substitutions at residues Asp818 and Asp820 of the Ca2 site, which is located in the C-terminal extension of pyrolysin, resulted in improvements in both enzyme thermostability and activity without affecting Ca(2+)-binding affinity. These effects were most likely due to the elimination of unfavorable electrostatic repulsion at the Ca2 site. Together, these results suggest that metal ions play important roles in modulating the stability and activity of pyrolysin.
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Biodiversity and succession of microbial community in a multi-habitat membrane bioreactor.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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The present study focused on establishing a multi-habitat membrane bioreactor, as well as exploring its biodiversity and succession of microbial communities. In a long-term operational period (100 days), the dissolved oxygen level of a local zone within the bioreactor decreased consistently from the original oxic state to the final anaerobic state, which led to a continuous succession of the microbial community in the bioreactor. The results revealed that the biodiversity of the microbial community in different zones simultaneously increased, with a similar microbial composition in their final successional stage. The results also indicated that the dominant species during the whole operation were distributed among 6 major phyla. At the initial operational stages, the dominant species in the anoxic-anaerobic and the oxic zones exhibited distinguished difference, whereas at the final operational stage, both zones presented nearly the same dominant microbial species and a rather similar structure in their microbial communities.
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Proteomic analysis of the secretome of haloarchaeon Natrinema sp. J7-2.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Although in silico predictions have revealed that haloarchaea can be distinguished from other organisms in that the Tat pathway is used more extensively than the Sec pathway for haloarchaeal protein secretion, only a few haloarchaeal-secreted proteins have been experimentally confirmed. Here, the culture supernatant and membrane fraction of the haloarchaeon Natrinema sp. J7-2 grown at 23% salt concentration were subjected to RPLC-ESI-MS/MS analysis. In total, 46 predicted Tat substrates, 14 predicted Sec substrates, and 3 class III signal peptide-bearing proteins were detected. Approximately 65% of the detected Tat substrates contain lipoboxes, emphasizing the role of the Tat pathway in haloarchaeal lipoprotein secretion. Most of the detected Tat substrates are extracellular substrate (solute)-binding proteins and redox proteins. Despite the small number of Sec substrates, two of them, a cell surface glycoprotein and a putative lipoprotein carrier protein, were identified to be high-abundance secreted proteins. While limited proteins were detected in the culture supernatant, most of the secreted proteins were found in the membrane fraction. The anchoring of secreted proteins to the cell surface via a lipobox or a PGF-CTERM seems to be an adaptation strategy of haloarchaea to handle the harsh extracellular environment. Additionally, ?15% of the integral membrane proteins (IMPs) detected in the membrane fraction possess putative Sec signal peptides or signal anchors, implying that the Sec pathway is important for membrane insertion of IMPs. This is the first report to describe the experimental secretome of haloarchaea and provide new information for better understanding of haloarchaeal protein secretion patterns.
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Essence of disposing the excess sludge and optimizing the operation of wastewater treatment: rheological behavior and microbial ecosystem.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Proper disposal of excess sludge and steady maintenance of the high bioactivity of activated sludge in bioreactors are essential for the successful operation of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Since sludge is a non-Newtonian fluid, the rheological behavior of sludge can therefore have a significant impact on various processes in a WWTP, such as fluid transportation, mixing, oxygen diffusion, mass transfer, anaerobic digestion, chemical conditioning and mechanical dewatering. These are key factors affecting the operation efficiency and the energy consumption of the entire process. In the past decade-due to the production of large quantities of excess sludge associated with the extensive construction of WWTPs and the emergence of some newly-developed techniques for wastewater purification characterized by high biomass concentrations-investigations into the rheology of sludge are increasingly important and this topic has aroused considerable interests. We reviewed a number of investigations into the rheology of sludge, with the purpose of providing systematic and detailed analyses on the related aspects of the rheological behavior of sludge. It is clear that, even though considerable research has focused on the rheology of sludge over a long time period, there is still a need for further thorough investigation into this field. Due to the complex process of bio-treatment in all WWTPs, biological factors have a major influence on the properties of sludge. These influences are however still poorly understood, particularly with respect to the mechanisms involved and magnitude of such impacts. When taking note of the conspicuous biological characteristics of sludge, it becomes important that biological factors, such as the species composition and relative abundance of various microorganisms, as well as the microbial community characteristics that affect relevant operating processes, should be considered.
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The incidence of acute myocardial infarction in relation to overweight and obesity: a meta-analysis.
Arch Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Epidemiological evidence suggests that overweight and obesity have been associated with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, data on this issue are controversial. This study aims to use meta-analysis to determine whether overweight and obesity are related to AMI.
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Circulating MiR-133a as a Biomarker Predicts Cardiac Hypertrophy in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small ribonucleotides regulating gene expression. MicroRNAs are present in the blood in a remarkably stable form and have emerged as potential diagnostic markers in patients with cardiovascular disease. Our study aimed to assess circulating miR-133a levels in MHD patients and the relation of miR-133a to cardiac hypertrophy.
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Meta-analysis of GSTT1 null genotype and preterm delivery risk.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Glutathione S-transferase T1 (GSTT1) null genotype has been indicated to be correlated with preterm delivery (PTD) susceptibility, but study results were still debatable. Thus, a meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed, EMBASE, and CNKI were searched. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the strength of association in the random-effects model or fixed-effects model. Nine case-control studies with a total of 2526 cases and 4565 controls were eligible. The null genotype of GSTT1 was associated with a significantly increased risk of PTD when compared with present genotype (OR = 1.18; 95% CI 1.05-1.33; I(2) = 33). In the subgroup analysis according to ethnicity, significantly increased PTD risk was observed in Asians (OR = 1.20; 95% CI 1.01-1.33; I(2) = 0%) but not in Caucasians (OR = 1.32; 95% CI 0.89-1.97; I(2) = 77). This meta-analysis suggested that GSTT1 null genotype may be associated with the risk of PTD.
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Effect of whole-body vibration for 3 months on arterial stiffness in the middle-aged and elderly.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common problem of middle-aged and older adults. Increased arterial stiffness is a CVD risk factor. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a simple and convenient exercise for middle-aged and older adults; however, there have been few studies investigating the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness. This study mainly investigated the effect of WBV on arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults.
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Transgenic Overexpression of Uncoupling Protein 2 Attenuates Salt-Induced Vascular Dysfunction by Inhibition of Oxidative Stress.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Ablation of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) has been involved in the enhancement of salt sensitivity associated with increased superoxide level and decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. However, the role of overexpression of UCP2 in salt-induced vascular dysfunction remains elusive.
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Molecular Basis for Auto- and Hetero-catalytic Maturation of a Thermostable Subtilase from Thermophilic Bacillus sp. WF146.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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The proform of the WF146 protease, an extracellular subtilase produced by thermophilic Bacillus sp. WF146, matures efficiently at high temperatures. Here we report that the proform, which contains an N-terminal propeptide composed of a core domain (N*) and a linker peptide, is intrinsically able to mature via multiple pathways. One autocatalytic pathway is initiated by cis-processing of N* to generate an autoprocessed complex N*-I(WT), and this step is followed by truncation of the linker peptide and degradation of N*. Another autocatalytic pathway is initiated by trans-processing of the linker peptide followed by degradation of N*. Unlike most reported subtilases, the maturation of the WF146 protease occurs not only autocatalytically but also hetero-catalytically whereby heterogeneous proteases accelerate the maturation of the WF146 protease via trans-processing of the proform and N*-I(WT). Although N* acts as an intramolecular chaperone and an inhibitor of the mature enzyme, the linker peptide is susceptible to proteolysis, allowing the trans-processing reaction to occur auto- and hetero-catalytically. These studies also demonstrate that the WF146 protease undergoes subtle structural adjustments during the maturation process and that the binding of Ca(2+) is required for routing the proform to mature properly at high temperatures. Interestingly, under Ca(2+)-free conditions, the proform is cis-processed into a unique propeptide-intermediate complex (N*-I(E)) capable of re-synthesis of the proform. Based on the basic catalytic principle of serine proteases and these experimental results, a mechanism for the cis-processing/re-synthesis equilibrium of the proform and the role of the linker peptide in regulation of this equilibrium has been proposed.
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[Rapid enrichment and cultivation of denitrifying phosphate-removal bacteria and its identification by fluorescence in situ hybridization technology].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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The present work focused on a rapid enrichment and cultivation of denitrifying phosphate-removal bacteria (DPB) in a membrane bio-reactor(MBR) by using A2/O anaerobic sludge from a wastewater treatment plant as seed, as well as providing an identification method. In the experiments, sodium acetate was used as the carbon source and a certain amount of nitrate was added to the MBR in the anoxic stage. Results showed that, with the efficient trap of the hollow-fiber membrane module, the proportion of DPB in all the phosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) increased from 24% to 93% within 35 days after two-stages cultivation including anaerobic/aerobic and anaerobic/anoxic, during which the removal efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus reached more than 90%. The activated sludge was identified by combining a regular method and the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, which demonstrated that Pseudomonas sp. and Rhodocyclus sp. were the dominant bacteria in the used bioreactor.
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Comparison of 44-Hour and Fixed 24-Hour Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Dialysis Patients.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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The two most commonly used strategies to evaluate dialysis patients blood pressure (BP) level are 44-hour and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM). The objective of this study was to find an appropriate 24-hour period that correlated well with the 44-hour BP level and determine the differences between these strategies. In a group of 51 dialysis patients, the authors performed 44-hour ABPM and extracted data for a fixed 24-hour ABPM. The fixed 24-hour ABPM started at 6 am on the nondialysis day. A strong correlation was found between all parameters of 44-hour and the fixed 24-hour ABPM, with paired sample t test showing only small magnitude changes in a few parameters. Both 24-hour ABPM and 44-hour ABPM were superior to clinic BP in predicting left ventricular mass index (LVMI) by multiple regression analysis. It was found that 44-hour ambulatory arterial stiffness index (AASI), but not 24-hour AASI, had a positive association with LVMI (r=0.328, P=.021). However, after adjustment for 44-hour systolic blood pressure, this association disappeared. Fixed 24-hour ABPM is a good surrogate of 44-hour ABPM to some extent, while 44-hour ABPM can provide more accurate and detailed information.
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The scalping forehead flap for 1-stage reconstruction of large facial defects after tumor resection.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Skin tumors often occur in the face or other sun-exposed areas in the aged population, and cancerous ulceration in the face leads to facial damage. Regarding the aesthetic character of the facial unit and the age or concomitant pathologies of these patients, it is necessary to use quick, reliable methods to debride malignant ulcer and cover the wound or suture the incision. We report 2 cases of large facial malignant ulcer that were treated with forehead flap based on the supratrochlear artery or the frontal branch of a side superficial temporal artery in a 1-stage operation. Both of them got satisfying functional and aesthetic results.
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Double-positive expression of high-mobility group box 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor C indicates a poorer prognosis in gastric cancer patients.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2013
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Although many studies have indicated that high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) is associated with oncogenesis and a worse prognosis, the prognostic value of HMGB1 in gastric cancer (GC) remains unclear. In the present work, we aimed to evaluate the role of HMGB1 in GC and examined whether aberrant expression of both HMGB1 and vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) increased the malignant potential of GC.
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Chromium removal using resin supported nanoscale zero-valent iron.
J. Environ. Manage.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Resin supported nanoscale zero-valent iron (R-nZVI) was synthesized by the borohydride reduction method. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the factors affecting Cr(VI) removal. It was found that nZVI loads, resin dose, pH value and initial concentration of Cr(VI) were all important factors. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the nZVI particles in R-nZVI became sphere after reacting with Cr(VI). This phenomenon was attributed to the co-precipitation of Cr(III) and Fe(III) on the surface of resin. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed that Fe(0) diminished after the reaction. At optimum conditions, the Cr(VI) removal efficiency was 84.4% when the initial concentration of Cr(VI) was 20.0 mg/L. Regeneration of R-nZVI and resin was possible. R-nZVI can also remove Cr(III) efficiently. However, the removal mechanisms of Cr(VI) (anion) and Cr(III) (cation) are different. The former is chemical reduction, while the latter is ion exchange at pH below 6.3 and precipitation at pH above 6.3. This study demonstrates that R-nZVI has the potential to become an effective agent for treating wastewater containing Cr(VI) and Cr(III).
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[Costimulatory molecule CD40 expression in thyroid tissue of Graves disease patients and its immune pathogenetic significance].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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To explore the expression of costimulatory molecule CD40 in thyroid tissue of Graves disease patients and understand its immune pathogenetic significance.
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[Determination of theacrine in rat plasma by RP-HPLC].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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To establish a method for the determination of theacrine in rat plasma after ig. administration of theacrine.
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Spatiotemporal expression of fibroblast growth factor 10 in human hindgut and anorectal development.
Cells Tissues Organs (Print)
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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As fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF-10) gene expression may have a role in anorectal duct formation, this study aimed to assess the spatiotemporal expression pattern of FGF-10 during development of the rectum and hindgut in human embryos. FGF-10 expression was evaluated in human embryos (n = 85) at 3-8 weeks of gestation after immunohistochemical evaluation using antibodies specific for FGF-10. From weeks 4 to 7 of gestation, FGF-10 expression was observed primarily in the apical epithelium of the dorsal urorectal septum, the cloacal membrane (CM) and the hindgut. Following CM rupture (week 7), the epithelium of the anal canal was negative for FGF-10; however, it was present within the urothelium through week 7. FGF-10 expression during the development of the human hindgut and anorectum suggests that it may play a role in hindgut and anorectal morphogenesis.
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SOX2 overexpression correlates with poor prognosis in laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma.
Auris Nasus Larynx
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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The aim of present study was to investigate the expression of SOX2, a key transcription factor, in LSCC and to assess its prognostic significance.
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Mutations and down-regulation of CDX1 in children with anorectal malformations.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Anorectal malformations (ARMs) represent a variety of congenital disorders that involve abnormal termination of the anorectum. This study was to reveal relation between CDX1 and human ARMs phenotypes.
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Phospholipase C?2 (PLC?2) is key component in Dectin-2 signaling pathway, mediating anti-fungal innate immune responses.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
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C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) such as Dectin-2 function as pattern recognition receptors to sense fungal infection. However, the signaling pathways induced by these receptors remain largely unknown. Previous studies suggest that the CLR-induced signaling pathway may utilize similar signaling components as the B cell receptor-induced signaling pathway. Phospholipase C?2 (PLC?2) is a key component in B cell receptor signaling, but its role in other signaling pathways has not been fully characterized. Here, we show that PLC?2 functions downstream of Dectin-2 in response to the stimulation by the hyphal form of Candida albicans, an opportunistic pathogenic fungus. Using PLC?2- and PLC?1-deficient macrophages, we found that the lack of PLC?2, but not PLC?1, impairs cytokine production in response to infection with C. albicans. PLC?2 deficiency results in the defective activation of NF-?B and MAPK and a significantly reduced production of reactive oxygen species following fungal challenge. In addition, PLC?2-deficient mice are defective in clearing C. albicans infection in vivo. Together, these findings demonstrate that PLC?2 plays a critical role in CLR-induced signaling pathways, governing antifungal innate immune responses.
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Comparison of restenosis rate with sirolimus-eluting stent in STEMI patients with and without diabetes at 6-month angiographic follow-up.
Acta Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2011
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Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are at high risk for restenosis after coronary stenting. However, whether drug-eluting stents are effective in diabetic patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is uncertain. We report on a series of patients with or without DM followed up for 6 months after sirolimus-eluting stent implantation.
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[The significance of contribution degree of hurting factors in mental injury and the research progress].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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In forensic psychiatric evaluation, experts frequently need to assess the contribution degree of hurting factors to the victims. The contribution degree reflects the extent of hurt caused by the injurer and is the quantitative index of the responsibility which should be undertaken by the injurer. It is also important evidence for the judgement. Presently, there is no accepted and practicable quantitative tool to reflect the objective contribution degree. This article reviews domestic and international researches on the contribution degree of hurting factors in mental injury, including the concept, connotation, related assessment methods, problems in assessment and its future study trend.
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Marine fungal metabolite 1386A alters the microRNA profile in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Marine fungal metabolite 1386A is a newly identified small molecular compound extracted from the mangrove fungus 1386A in the South China Sea. Preliminary experiments have demonstrated its amazing cytotoxity to cancer cells, while the mechanism remains poorly understood. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly identified class of small regulatory RNAs which play an important role in gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level. They usually function as oncogenes or tumor suppressors and are related to drug sensitivity and resistance. We aimed to test the hypothesis that the potential antineoplastic compound, 1386A, alters the miRNA profile in MCF-7 and whether its unknown mechanism may be predicted by analysis of the altered miRNA profile. Cell proliferation was analyzed by MTT assay. The alteration of the miRNA expression profile of MCF-7 cells was investigated using advanced microarray technology. Silico analysis using TargetScan was used to predict the putative targeted transcripts encoding the dysregulated miRNAs. 1386A inhibited MCF-7 cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner (the IC50 value at 48 h was 17.1 µmol/l). 1386A (17.1 µmol/l) significantly altered the global miRNA expression profile of the MCF-7 cells at 48 h. Forty-five miRNAs were differentially expressed in MCF-7 cells. Target prediction suggested that these miRNAs potentially target many oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes associated with cancer development, progression and metastasis. The promising antineoplastic compound marine fungal metabolite 1386A alters the miRNA profiles of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Analyzing the alteration of the miRNA profile caused by this potential antineoplastic compound may help to predict the unknown mechanism of 1386A.
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Osteoblast differentiation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells irradiated with visible light.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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The effect of visible light irradiation on the expression of pluripotent genes (Oct-4, Sox2, and Nanog) in amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) and on the osteogenic differentiation ability of AFSCs was investigated using light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at 0-2 mW/cm(2) in various wavelengths: [blue (470 nm), green (525 nm), yellow (600 nm), and red (630 nm)]. Pluripotent gene expression in AFSCs was up-regulated by visible light irradiation from a LED for more than 6 h. Green light irradiation of AFSCs up-regulated the expression of pluripotent genes more significantly than irradiation with other light. The osteogenic differentiation of AFSCs was facilitated by green and blue light irradiation. Facilitated differentiation into osteogenic cells by visible light irradiation was not mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS); alkaline phosphatase activity (a marker of early osteogenic differentiation) and gene expression of osteopontin (a marker of late osteogenic differentiation) did not change significantly between AFSCs in differentiation medium with or without a ROS scavenger (vitamin C). The mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase pathway, as well as other unknown signaling pathways, may be responsible for the activation of signaling pathways that facilitate the differentiation of AFSCs into osteogenic cells on light irradiation.
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[Proteomic analysis between keloid and normal skin].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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To investigate and search correlative proteins of keloid by comparing the results of differential proteomic analysis between keloid and normal skin.
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A proline rich acidic protein PRAP identified from uterine luminal fluid of estrous mice is able to enhance the estrogen responsiveness of Ishikawa cells.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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Using mice as experimental animals, proteins in the uterine luminal fluid (ULF) from both adults and diethylstilbestrol dipropionate (DES)-treated immature animals were resolved by 2D gel electrophoresis. Two of the protein spots, (a) and (b) around the positions of 18-20?kDa, in the adult ULF were not found in the DES-treated ULF. Automated Edman degradation established the same N-terminal sequences of AHQVPVKTKGKHVFP for the two protein spots. Two trypsin digests of spot (a) were analyzed using CID MS/MS to establish the peptide sequences DNQLGPLLPEPK and RPDAMTWVETEDILSHLR. These partial sequences were confirmed in the cDNA-deduced mouse proline rich acidic protein (PRAP). Using human Ishikawa cell line as a surrogate endometrial model, we demonstrated rapid entrance of exogenous PRAP into the cells and its ability to enhance alkaline phosphatase activity of the E(2) -stimulated cells. Further, the transcripts of five estrogen-responsive genes, including ALPP (Placental alkaline phosphtase), ALPPL (placental alkaline phosphatase-like 2), TGF (transforming growth factor), PR (progesterone receptor), and Wnt7a, were measured after the cell incubation in modified Eagle medium containing 0.1?nM E(2) , or 0-25?µM PRAP, or both together at 37°C for 48?h. As compared with the control, E(2) alone increased the transcripts of ALPP, ALPPL, TGF-?, and PR, and reduced the transcript of Wnt7a, whereas PRAP alone had a slight impact on their expression. E(2) together with PRAP greatly increased the E(2) -stimulated transcriptions of ALPP, ALPPL, TGF-?, and PR, and markedly reduced the E(2) -suppressed transcription of Wnt7a.
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Functional insight into the C-terminal extension of halolysin SptA from haloarchaeon Natrinema sp. J7.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2011
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Halolysin SptA from haloarchaeon Natrinema sp. J7 consists of a subtilisin-like catalytic domain and a C-terminal extension (CTE) containing two cysteine residues. In this report, we have investigated the function of the CTE using recombinant enzymes expressed in Haloferax volcanii WFD11. Deletion of the CTE greatly reduced but did not abolish protease activity, which suggests that the CTE is not essential for enzyme folding. Mutational analysis suggests that residues Cys303 and Cys338 within the CTE form a disulfide bond that make this domain resistant to autocleavage and proteolysis under hypotonic conditions. Characterization of full-length and CTE-truncation enzymes indicates the CTE not only confers extra stability to the enzyme but also assists enzyme activity on protein substrates by facilitating binding at high salinities. Interestingly, homology modeling of the CTE yields a ?-jelly roll-like structure similar to those seen in Claudin-binding domain of Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin (clostridial C-CPE) and collagen binding domain (CBD), and the CTE also possesses collagen-binding activity, making it a potential candidate as an anchoring unit in drug delivery systems.
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Hypothalamic neuropeptides, not leptin sensitivity, contributes to the hyperphagia in lactating Brandts voles, Lasiopodomys brandtii.
J. Exp. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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Both pregnancy and lactation are associated with hyperphagia, and circulating leptin levels are elevated during pregnancy but decreased during lactation in Brandts voles, Lasiopodomys brandtii. Previous findings suggest that impaired leptin sensitivity contributes to hyperphagia during pregnancy. The present study aimed to examine whether the decreased circulating leptin level and/or hypothalamic leptin sensitivity contributed to the hyperphagia during lactation in Brandts voles. The serum leptin level and mRNA expression of the long form of the leptin receptor (Ob-Rb), suppressor-of-cytokine-signalling-3 (SOCS-3), neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) in the hypothalamus were examined on dioestrous, day 5, day 17 of lactation and day 27 (1 week after weaning) in Brandts voles. Compared with controls, hypothalamic Ob-Rb and SOCS-3 mRNA expression was not significantly changed during lactation. The serum leptin level was significantly lower in lactating females than in the non-reproductive group. Hypothalamic NPY and AgRP mRNA expression significantly increased whereas POMC mRNA expression was significantly decreased during lactation compared with controls. However, there were no significant changes in hypothalamic CART mRNA expression. Food intake was positively correlated with NPY and AgRP mRNA expression but negatively correlated with POMC mRNA expression during lactation. These data suggest that hyperphagia during lactation was associated with low leptin levels, but not impaired leptin sensitivity, and that the hypothalamic neuropeptides NPY, AgRP and POMC are involved in mediating the role of leptin in food intake regulation in lactating Brandts voles.
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Cardiac extracellular matrix tenascin-C deposition during fibronectin degradation.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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Tenascin-C (TN-C) might aggravate left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI). Our previous study demonstrated that ventricular remodeling after MI is linked with the degradation of fibronectin (FN). The aim of the present study was to determine whether cardiac extracellular matrix TN-C deposition after MI requires FN degradation. We found that treatment with angiotensin (ANG) II significantly down-regulated FN while remarkably up-regulated TN-C in co-cultured cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. Inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-3 or MMP-9 significantly attenuated ANG II-induced loss of FN and obviously blunted ANG II-induced re-expression of TN-C in co-cultured cells. Moreover, FN fragments dose-dependently induced the deposition of TN-C. In addition, MI induced a significant reduction of FN protein expression and a marked elevation of TN-C expression level at day 7 after MI compared with the sham group. The present findings suggest that cardiac TN-C matrix deposition after MI is induced by FN degradation, which is dependent on the activation of MMPs. These findings might contribute to gain mechanistic insights into the regulation of TN-C formation after MI.
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Tunable p-type conductivity and transport properties of AlN nanowires via Mg doping.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Arrays of well-aligned AlN nanowires (NWs) with tunable p-type conductivity were synthesized on Si(111) substrates using bis(cyclopentadienyl)magnesium (Cp(2)Mg) vapor as a doping source by chemical vapor deposition. The Mg-doped AlN NWs are single-crystalline and grow along the [001] direction. Gate-voltage-dependent transport measurements on field-effect transistors constructed from individual NWs revealed the transition from n-type conductivity in the undoped AlN NWs to p-type conductivity in the Mg-doped NWs. By adjusting the doping gas flow rate (0-10 sccm), the conductivity of AlN NWs can be tuned over 7 orders of magnitude from (3.8-8.5) × 10(-6) ?(-1) cm(-1) for the undoped sample to 15.6-24.4 ?(-1) cm(-1) for the Mg-doped AlN NWs. Hole concentration as high as 4.7 × 10(19) cm(-3) was achieved for the heaviest doping. In addition, the maximum hole mobility (?6.4 cm(2)/V s) in p-type AlN NWs is much higher than that of Mg-doped AlN films (?1.0 cm(2)/V s). (2) The realization of p-type AlN NWs with tunable electrical transport properties may open great potential in developing practical nanodevices such as deep-UV light-emitting diodes and photodetectors.
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Early escharectomy and concurrent composite skin grafting over human acellular dermal matrix scaffold for covering deep facial burns.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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Although escharectomy and full-thickness skin autografting have been widely used to treat deep facial burns, the clinical outcomes remain unacceptable. Composite razor-thin skin grafting over acellular dermal matrix scaffold has been used successfully in repairing burns of the trunk and limbs, but its use in covering deep facial burns has rarely been reported. In this study, the authors investigated the clinical outcomes of early escharectomy and concurrent composite razor-thin skin autografting and acellular dermal matrix scaffold for treating deep facial burns.
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Mutual adaptation between mouse transglutaminase 4 and its native substrates in the formation of copulatory plug.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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Formation of copulatory plugs by male animals is a common means of reducing competition with rival males. In mice, copulatory plugs are formed by the coagulation of seminal vesicle secretion (SVS), which is a very viscous and self-clotting fluid containing high concentration of proteins. In its native state, mouse SVS contains a variety of disulfide-linked high-molecular-weight complexes (HMWCs) composed of mouse SVS I-III, which are the major components of mouse SVS. Further, mouse SVS I-III are the substrates for transglutaminase 4 (TGM4), a cross-linking enzyme secreted from the anterior prostate. According to activity assays, mouse TGM4 prefers a mild reducing and alkaline environment. However, under these conditions, the activity of mouse TGM4 toward SVS I-III was much lower than that of a common tissue-type TGM, TGM2. On the other hand, mouse TGM4 exhibited much higher cross-linking activity than TGM2 when native HMWCs containing SVS I-III were used as substrates under non-reducing condition. By the action of TGM4, the clot of SVS became more resistant to proteolysis. This indicates that the activity of TGM4 can further rigidify the copulatory plug and extend its presence in the female reproductive tract. Together with the properties of TGM4 and the nature of its disulfide-linked SVS protein substrates, male mice can easily transform the semen into a rigid and durable copulatory plug, which is an important advantage in sperm competition.
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Oleic acid induces smooth muscle foam cell formation and enhances atherosclerotic lesion development via CD36.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Elevated plasma free fatty acid (FFA) levels have been linked to the development of atherosclerosis. However, how FFA causes atherosclerosis has not been determined. Because fatty acid translocase (FAT/CD36) is responsible for the uptake of FFA, we hypothesized that the atherogenic effects of FFA may be mediated via CD36.
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BTEB2 knockdown suppresses neointimal hyperplasia in a rat artery balloon injury model.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Basic transcription element-binding protein 2 (BTEB2) is a regulator of the proliferation and phenotypic changes of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs). The aim of the present study was to determine whether or not BTEB2 knockdown inhibits balloon injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia attributed to the proliferation and phenotypic changes of vascular SMCs. We found that the knockdown of BTEB2 with antisense oligonucleotides (Ad-As-BTEB2) significantly reduced the intima/media ratio compared to uninjured arteries and vessels treated with Ad-LacZ. Knockdown of BTEB2 suppresses the proliferation of cultured vascular SMCs, concurrent with the down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen, angiotensin II type 1 receptor and platelet-derived growth factor BB. In addition, BTEB2 knockdown caused the up-regulation of the differentiation marker smooth muscle ?-actin and down-regulation of the dedifferentiation marker embryonic smooth muscle myosin heavy chain. The present study provides direct evidence that BTEB2 plays a critical role in balloon injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia, which is closely linked to vascular SMC proliferation and phenotypic modulation. This study highlights the fact that BTEB2 may be a potential target for the prevention of restenosis after vascular intervention.
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Stump appendicitis in children.
J. Pediatr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Stump appendicitis is a delayed complication of incomplete appendectomy. Reinflammation of possible residual appendiceal tissue should be considered in patients with right lower quadrant pain and a surgical history of appendectomy. In this report, we present 3 cases of stump appendicitis in children.
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Asiaticoside suppresses collagen expression and TGF-?/Smad signaling through inducing Smad7 and inhibiting TGF-?RI and TGF-?RII in keloid fibroblasts.
Arch. Dermatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2011
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Asiaticoside (ATS) isolated from the leaves of Centella asiatica possesses strong wound-healing properties and reduces scar formation. However, the specific effects of asiaticoside on the formation of keloidal scars remain unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effects of asiaticoside on the proliferation, collagen expression, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?/Smad signaling of keloid-derived fibroblasts. Fibroblasts isolated from keloid tissue and normal skin tissues were treated with asiaticoside at different concentrations. Afterwards, they were subjected to RT-PCR and Western blot analyses. The inhibitory effects of asiaticoside on fibroblast viability were assayed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Asiaticoside decreased fibroblast proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. It also inhibited type I and type III collagen protein and mRNA expressions. In addition, asiaticoside reduced the expression of both TGF-?RI and TGF-?RII at the transcriptional and translational level. Moreover, it increased the expression of Smad7 protein and mRNA. However, asiaticoside did not influence the expression of Smad2, Smad3, Smad4, phosphorylated Smad2, and phosphorylated Smad3. Taken together, these results suggest that asiaticoside could be of potential use in the treatment and/or prevention of hypertrophic scars and keloids.
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Overexpression of angiotensin II type 2 receptor suppresses neointimal hyperplasia in a rat carotid arterial balloon injury model.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Angiotensin II (ANG II) type 2 receptor (AT2R) has been recognized to suppress the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The aim of the present study was to determine whether AT2R overexpression inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in a rat carotid arterial balloon injury model and to examine the underlying mechanisms of its activity. Balloon-injured rats receiving Ad-AT2R showed significant diminutions in neointimal area and intima/media ratio compared to non-treated rats or rats receiving adenovirus containing green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP). In addition, extracellular regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and basic transcription element-binding protein 2 (BTEB2) were significantly down-regulated in the arteries and VSMCs of Ad-AT2R-treated rats and compared to Ad-GFP-treated rats. However, Ad-AT2R transfection failed to affect the expression of ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R) in carotid arteries and cultured VSMCs. The present study provides direct evidence that AT2R plays a beneficial role in balloon injury-induced neointimal hyperplasia, which is mainly attributed to the inhibition of VSMC proliferation and involves the down-regulation of the ERK1/2 and BTEB2 pathways, but is independent of the expression of AT1R.
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A simple and practical solvent-free preparation of polymaleimide.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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Polymaleimide (PMAI) was synthesized by reacting polymaleic anhydride (PMA) with urea via a solvent-free reaction at 180 °C. The conversion of PMA could reach 95%. This method is simple, practical and environmentally-friendly. The structure of the resulting PMAI was characterized by ¹H-NMR and IR.
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Transplantation of endothelial progenitor cells transfected with VEGF165 to restore erectile function in diabetic rats.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2010
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The present study investigated the effect of transplanting endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) transfected with the vascular endothelial growth factor gene (VEGF165) into the corpora cavernosa of rats with diabetic erectile dysfunction (ED). A rat model of diabetic ED was constructed via intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After streptozotocin treatment, pre-treated EPCs from each of three groups of rats were transplanted into their corpora cavernosa. Our results, following intracavernosal pressure (ICP) monitoring, showed that ICP increased significantly among rats in the trial group when compared to the results from rats in the blank-plasmid and control groups during basal conditions and electrical stimulation (P<0.01 for both comparisons). Histological examination revealed extensive neovascularisation in the corpora cavernosa of rats in the trial group. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that many of the transplanted EPCs in the trial group survived, differentiated into endothelial cells and integrated into the sites of neovascularisation. Based on the results of this study, we conclude that transplantation of VEGF165-transfected EPCs into the corpora cavernosa of rats with diabetic ED restores erectile function.
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Application of a molecular method for the classification of human enteroviruses and its correlation with clinical manifestations.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2010
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A new molecular classification scheme has recently been adopted that groups all enteroviruses into four species, designated human enterovirus A (HEV-A) through D. In this study, we tried to demonstrate the correlation between this molecular classification scheme and clinical manifestations in patients.
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[Measurement of anatomical relationships of facial nerve canal related to middle ear and mastoid surgery on multi-slice computed tomography-multiplanar reformation images].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2010
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To investigate the anatomical relationships of facial nerve canal related to middle ear and mastoid surgery by multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and its multiplanar reconstruction ( MPR) technology.
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Low-temperature synthesis of CuInSe2 nanotube array on conducting glass substrates for solar cell application.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
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Highly ordered arrays of Cu-rich and -deficient CuInSe(2) nanotubes as well as ZnO/CuInSe(2) core/sheath nanocables have been synthesized on glass substrates by using ZnO nanorod arrays as sacrificial templates via a low-cost solution method. Chemical conversions from hexagonal ZnO to cubic ZnSe, hexagonal CuSe and tetragonal CuInSe(2) are demonstrated as a novel means for synthesis of I-III-VI nanomaterials. Large differences in their solubility product constant (K(sp)) are crucial for direct exchange in the conversions. In solvothermal reaction of ZnO/CuSe core/shell nanocables with InCl(3), the triethylene glycol solvent serves as a reducing agent for the reduction of cupric (Cu(2+)) to cuprous (Cu(+)) ions and also as an agent for the dissolution of ZnO cores. The absorption coefficient of the CuInSe(2) nanotubes in the visible region is on the order of 10(4) cm(-1). Photoelectrochemical solar cells were fabricated with arrays of ZnO/Cu(1.57±0.10)In(0.68±0.10)Se(2) and ZnO/CuSe nanocables. It was found that power conversion efficiency of the ZnO/Cu(1.57±0.10)In(0.68±0.10)Se(2) cell is about two times higher than that based on ZnO/CuSe.
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Normal development of hindgut and anorectum in human embryo.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2010
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The aim of the present analysis is to examine the morphological changes, the spatiotemporal distribution of apoptosis/proliferation in the human embryonic anorectum, to reveal the normal development of human anorectum, and investigate the possible roles of apoptosis/proliferation during anorectal development.
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Increased expression of calpain and elevated activity of calcineurin in the myocardium of patients with congestive heart failure.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
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The angiotensin (Ang) II/Ang II receptor (ATR)-associated calcium signaling pathway is the major cause of ventricular remodelling in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF). However, the calcium-regulated proteinases responsible for Ang II-induced remodelling are not well understood. We investigated the profiles of the Ang II/ATR/calpain/calcineurin (CaN) pathway in human failing heart. We measured both the plasma and cardiac levels of Ang II and cardiac mRNA expression of ATR in 39 patients with CHF and 38 healthy controls. Importantly, protein expression of calpains, cleavage of cain/cabin1 and activity of CaN were tested. Both plasma and cardiac levels of Ang II were significantly increased in patients with CHF (both p<0.01), and the plasma Ang II concentration was closely correlated with the parameters of ventricular remodelling (r=+/-0.29-0.65, p<0.05 or <0.01). In addition, the cardiac level of AT1R but not AT2R was significantly upregulated in mild failing hearts (p<0.05) but dramatically downregulated in severe failing ones (p<0.01). CHF was associated with a marked upregulation of calpains, an increased cleavage of cain/cabin1, and the activation of CaN in the failing ventricular tissue. In patients with CHF, calpain upregulation was associated with an increase in cleavage of cain/cabin1 and the activation of CaN, indicating that these changes in calcium-regulated proteinases contribute to Ang II-induced cardiac remodelling.
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Incorporation of graphenes in nanostructured TiO(2) films via molecular grafting for dye-sensitized solar cell application.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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This paper presents a systematic investigation on the incorporation of chemical exfoliation graphene sheets (GS) in TiO(2) nanoparticle films via a molecular grafting method for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). By controlling the oxidation time in the chemical exfoliation process, both high conductivity of reduced GS and good attachment of TiO(2) nanoparticles on the GS were achieved. Uniform GS/TiO(2) composite films with large areas on conductive glass were prepared by electrophoretic deposition, and the incorporation of GS significantly improved the conductivity of the TiO(2) nanoparticle film by more than 2 orders of magnitude. Moreover, the power conversion efficiency for DSSC based on GS/TiO(2) composite films is more than 5 times higher than that based on TiO(2) alone, indicating that the incorporation of GS is an efficient means for enhancing the photovoltaic (PV) performance. The better PV performance of GS/TiO(2) DSSC is also attributed to the better dye loading of GS/TiO(2) film than that of TiO(2) film. The effect of GS content on the PV performances was also investigated. It was found that the power conversion efficiency increased first and then decreased with the increasing of GS concentration due to the decrease in the transmittance at high GS content. Further improvements can be expected by fully optimizing fabrication conditions and device configuration, such as increasing dye loading via thicker films. The present synthetic strategy is expected to lead to a family of composites with designed properties.
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Imbalance of matrix metalloproteinases/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and loss of fibronectin expression in patients with congestive heart failure.
Cardiology
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2010
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Previous studies have demonstrated that an imbalance of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)/tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and a loss of fibronectin are associated with postmyocardial infarction remodeling in rats. The present study was designed to examine this issue in patients with congestive heart failure (CHF).
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Large-scale synthesis and phase transformation of CuSe, CuInSe2, and CuInSe2/CuInS2 core/shell nanowire bundles.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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Facile chemical approaches for the controllable synthesis of CuSe, CuInSe2 nanowire, and CuInSe2/CuInS2 core/shell nanocable bundles were developed. Hexagonal CuSe nanowire bundles with lengths up to hundreds of micrometers, consisting of many aligned nanowires with a diameter of about 10-15 nm, were prepared by reacting cubic Cu(2-x)Se nanowire bundles with a sodium citrate solution at room temperature. The CuSe nanowire bundles were then used as self-sacrificial templates for making bundles of tetragonal chalcopyrite CuInSe2 nanowires by reacting with InCl3 via a solvothermal process. Furthermore, bundles of CuInSe2/CuInS2 core/shell nanocables were obtained by adding sulfur to the reaction system, and the shell thickness of the polycrystalline CuInS2 in the nanocables increased with increasing S/Se molar ratios. It was found that the small radius of copper ions allows their fast outward diffusion from the interior to the surface of nanowires to react with sulfur atoms/anions and indium ions to form a CuInS2 shell. Enhanced optical absorption in the vis-NIR region of CuInSe2/CuInS2 core/shell nanocable bundles is demonstrated, which is considered beneficial for applications in optoelectronic devices and solar energy conversion.
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Adrenergic receptor blockade-induced regression of pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy is associated with inhibition of the calcineurin/NFAT3/GATA4 pathway.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Calcineurin and its downstream effectors nuclear factor of activated T-cells 3 (NFAT3) and zinc finger-containing transcription factor (GATA4) have been implicated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. The aims of the present study were to investigate alterations in the calcineurin/NFAT3/GATA4 pathway in pressure-overload hypertrophy, and to determine whether adrenergic receptor blockade affects this signaling pathway. In aorta-banded rats compared with sham-operated rats, a significant increase in the phosphorylation levels of calcineurin and GATA4 was observed (both p<0.05), while the NFAT3 phosphorylation level was markedly decreased (p<0.05). Oral administration of either the non-selective ? blocker/?-1 blocker carvedilol or the selective ?-1 blocker metoprolol, but not the selective ?-1 blocker terazosin, significantly suppressed the activated calcineurin/NFAT3/GATA4 pathway (all p<0.05) in addition to inducing a regression of cardiac hypertrophy. Pressure overload-induced up-regulation of c-myc was markedly attenuated by treatment with either carvedilol or metoprolol (both p<0.05). The present findings may expand our understanding of the correlation between sympathetic activity and the calcineurin/NFAT3/GATA4 pathway, and highlight these signal transducers as effective targets in the management of pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy.
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Enhancement of keratinolytic activity of a thermophilic subtilase by improving its autolysis resistance and thermostability under reducing conditions.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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WF146 protease, a thermophilic subtilase from thermophile Bacillus sp. WF146, suffers excessive autolysis in the presence of reducing agents. In this report, two autolytic sites of WF146 protease were modified by site-directed mutagenesis. The introduction of prolines into the autolytic sites increased the autolysis resistance of the enzyme under reducing conditions. The double mutant N63P/A66P displayed a 2.8-fold longer half-life at 80 degrees C and higher hydrolytic activities than wild-type enzyme toward soluble (casein) and insoluble (keratin azure) substrates at high temperatures. In the presence of reducing agents, N63P/A66P was able to degrade feather at 80 degrees C ( approximately 3 h), with hydrolysis efficiency comparable to that of proteinase K at 50 degrees C ( approximately 24 h). Meanwhile, the mutant N63P/A66P had the ability to hydrolyze PrP(Sc)-like prion protein at high temperatures. In virtue of these properties, N63P/A66P is of great interest to be used in recycling of keratinous wastes, such as feather, and disinfection of medical apparatus. In addition, our study may provide useful information needed to explore keratinolytic potential of thermophilic subtilases, even if they are produced by non-keratinolytic microorganisms.
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Energy efficiency of pre-treating excess sewage sludge with microwave irradiation.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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The objective of this study is to investigate the energy consumption of pre-treating excess sewage sludge with microwave irradiation using several parameters, including temperature rise, degree of cell destruction, SCOD/TCOD ratio (solids solubilization), and biogas production to evaluate the energy efficiency. It was found that water content was the most important factor that influenced the energy efficiency of raising the temperature and promoting the solubilization of solid materials. Increasing specific energy (E(s)) accelerated the biogas production, but there was a limit to this process. For quantitative comparison to the energy efficiency of different pre-treatment steps, an empirical method was also proposed based on the experimental data.
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[Expression of Smads in keloid scarring].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2009
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To investigate the differential expression of different types of Smads in keloids, normal scars and normal skins and its possible clinicopathological significance.
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Nitrogen removal via nitrite in domestic wastewater treatment using combined salt inhibition and on-line process control.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2009
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Nitrogen removal through the nitrite pathway has been successfully achieved using on-line aeration length control. However, it takes a long time period to get steady performance when using on-line control as the sole strategy. On the other hand, salt inhibition has also been used to achieve the nitrite pathway, with potentially adverse effects on the overall microbial community at high salt concentrations. The objective of this study is to develop a control strategy based on the combination of low salt inhibition levels and on-line control to accelerate the achievement of nitrite pathway in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) treating domestic wastewater. Salt concentrations and on-line control parameters were chosen in batch tests. The recovery of the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) activity was examined after stopping on-line control and salt dosing. The findings clearly show that combining salt inhibition at low salinity (5 g/L) with on-line pH control is an efficient strategy to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite quickly and steadily.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.