JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Elevated cardiac markers in chronic kidney disease as a consequence of hyperphosphatemia-induced cardiac myocyte injury.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Elevated cardiac markers (CMs) and hyperphosphatemia are commonly encountered in patients with chronic kidney diseases (CKD), but the causal relationship between them has not been established.
Related JoVE Video
Low levels of p53 protein and chromatin silencing of p53 target genes repress apoptosis in Drosophila endocycling cells.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Apoptotic cell death is an important response to genotoxic stress that prevents oncogenesis. It is known that tissues can differ in their apoptotic response, but molecular mechanisms are little understood. Here, we show that Drosophila polyploid endocycling cells (G/S cycle) repress the apoptotic response to DNA damage through at least two mechanisms. First, the expression of all the Drosophila p53 protein isoforms is strongly repressed at a post-transcriptional step. Second, p53-regulated pro-apoptotic genes are epigenetically silenced in endocycling cells, preventing activation of a paused RNA Pol II by p53-dependent or p53-independent pathways. Over-expression of the p53A isoform did not activate this paused RNA Pol II complex in endocycling cells, but over-expression of the p53B isoform with a longer transactivation domain did, suggesting that dampened p53B protein levels are crucial for apoptotic repression. We also find that the p53A protein isoform is ubiquitinated and degraded by the proteasome in endocycling cells. In mitotic cycling cells, p53A was the only isoform expressed to detectable levels, and its mRNA and protein levels increased after irradiation, but there was no evidence for an increase in protein stability. However, our data suggest that p53A protein stability is regulated in unirradiated cells, which likely ensures that apoptosis does not occur in the absence of stress. Without irradiation, both p53A protein and a paused RNA pol II were pre-bound to the promoters of pro-apoptotic genes, preparing mitotic cycling cells for a rapid apoptotic response to genotoxic stress. Together, our results define molecular mechanisms by which different cells in development modulate their apoptotic response, with broader significance for the survival of normal and cancer polyploid cells in mammals.
Related JoVE Video
Changes of serum parameters of TiO? nanoparticle-induced atherosclerosis in mice.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The evaluation of toxicological effects of nanoparticulate matter is increasingly important due to their growing occupational use and presence as compounds in consumer products. Numerous studies have shown that exposure to nanosized particles lead to systemic inflammation in experimental animals, but whether long-term exposure to nanosized particles induces atherogenesis is rarely evaluated. In the current study, mice were continuously exposed to TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) at 1.25, 2.5, or 5mg/kg body weight, administered by nasal instillation for nine consecutive months, and the association between serum parameter changes and atherosclerosis in mice were investigated. The present findings suggested that chronic exposure to TiO2 NPs resulted in atherogenesis coupling with pulmonary inflammation, increased levels of serum triglycerides, glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, advanced glycation end products, reactive oxygen species, NAD(P)H oxidases 4, C-reaction protein, E-selectin, endothelin-1, tissue factor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, and reduced levels of serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, nitric oxide and tissue plasminogen activator. Our study suggests an association of long-term exposure to TiO2 NPs with atherosclerosis and pulmonary inflammation. This finding demonstrates the hypothesized role of TiO2 NPs as a risk factor for atherogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Embelin inhibits pancreatic cancer progression by directly inducing cancer cell apoptosis and indirectly restricting IL-6 associated inflammatory and immune suppressive cells.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive malignancy and unresponsive to conventional chemotherapies. Here, the anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor effects of embelin on pancreatic cancer were investigated. Embelin significantly attenuated cells invasion, proliferation and induced apoptosis through inhibition of STAT3 and activation of p53 signaling pathways. Embelin substantially reduced the tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo, which was associated with reduced inflammatory cells and immune suppressive cells, IL-17A(+) Th17, GM-CSF(+) Th, MDSCs and Treg, through inhibition of IL-6 secretion. Moreover, embelin decrease IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation. In summary, embelin represents a novel therapeutic drug candidate for the clinical treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic diversity and clonal characteristics of ciprofloxacin-resistant meningococcal strains in China.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of the present study was to identify the clonal characteristics and gyrA gene diversity of ciprofloxacin-resistant meningococcal strains in China. One hundred and forty-one ciprofloxacin-resistant and 103 ciprofloxacin-susceptible meningococcal strains were selected for multilocus sequence typing. Of these, 54 ciprofloxacin-resistant and 42 ciprofloxacin-susceptible strains were selected for gyrA gene sequencing. Of the three clonal complexes prevalent in China, serogroup A of ST-5 complex (CC5) and serogroup C/B strains of CC4821 had a high proportion of ciprofloxacin resistance, whereas CC11 serogroup W strains were all susceptible. Nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the gyrA gene among ciprofloxacin-resistant strains showed more diversity than those among ciprofloxacin-susceptible strains. All ciprofloxacin-resistant strains had a T91I mutation and the ciprofloxacin-susceptible strains had no T91I mutation. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gyrA gene sequences of CC4821 serogroup B/C strains, CC11 serogroup W, CC1 serogroup A, ciprofloxacin-susceptible CC5 serogroup A and reference strains had high similarity. By contrast, the ciprofloxacin-resistant CC5 serogroup A strains had a highly conserved gyrA gene sequence which was different (94.8?% similarity) from that in the above strains. The results of our investigation showed that the high proportion of ciprofloxacin resistance in Neisseria meningitidis is associated with certain sequence types (STs) or clonal complexes (CCs). The prevalence of certain CCs with a high proportion of ciprofloxacin resistance can facilitate the spread of ciprofloxacin resistance.
Related JoVE Video
Adiponectin promotes pancreatic cancer progression by inhibiting apoptosis via the activation of AMPK/Sirt1/PGC-1? signaling.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-secreted adipokine with pleiotropic actions. Clinical evidence has shown that serum adiponectin levels are increased and that adiponectin can protect pancreatic beta cells against apoptosis, which suggests that adiponectin may play an anti-apoptotic role in pancreatic cancer (PC). Here, we investigated the effects of adiponectin on PC development and elucidated the underlying molecular mechanisms. Adiponectin deficiency markedly attenuated pancreatic tumorigenesis in vivo. We found that adiponectin significantly inhibited the apoptosis of both human and mouse pancreatic cancer cells via adipoR1, but not adipoR2. Furthermore, adiponectin can increase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) of PC cells. Knockdown of AMPK or Sirt1 can increase the apoptosis in PC cells. AMPK up-regulated Sirt1, and Sirt1 can inversely phosphorylate AMPK. Further studies have shown that Sirt1 can deacetylate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1?), which can increase the expression levels of mitochondrial genes. Thus, adiponectin exerts potent anti-apoptotic effects on PC cells via the activation of AMPK/Sirt1/PGC1? signaling. Finally, adiponectin can elevate ?-catenin levels. Taken together, these novel findings reveal an unconventional role of adiponectin in promoting pancreatic cancers, and suggest that the effects of adiponectin on tumorigenesis are highly tissue-dependent.
Related JoVE Video
Th2 factors may be involved in TiO? NP-induced hepatic inflammation.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) are used in the food industry but have potential toxic effects in humans and animals. The resulting immune response is driven by the production of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, which contribute to the development of hepatic inflammation. However, TiO2 NPs have been demonstrated to impair liver function and cause liver inflammation in animal models, which may be associated with activation of Th2 factor-mediated pathways. Mice were administered a gavage instillation of 2.5, 5, or 10 mg/kg body weight TiO2 NPs for six consecutive months. We investigated whether TiO2 NPs activate the Th2 factor-mediated signaling pathway under TiO2 NP-induced hepatic toxicity. The results showed that mice exhibited an accumulation of titanium in the liver, which in turn led to reductions in body weight, increases in liver indices, liver dysfunction, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and hepatocyte apoptosis or necrosis. Furthermore, hepatic inflammation was accompanied by increased (0.67 ± 0.09- to 2.14 ± 0.19-fold) IL-4 expression and up-regulation of its target genes including IL-5 (0.1 ± 0.06- to 0.69 ± 0.12-fold), IL-12 (0.08 ± 0.03- to 0.83 ± 0.21-fold), IFN-? (0.17 ± 0.09- to 0.87 ± 0.15-fold), GATA3 (0.05 ± 0.02- to 1.29 ± 0.18-fold), GATA4 (0.04 ± 0.01- to 0.87 ± 0.13-fold), T-bet (0.3 ± 0.06- to 0.93 ± 0.15-fold), ROR?t (0.32 ± 0.11- to 1.67 ± 0.17-fold), STAt3 (0.16 ± 0.06- to 2.14 ± 0.23-fold), STAT6 (0.2 ± 0.05- to 0.63 ± 0.12-fold), eotaxin (0.53 ± 0.13- to 1.49 ± 0.21-fold), MCP-1 (0.5 ± 0.11- to 0.74 ± 0.18-fold), and MIP-2 (0.27 ± 0.07- to 0.71 ± 0.18-fold) and significant down-regulation of its target gene STAT1 (-0.15 ± 0.05 to -0.81 ± 0.11-fold). Taken together, the alteration of Th2 factor expression may be involved in the control of hepatic inflammation induced by chronic TiO2 NP toxicity.
Related JoVE Video
Lynx web services for annotations and systems analysis of multi-gene disorders.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lynx is a web-based integrated systems biology platform that supports annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Lynx has integrated multiple classes of biomedical data (genomic, proteomic, pathways, phenotypic, toxicogenomic, contextual and others) from various public databases as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators (LynxKB). Lynx provides tools for gene list enrichment analysis using multiple functional annotations and network-based gene prioritization. Lynx provides access to the integrated database and the analytical tools via REST based Web Services (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu/webservices.html). This comprises data retrieval services for specific functional annotations, services to search across the complete LynxKB (powered by Lucene), and services to access the analytical tools built within the Lynx platform.
Related JoVE Video
Retinal nerve fiber layer reflectance for early glaucoma diagnosis.
J. Glaucoma
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Compare performance of normalized reflectance index (NRI) and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) parameters determined from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images for glaucoma and glaucoma suspect diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanism of TiO2 nanoparticle-induced neurotoxicity in zebrafish (Danio rerio).
Environ. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been used historically for evaluating the toxicity of environmental and aqueous toxicants, and there is an emerging literature reporting toxic effects of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) in zebrafish embryos. Few researches, however, are focused on the neurotoxicity on adult zebrafish after subchronic exposure to TiO2 NPs. This study was designed to evaluate the morphological changes, alterations of neurochemical contents, and expressions of memory behavior-related genes in zebrafish brains caused by exposures to 5, 10, 20, and 40 ?g/L TiO2 NPs for 45 consecutive days. Our data indicated that spatial recognition memory and levels of norepinephrine, dopamine, and 5-hydroxytryptamine were significantly decreased and NO levels were markedly elevated, and over proliferation of glial cells, neuron apoptosis, and TiO2 NP aggregation were observed after low dose exposures of TiO2 NPs. Furthermore, the low dose exposures of TiO2 NPs significantly activated expressions of C-fos, C-jun, and BDNF genes, and suppressed expressions of p38, NGF, CREB, NR1, NR2ab, and GluR2 genes. These findings imply that low dose exposures of TiO2 NPs may result in the brain damages in zebrafish, provide a developmental basis for evaluating the neurotoxicity of subchronic exposure, and raise the caution of aquatic application of TiO2 NPs. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol, 2014.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanisms of TiO2 nanoparticle-induced neuronal apoptosis in rat primary cultured hippocampal neurons.
J Biomed Mater Res A
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) has been demonstrated to decrease learning and memory of animals. However, whether the impacts of these NPs on the recognition function are involved in hippocamal neuron damages is poorly understood. In this study, primary cultured hippocampal neurons from one-day-old fetal Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 5, 15, or 30 ?g/mL TiO2 NPs for 24 h, we investigated cell viability, ultrastructure, and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), calcium homeostasis, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, apoptotic signaling pathway associated with the primary cultured hippocamal neuron apoptosis. Our findings showed that TiO2 NP treatment resulted in reduction of cell viability, promoted lactate dehydrogenase release, apoptosis and increased neuron apoptotic rate in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, TiO2 NPs led to [Ca(2+) ]i elevation, and mitochondrial membrane potential reduction, up-regulated protein expression of cytochrome c, Bax, caspase-3, glucose-regulate protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein and caspase-12, and down-regulated bcl-2 expression in the primary cultured hippocampal neurons. These findings suggested that hippocampal neuron apoptosis caused by TiO2 NPs may be associated with mitochondria-mediated signal pathway and endoplasmic reticulum-mediated signal pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Nano-sized titanium dioxide-induced splenic toxicity: a biological pathway explored using microarray technology.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) have been widely used in various areas, and its potential toxicity has gained wide attention. However, the molecular mechanisms of multiple genes working together in the TiO2 NP-induced splenic injury are not well understood. In the present study, 2.5, 5, or 10mg/kg body weight TiO2 NPs were administered to the mice by intragastric administration for 90 consecutive days, their immune capacity in the spleen as well as the gene-expressed characteristics in the mouse damaged spleen were investigated using microarray assay. The findings showed that with increased dose, TiO2 NP exposure resulted in the increases of spleen indices, immune dysfunction, and severe macrophage infiltration as well as apoptosis in the spleen. Importantly, microarray data showed significant alterations in the expressions of 1041 genes involved in immune/inflammatory responses, apoptosis, oxidative stress, stress responses, metabolic processes, ion transport, signal transduction, cell proliferation/division, cytoskeleton and translation in the 10 mg/kg TiO2 NP-exposed spleen. Specifically, Cyp2e1, Sod3, Mt1, Mt2, Atf4, Chac1, H2-k1, Cxcl13, Ccl24, Cd14, Lbp, Cd80, Cd86, Cd28, Il7r, Il12a, Cfd, and Fcnb may be potential biomarkers of spleen toxicity following exposure to TiO2 NPs.
Related JoVE Video
Meiofauna and its sedimentary environment as an integrated indication of anthropogenic disturbance to sandy beach ecosystems.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The accuracy and applicability of the Nematode/Copepod index (N/C) in monitoring the effects of environmental disturbances is controversial. In this study, we used an integrated approach that includes both meiofauna and the sedimentary environment to demonstrate a tourism-induced disturbance gradient among sampled beaches. We also analysed the relationships between meiofauna and environmental factors. The results showed that disturbed beaches were characterised by high values of meiofauna abundance, chlorophyll a content, total organic carbon content and N/C but lower levels of dissolved oxygen. The chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen contents were found to be the most important factors for explaining the disturbance gradient amongst the beaches. The N/C index had a positive relationship with chlorophyll a and a negative relationship with dissolved oxygen. There was no significant relationship between N/C index and total organic carbon content.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative study of bacteriological culture and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and multiplex PCR-based reverse line blot (mPCR/RLB) hybridization assay in the diagnosis of bacterial neonatal meningitis.
BMC Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bacterial meningitis is more common in the neonatal period than any other time in life; however, it is still a challenge for the evidence based diagnosis. Strategy for identification of neonatal bacterial meningitis pathogens is presented by evaluating three different available methods to establish evidence-based diagnosis for neonatal bacterial meningitis.
Related JoVE Video
Ultrafast and scalable laser liquid synthesis of tin oxide nanotubes and its application in lithium ion batteries.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Laser-induced photo-chemical synthesis of SnO2 nanotubes has been demonstrated by employing a nanoporous polycarbonate membrane as a template. The SnO2 nanotube diameter can be controlled by the nanoporous template while the nanotube length can be tuned by laser parameters and reaction duration. The microstructure characterization of the nanotubes indicates that they consist of mesoporous structures with sub 5 nm size nanocrystals connected by the twinning structure. The application of SnO2 nanotubes as an anode material in lithium ion batteries has also been explored, and they exhibited high capacity and excellent cyclic stability. The laser based emerging technique for scalable production of crystalline metal oxide nanotubes in a matter of seconds is remarkable. The compliance of the laser based technique with the existing technologies would lead to mass production of novel nanomaterials that would be suitable for several emerging applications.
Related JoVE Video
MyD88-dependent interplay between myeloid and endothelial cells in the initiation and progression of obesity-associated inflammatory diseases.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Low-grade systemic inflammation is often associated with metabolic syndrome, which plays a critical role in the development of the obesity-associated inflammatory diseases, including insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Here, we investigate how Toll-like receptor-MyD88 signaling in myeloid and endothelial cells coordinately participates in the initiation and progression of high fat diet-induced systemic inflammation and metabolic inflammatory diseases. MyD88 deficiency in myeloid cells inhibits macrophage recruitment to adipose tissue and their switch to an M1-like phenotype. This is accompanied by substantially reduced diet-induced systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. MyD88 deficiency in endothelial cells results in a moderate reduction in diet-induced adipose macrophage infiltration and M1 polarization, selective insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue, and amelioration of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Both in vivo and ex vivo studies suggest that MyD88-dependent GM-CSF production from the endothelial cells might play a critical role in the initiation of obesity-associated inflammation and development of atherosclerosis by priming the monocytes in the adipose and arterial tissues to differentiate into M1-like inflammatory macrophages. Collectively, these results implicate a critical MyD88-dependent interplay between myeloid and endothelial cells in the initiation and progression of obesity-associated inflammatory diseases.
Related JoVE Video
High-throughput translational medicine: challenges and solutions.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent technological advances in genomics now allow producing biological data at unprecedented tera- and petabyte scales. Yet, the extraction of useful knowledge from this voluminous data presents a significant challenge to a scientific community. Efficient mining of vast and complex data sets for the needs of biomedical research critically depends on seamless integration of clinical, genomic, and experimental information with prior knowledge about genotype-phenotype relationships accumulated in a plethora of publicly available databases. Furthermore, such experimental data should be accessible to a variety of algorithms and analytical pipelines that drive computational analysis and data mining. Translational projects require sophisticated approaches that coordinate and perform various analytical steps involved in the extraction of useful knowledge from accumulated clinical and experimental data in an orderly semiautomated manner. It presents a number of challenges such as (1) high-throughput data management involving data transfer, data storage, and access control; (2) scalable computational infrastructure; and (3) analysis of large-scale multidimensional data for the extraction of actionable knowledge.We present a scalable computational platform based on crosscutting requirements from multiple scientific groups for data integration, management, and analysis. The goal of this integrated platform is to address the challenges and to support the end-to-end analytical needs of various translational projects.
Related JoVE Video
Electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of amorphous carbon nanotubes.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Amorphous carbon nanotubes (ACNTs) with diameters in the range of 7-50 nm were used as absorber materials for electromagnetic waves. The electromagnetic wave absorbing composite films were prepared by a dip-coating method using a uniform mixture of rare earth lanthanum nitrate doped ACNTs and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The microstructures of ACNTs and ACNT/PVC composites were characterized using transmission electron microscope and X-ray diffraction, and their electromagnetic wave absorbing properties were measured using a vector-network analyzer. The experimental results indicated that the electromagnetic wave absorbing properties of ACNTs are superior to multi-walled CNTs, and greatly improved by doping 6 wt% lanthanum nitrate. The reflection loss (R) value of a lanthanum nitrate doped ACNT/PVC composite was -25.02 dB at 14.44 GHz, and the frequency bandwidth corresponding to the reflector loss at -10 dB was up to 5.8?GHz within the frequency range of 2-18?GHz.
Related JoVE Video
Rapid production of HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies in baculovirus infected insect cells.
Protein Expr. Purif.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Broadly neutralizing antibodies have been shown promise as prophylactic and therapeutic agents to provide passive protection against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Such protein based microbicides are traditionally produced using mammalian cell expression system, which is not able to satisfy the increasing demand of these proteins in large scale. In this report, two of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies, b12 and VRC01, were successfully expressed in Sf9 insect cells by co-infection with baculoviruses respectively expressing the light and heavy chain of the antibodies. The purified antibodies are fully assembled as H2L2 (two heavy chains plus two light chains) heterodimer linked by covalent bonds. The b12 and VRC01 generated from insect cells reacted well to HIV-1 gp120, and their antigen binding ability is comparable to the mammalian cell-derived b12 as determined by ELISA and flow cytometry. Our data suggest that baculovirus/insect cell expression system can be utilized as an alternative to the mammalian expression system for the rapid production of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies.
Related JoVE Video
N-trifluoromethylthiosaccharin: an easily accessible, shelf-stable, broadly applicable trifluoromethylthiolating reagent.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new, electrophilic trifluoromethylthiolating reagent, N-trifluoromethylthiosaccharin, was developed and can be synthesized in two steps from saccharin within 30?minutes. N-trifluoromethylthiosaccharin is a powerful trifluoromethylthiolating reagent and allows the trifluoromethylthiolation of a variety of nucleophiles such as alcohols, amines, thiols, electron-rich arenes, aldehydes, ketones, acyclic ?-ketoesters, and alkynes under mild reaction conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Facile decolorization of methylene blue with flower-like manganese wads.
Water Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Flower-like manganese wads (MWs) were synthesized via a simple and inexpensive ultrasonic irradiation method for the first time. MWs were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray and transmission electronic microscopy. The decolorization efficiency of MWs for methylene blue (MB) azo dye was examined as a function of pH, stirring time, MW dosage and initial concentration of the MB solution. Results show that MWs have excellent decolorization performance for MB with a higher efficiency (and without using H2O2 or other devises such as UV light and ultrasonic irradiation) compared to other catalysts, such as the mixture of Mn3O4 and H2O2 (with a maximum decolorization rate of 99.7% in 3 h), ZnS and CdS under light irradiation (with a maximum decolorization rate of 73% in 6 h), and sulfate modified titania under solar radiation (with a maximum decolorization rate of nearly 100% in 4 h).
Related JoVE Video
Antitoxins for diphtheria and tetanus decline more slowly after vaccination with DTwP than with DTaP: a study in a Chinese population.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
DTP vaccines are used for the prevention of pertussis, diphtheria and tetanus. In 2007, in Gaobeidian city, China, the DTwP vaccine was replaced with DTaP. This study described the diphtheria and tetanus sero-epidemiology in subjects vaccinated solely with DTwP or DTaP.
Related JoVE Video
Anomalous capacitive behaviors of graphene oxide based solid-state supercapacitors.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Substantial differences in charge storage mechanisms exist between dielectric capacitors (DCs) and electrochemical capacitors (ECs), resulting in orders of magnitude difference of stored charge density in them. However, if ionic diffusion, the major charge transport mechanism in ECs, is confined within nanoscale dimensions, the Helmholtz layers and diffusion layers will overlap, resulting in dismissible ionic diffusion. An interesting contradiction between appreciable energy density and unrecognizable ionic diffusion is observed in solid-state capacitors made from reduced graphene oxide films that challenge the fundamental charge storage mechanisms proposed in such devices. A new capacitive model is proposed, which combines the two distinct charge storage mechanisms of DCs and ECs, to explain the contradiction, of high storage capacity yet undetectable ionic diffusion, seen in graphene oxide based supercapacitors.
Related JoVE Video
Fragmented carbon nanotube macrofilms as adhesive conductors for lithium-ion batteries.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polymer binders such as poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and conductive additives such as carbon black (CB) are indispensable components for manufacturing battery electrodes in addition to active materials. The concept of adhesive conductors employing fragmented carbon nanotube macrofilms (FCNTs) is demonstrated by constructing composite electrodes with a typical active material, LiMn2O4. The adhesive FCNT conductors provide not only a high electrical conductivity but also a strong adhesive force, functioning simultaneously as both the conductive additives and the binder materials for lithium-ion batteries. Such composite electrodes exhibit superior high-rate and retention capabilities compared to the electrodes using a conventional binder (PVDF) and a conductive additive (CB). An in situ tribology method combining wear track imaging and force measurement is employed to evaluate the adhesion strength of the adhesive FCNT conductors. The adhesive FCNT conductors exhibit higher adhesion strength than PVDF. It has further been confirmed that the adhesive FCNT conductor can be used in both cathodes and anodes and is proved to be a competent substitute for polymer binders to maintain mechanical integrity and at the same time to provide electrical connectivity of active materials in the composite electrodes. The organic-solvent-free electrode manufacturing offers a promising strategy for the battery industry.
Related JoVE Video
Antihypertensive medications and serious fall injuries in a nationally representative sample of older adults.
JAMA Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
IMPORTANCE The effect of serious injuries, such as hip fracture and head injury, on mortality and function is comparable to that of cardiovascular events. Concerns have been raised about the risk of fall injuries in older adults taking antihypertensive medications. The low risk of fall injuries reported in clinical trials of healthy older adults may not reflect the risk in older adults with multiple chronic conditions. OBJECTIVE To determine whether antihypertensive medication use was associated with experiencing a serious fall injury in a nationally representative sample of older adults. DESIGN, PARTICIPANTS, AND SETTING Competing risk analysis as performed with propensity score adjustment and matching in the nationally representative Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey cohort during a 3-year follow-up through 2009. Participants included 4961 community-living adults older than 70 years with hypertension. EXPOSURES Antihypertensive medication intensity based on the standardized daily dose for each antihypertensive medication class that participants used. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Serious fall injuries, including hip and other major fractures, traumatic brain injuries, and joint dislocations, ascertained through Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services claims. RESULTS Of the 4961 participants, 14.1% received no antihypertensive medications; 54.6% were in the moderate-intensity and 31.3% in the high-intensity antihypertensive groups. During follow-up, 446 participants (9.0%) experienced serious fall injuries, and 837 (16.9%) died. The adjusted hazard ratios for serious fall injury were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.03-1.90) in the moderate-intensity and 1.28 (95% CI, 0.91-1.80) in the high-intensity antihypertensive groups compared with nonusers. Although the difference in adjusted hazard ratios across the groups did not reach statistical significance, results were similar in the propensity score-matched subcohort. Among 503 participants with a previous fall injury, the adjusted hazard ratios were 2.17 (95% CI, 0.98-4.80) for the moderate-intensity and 2.31 (95% CI, 1.01-5.29) for the high-intensity antihypertensive groups. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Antihypertensive medications were associated with an increased risk of serious fall injuries, particularly among those with previous fall injuries. The potential harms vs benefits of antihypertensive medications should be weighed in deciding to continue treatment with antihypertensive medications in older adults with multiple chronic conditions.
Related JoVE Video
Myocardial transfection of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? and co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells enhance cardiac repair in rats with experimental myocardial infarction.
Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have potential for the treatment of myocardial infarction. However, several meta-analyses revealed that the outcome of stem cell transplantation is dissatisfactory. A series of studies demonstrated that the combination of cell and gene therapy was a promising strategy to enhance therapeutic efficiency. The aim of this research is to investigate whether and how the combination of overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and co-transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells can enhance cardiac repair in myocardial infarction.
Related JoVE Video
Distribution of sequence-based types of legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains isolated from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems in China.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 causes Legionnaires' disease. Water systems contaminated with Legionella are the implicated sources of Legionnaires' disease. This study analyzed L. pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in China using sequence-based typing. Strains were isolated from cooling towers (n = 96), hot springs (n = 42), and potable water systems (n = 26). Isolates from cooling towers, hot springs, and potable water systems were divided into 25 sequence types (STs; index of discrimination [IOD], 0.711), 19 STs (IOD, 0.934), and 3 STs (IOD, 0.151), respectively. The genetic variation among the potable water isolates was lower than that among cooling tower and hot spring isolates. ST1 was the predominant type, accounting for 49.4% of analyzed strains (n = 81), followed by ST154. With the exception of two strains, all potable water isolates (92.3%) belonged to ST1. In contrast, 53.1% (51/96) and only 14.3% (6/42) of cooling tower and hot spring, respectively, isolates belonged to ST1. There were differences in the distributions of clone groups among the water sources. The comparisons among L. pneumophila strains isolated in China, Japan, and South Korea revealed that similar clones (ST1 complex and ST154 complex) exist in these countries. In conclusion, in China, STs had several unique allelic profiles, and ST1 was the most prevalent sequence type of environmental L. pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates, similar to its prevalence in Japan and South Korea.
Related JoVE Video
Materials and structures for stretchable energy storage and conversion devices.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stretchable energy storage and conversion devices (ESCDs) are attracting intensive attention due to their promising and potential applications in realistic consumer products, ranging from portable electronics, bio-integrated devices, space satellites, and electric vehicles to buildings with arbitrarily shaped surfaces. Material synthesis and structural design are core in the development of highly stretchable supercapacitors, batteries, and solar cells for practical applications. This review provides a brief summary of research development on the stretchable ESCDs in the past decade, from structural design strategies to novel materials synthesis. The focuses are on the fundamental insights of mechanical characteristics of materials and structures on the performance of the stretchable ESCDs, as well as challenges for their practical applications. Finally, some of the important directions in the areas of material synthesis and structural design facing the stretchable ESCDs are discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Thermosensitive injectable hydrogel enhances the antitumor effect of embelin in mouse hepatocellular carcinoma.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Embelin, an active ingredient of traditional herbal medicine, is used to treat many diseases such as cancer. However, embelin is hydrophobic and insoluble in water, which makes it unsuitable for in vivo applications. In this study, we constructed an embelin-loaded thermosensitive injectable hydrogel system that we named Embelin/PECT(gel) based on the amphiphilic triblock copolymer of poly (?-caprolactone-co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone)-poly (ethylene glycol)-poly (?-caprolactone-co-1,4,8-trioxa[4.6]spiro-9-undecanone) (PECT). The cytotoxicity and the antitumor effects of Embelin/PECT(gel) on mouse hepatic cancers were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Results indicated that embelin was formulated in PECT hydrogel and could be continuously released from Embelin/PECT(gel) , showing a higher cytotoxicity for H22 cells in vitro compared with free embelin. The aqueous solution of Embelin/PECT(gel) transformed into gel at the injection site within seconds, which later eroded and degraded over time in vivo. A single local peritumoral injection of Embelin/PECT(gel) in liver at a low dosage of 0.5 mg per mouse exhibited a significant antitumor effect, which was comparable to the antitumor effect of the embelin solution treatment at a total dose of 6 mg per mouse in mouse hepatic cancer. Embelin/PECT(gel) , as a drug delivery system in liver, represents a novel therapeutic drug candidate for the clinical treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Evolutionary search for new high-k dielectric materials: methodology and applications to hafnia-based oxides.
Acta Crystallogr C Struct Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High-k dielectric materials are important as gate oxides in microelectronics and as potential dielectrics for capacitors. In order to enable computational discovery of novel high-k dielectric materials, we propose a fitness model (energy storage density) that includes the dielectric constant, bandgap, and intrinsic breakdown field. This model, used as a fitness function in conjunction with first-principles calculations and the global optimization evolutionary algorithm USPEX, efficiently leads to practically important results. We found a number of high-fitness structures of SiO2 and HfO2, some of which correspond to known phases and some of which are new. The results allow us to propose characteristics (genes) common to high-fitness structures--these are the coordination polyhedra and their degree of distortion. Our variable-composition searches in the HfO2-SiO2 system uncovered several high-fitness states. This hybrid algorithm opens up a new avenue for discovering novel high-k dielectrics with both fixed and variable compositions, and will speed up the process of materials discovery.
Related JoVE Video
Tangeretin exerts anti-neuroinflammatory effects via NF-?B modulation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated microglial cells.
Int. Immunopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increasing evidence suggests that tangeretin, a flavonoid from citrus fruit peels, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties and neuroprotective effects in animal disease models. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated whether tangeretin suppresses excessive microglial activation implicated in the resulting neurotoxicity following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in primary rat microglia and BV-2 microglial cell culture models. The results showed that tangeretin decreased the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E? (PGE?), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1?), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally, it inhibited the LPS-induced expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) (examined at the protein level) as well as TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-6 (examined at the mRNA level) in microglial cells. To explore the possible mechanisms underlying these inhibitions by tangeretin, we examined the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) protein levels and the NF-?B protein signaling pathway. Tangeretin clearly inhibited LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK, N-terminal Kinase (JNK), and p38. In addition, tangeretin markedly reduced LPS-stimulated phosphorylation of I?B-? and IKK-?, as well as the nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-?B. Taken together, these results support further exploration of the therapeutic potential and molecular mechanism of tangeretin in relation to neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by microglial activation.
Related JoVE Video
Unconventional sequence requirement for viral late gene core promoters of murine gammaherpesvirus 68.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infection with the human gammaherpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is associated with several cancers. During lytic replication of herpesviruses, viral genes are expressed in an ordered cascade. However, the mechanism by which late gene expression is regulated has not been well characterized in gammaherpesviruses. In this study, we have investigated the cis element that mediates late gene expression during de novo lytic infection with murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68). A reporter system was established and used to assess the activity of viral late gene promoters upon infection with MHV-68. It was found that the viral origin of lytic replication, orilyt, must be on the reporter plasmid to support activation of the late gene promoter. Furthermore, the DNA sequence required for the activation of late gene promoters was mapped to a core element containing a distinct TATT box and its neighboring sequences. The critical nucleotides of the TATT box region were determined by systematic mutagenesis in the reporter system, and the significance of these nucleotides was confirmed in the context of the viral genome. In addition, EBV and KSHV late gene core promoters could be activated by MHV-68 lytic replication, indicating that the mechanisms controlling late gene expression are conserved among gammaherpesviruses. Therefore, our results on MHV-68 establish a solid foundation for mechanistic studies of late gene regulation.
Related JoVE Video
Degradation in the degree of polarization in human retinal nerve fiber layer.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Using a fiber-based swept-source (SS) polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) system, we investigate the degree of polarization (DOP) of light backscattered from the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) in normal human subjects. Algorithms for processing data were developed to analyze the deviation in phase retardation and intensity of backscattered light in directions parallel and perpendicular to the nerve fiber axis (fast and slow axes of RNFL). Considering superior, inferior, and nasal quadrants, we observe the strongest degradation in the DOP with increasing RNFL depth in the temporal quadrant. Retinal ganglion cell axons in normal human subjects are known to have the smallest diameter in the temporal quadrant, and the greater degradation observed in the DOP suggests that higher polarimetric noise may be associated with neural structure in the temporal RNFL. The association between depth degradation in the DOP and RNFL structural properties may broaden the utility of PS-OCT as a functional imaging technique.
Related JoVE Video
Changes of accumulation profiles from PBDEs to brominated and chlorinated alternatives in marine mammals from the South China Sea.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study investigated the composition profiles and levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and five PBDE alternatives in the blubber of two species of marine mammals, Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) and finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from the South China Sea. Despite the fact that PBDEs were the most predominant brominated flame retardants in the samples analyzed, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), 1,2-bis (2,4,6-tribromophenoxy) ethane (BTBPE), bis- (2-ethylhexyl) -tetrabromophthalate (TBPH), 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB) and Dechlorane Plus (DP) were all detected in both cetacean species. In addition, significantly increasing temporal shifting trends of Deca-BDE to DBDPE, Octa-BDE to BTBPE, and Deca-BDE to DP were observed in porpoise samples between 2003 and 2012 and dolphin samples between 2003 and 2011. These patterns may be attributed to the replacement of PBDEs by alternative halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) and the increasing usage of these alternatives following the restriction/voluntary withdrawal of the production and use of PBDE commercial mixtures. Our findings suggest that the study region may be a source of contamination by PBDE alternative flame retardants due to the high detection frequencies and levels of these compounds in marine mammals.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic Diversity of Neisseria meningitidis Serogroup C ST-4821 in China Based on Multiple-Locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat Analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neisseria meningitidis sequence type (ST)-4821 was first reported in China in 2003, and a new hyper-virulent lineage has been designated as the ST-4821 complex. A large number of N. meningitidis ST-4821 strains have been identified in China since 2003; however, the microevolution characteristics of this complex are unclear. Different combinations of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) loci were used in multiple-locus VNTR analysis (MLVA) to analyze 118 N. meningitidis serogroup C ST-4821 strains isolated from seventeen provinces between 2003 and 2012. Additionally, MLVA with five VNTR loci was performed due to its high discriminatory power. One hundred and eighteen isolates were found to comprise 112 subtypes based on MLVA, and 16 outbreak-associated strains were clustered into one group. These data indicate a high level of diversity for N. meningitidis ST-4821 due to microevolution in the last decade. In addition, the results revealed high similarity between isolates from the same geographic origins, which is helpful when monitoring the spread of N. meningitidis serogroup C ST-4821 and will provide valuable information for the control and prevention of bacterial meningitis in China.
Related JoVE Video
Anti-hypertensive medications and cardiovascular events in older adults with multiple chronic conditions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Randomized trials of anti-hypertensive treatment demonstrating reduced risk of cardiovascular events in older adults included participants with less comorbidity than clinical populations. Whether these results generalize to all older adults, most of whom have multiple chronic conditions, is uncertain.
Related JoVE Video
Population-based surveillance for bacterial meningitis in China, September 2006-December 2009.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During September 2006-December 2009, we conducted active population and sentinel laboratory-based surveillance for bacterial meningitis pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Haemophilus influenzae type b, in 4 China prefectures. We identified 7,876 acute meningitis and encephalitis syndrome cases, including 6,388 among prefecture residents. A total of 833 resident cases from sentinel hospitals met the World Health Organization case definition for probable bacterial meningitis; 339 of these cases were among children <5 years of age. Laboratory testing confirmed bacterial meningitis in 74 of 3,391 tested cases. The estimated annual incidence (per 100,000 population) of probable bacterial meningitis ranged from 1.84 to 2.93 for the entire population and from 6.95 to 22.30 for children <5 years old. Active surveillance with laboratory confirmation has provided a population-based estimate of the number of probable bacterial meningitis cases in China, but more complete laboratory testing is needed to better define the epidemiology of the disease in this country.
Related JoVE Video
Induction of endocycles represses apoptosis independently of differentiation and predisposes cells to genome instability.
Development
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The endocycle is a common developmental cell cycle variation wherein cells become polyploid through repeated genome duplication without mitosis. We previously showed that Drosophila endocycling cells repress the apoptotic cell death response to genotoxic stress. Here, we investigate whether it is differentiation or endocycle remodeling that promotes apoptotic repression. We find that when nurse and follicle cells switch into endocycles during oogenesis they repress the apoptotic response to DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation, and that this repression has been conserved in the genus Drosophila over 40 million years of evolution. Follicle cells defective for Notch signaling failed to switch into endocycles or differentiate and remained apoptotic competent. However, genetic ablation of mitosis by knockdown of Cyclin A or overexpression of fzr/Cdh1 induced follicle cell endocycles and repressed apoptosis independently of Notch signaling and differentiation. Cells recovering from these induced endocycles regained apoptotic competence, showing that repression is reversible. Recovery from fzr/Cdh1 overexpression also resulted in an error-prone mitosis with amplified centrosomes and high levels of chromosome loss and fragmentation. Our results reveal an unanticipated link between endocycles and the repression of apoptosis, with broader implications for how endocycles may contribute to genome instability and oncogenesis.
Related JoVE Video
Lynx: a database and knowledge extraction engine for integrative medicine.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have developed Lynx (http://lynx.ci.uchicago.edu)-a web-based database and a knowledge extraction engine, supporting annotation and analysis of experimental data and generation of weighted hypotheses on molecular mechanisms contributing to human phenotypes and disorders of interest. Its underlying knowledge base (LynxKB) integrates various classes of information from >35 public databases and private collections, as well as manually curated data from our group and collaborators. Lynx provides advanced search capabilities and a variety of algorithms for enrichment analysis and network-based gene prioritization to assist the user in extracting meaningful knowledge from LynxKB and experimental data, whereas its service-oriented architecture provides public access to LynxKB and its analytical tools via user-friendly web services and interfaces.
Related JoVE Video
Path-length-multiplexed scattering-angle-diverse optical coherence tomography for retinal imaging.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A low-resolution path-length-multiplexed scattering angle diverse optical coherence tomography (PM-SAD-OCT) is constructed to investigate the scattering properties of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). Low-resolution PM-SAD-OCT retinal images acquired from a healthy human subject show the variation of RNFL scattering properties at retinal locations around the optic nerve head. The results are consistent with known retinal ganglion cell neural anatomy and principles of light scattering. Application of PM-SAD-OCT may provide potentially valuable diagnostic information for clinical retinal imaging.
Related JoVE Video
Three-dimensional nitrogen-doped multiwall carbon nanotube sponges with tunable properties.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A three-dimensional (3D) nitrogen-doped multiwall carbon nanotube (N-MWCNT) sponge possessing junctions induced by both nitrogen and sulfur was synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The formation of "elbow" junctions as well as "welded" junctions, which are attributed to the synergistic effect of the nitrogen dopant and the sulfur promoter, plays a critically important role in the formation of 3D nanotube sponges. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report showing the synthesis of macroscale 3D N-MWCNT sponges. Most importantly, the diameter of N-MWCNT can be simply controlled by varying the concentration of sulfur, which in turn controls both the sponges mechanical and its electrical properties. It was experimentally shown that, with increasing diameter of N-MWCNT, the elastic modulus of the sponge increased while the electrical conductivity decreased. The mechanical behaviors of the sponges have also been quantitatively analyzed by employing strain energy function modeling.
Related JoVE Video
High rate capability of hydrogen annealed iron oxide-single walled carbon nanotube hybrid films for lithium-ion batteries.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A facile and effective hydrogen annealing method has been demonstrated to synthesize iron oxide/SWNT hybrid films involving the thermal reduction of rhombohedral Fe2O3 to cubic Fe3O4 through the phase transformation while maintaining the morphological integrity of the films. The poor rate capability and cyclic stability of the original ?-Fe2O3/SWNT hybrid films have been significantly improved by H2 annealing. The prepared iron oxide/SWNT hybrid films have a high capacity of 786 mA h g(-1) at a high current density of 4 A g(-1) with a prolonged lifetime. The enhancement of the electrochemical performance is attributed to the presence of highly conductive Fe3O4, accelerated charge-transfer kinetics, and the increased Li+ diffusivity confirmed by electrochemical impedance spectra and galvanostatic intermittent titration.
Related JoVE Video
Flexible all solid-state supercapacitors based on chemical vapor deposition derived graphene fibers.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on graphene fibers are demonstrated in this study. Surface-deposited oxide nanoparticles are used as pseudo-capacitor electrodes to achieve high capacitance. This supercapacitor electrode has an areal capacitance of 42 mF cm(-2), which is comparable to the capacitance for fiber-based supercapacitors reported to date. During the bending and cycling of the fiber-based supercapacitor, the stability could be maintained without sacrificing the electrochemical performance, which provides a novel and simple way to develop flexible, lightweight and efficient graphene-based devices.
Related JoVE Video
Bimodal voltage dependence of TRPA1: mutations of a key pore helix residue reveal strong intrinsic voltage-dependent inactivation.
Pflugers Arch.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) is implicated in somatosensory processing and pathological pain sensation. Although not strictly voltage-gated, ionic currents of TRPA1 typically rectify outwardly, indicating channel activation at depolarized membrane potentials. However, some reports also showed TRPA1 inactivation at high positive potentials, implicating voltage-dependent inactivation. Here we report a conserved leucine residue, L906, in the putative pore helix, which strongly impacts the voltage dependency of TRPA1. Mutation of the leucine to cysteine (L906C) converted the channel from outward to inward rectification independent of divalent cations and irrespective to stimulation by allyl isothiocyanate. The mutant, but not the wild-type channel, displayed exclusively voltage-dependent inactivation at positive potentials. The L906C mutation also exhibited reduced sensitivity to inhibition by TRPA1 blockers, HC030031 and ruthenium red. Further mutagenesis of the leucine to all natural amino acids individually revealed that most substitutions at L906 (15/19) resulted in inward rectification, with exceptions of three amino acids that dramatically reduced channel activity and one, methionine, which mimicked the wild-type channel. Our data are plausibly explained by a bimodal gating model involving both voltage-dependent activation and inactivation of TRPA1. We propose that the key pore helix residue, L906, plays an essential role in responding to the voltage-dependent gating.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of the Fe(III)-catalyzed dopamine oxidation by ATP and its relevance to oxidative stress in Parkinsons disease.
ACS Chem Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Parkinsons disease (PD) is characterized by the progressive degeneration of dopaminergic cells, which implicates a role of dopamine (DA) in the etiology of PD. A possible DA degradation pathway is the Fe(III)-catalyzed oxidation of DA by oxygen, which produces neuronal toxins as side products. We investigated how ATP, an abundant and ubiquitous molecule in cellular milieu, affects the catalytic oxidation reaction of dopamine. For the first time, a unique, highly stable DA-Fe(III)-ATP ternary complex was formed and characterized in vitro. ATP as a ligand shifts the catecholate-Fe(III) ligand metal charge transfer (LMCT) band to a longer wavelength and the redox potentials of both DA and the Fe(III) center in the ternary complex. Remarkably, the additional ligation by ATP was found to significantly reverse the catalytic effect of the Fe(III) center on the DA oxidation. The reversal is attributed to the full occupation of the Fe(III) coordination sites by ATP and DA, which blocks O2 from accessing the Fe(III) center and its further reaction with DA. The biological relevance of this complex is strongly implicated by the identification of the ternary complex in the substantia nigra of rat brain and its attenuation of cytotoxicity of the Fe(III)-DA complex. Since ATP deficiency accompanies PD and neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) induced PD, deficiency of ATP and the resultant impairment toward the inhibition of the Fe(III)-catalyzed DA oxidation may contribute to the pathogenesis of PD. Our finding provides new insight into the pathways of DA oxidation and its relationship with synaptic activity.
Related JoVE Video
Membranous ABCG2 expression in colorectal cancer independently correlates with shortened patient survival.
Cancer Biomark
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ABCG2 is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily and identified to play an important role in multidrug resistance in many studies. But the expression of ABCG2 is controversial in many kinds of tumors including colorectal cancer (CRC).
Related JoVE Video
Immune microenvironment profiles of tumor immune equilibrium and immune escape states of mouse sarcoma.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cancer immunoediting consists of three distinct phases: elimination, equilibrium and escape. Here, for the first time, we investigated the immune microenvironment profiles of tumor immune equilibrium and immune escape states in 3-methylcholanthrene-induced murine sarcoma model. Our study indicates the relative balance of monocytic MDSCs and antitumor immunity cells (especially CTLs, NK cells and ??T cells) may involve in maintaining tumor cells in a state of immune-mediated dormancy. In addition, high percentages of Treg cells and PMN-MDSCs are associated with the tumor immune escape state - mice with progressing sarcomas. In summary, the relative balance of immune effector cells and suppressive populations in the tumor microenvironment may involve in determining the fate of tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Piecewise analysis of patient survival after onset of AKI.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
AKI affects approximately 2%-7% of hospitalized patients and >35% of critically ill patients. Survival after AKI may be described as having an acute phase (including an initial hyperacute component) followed by a convalescent phase, which may itself have early and late components.
Related JoVE Video
Conventional and emerging halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in sediment of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, East China.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The occurrence and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and eleven non-PBDE halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) were investigated through the collection of marine and river sediment from Yangtze River Delta (YRD), East China. Among them, PBDEs, decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane (TBECH) were the three predominant HFRs with the highest detection frequencies in the sediment. Significant correlation between PBDEs and DBDPE indicated that they may have the similar emission sources. The production and use of DBDPE is growing rapidly and comparable concentrations between PBDEs and DBDPE in YRD sediment may suggest that DBDPE will likely become one of the major HFRs emerging in the environment in China. Of the seven detected non-PBDE HFRs, this is the first time that TBECH was reported in the Chinese environment and its predominance and prevalence in the YRD may imply its extensive use in these areas.
Related JoVE Video
Thermally induced solid-solid structural transition of copper nanoparticles through direct geometrical conversion.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Molecular dynamics simulations of small Cu nanoparticles using three different interatomic potentials at rising temperature indicate that small nanoparticles can undergo solid-solid structural transitions through a direct geometrical conversion route. The direct geometrical conversion can happen for cuboctahedral nanoparticles, which turn into an icosahedra shape: one diagonal of the square faces contracts, and the faces are folded along the diagonal to give rise to two equilateral triangles. The transition is a kinetic process that cannot be fully explained through an energetic point of view. It has low activation energy and fast reaction time in the simulations. The transition mechanism is via the transmission of shear waves initiated from the particle surface and does not involve dislocation activity.
Related JoVE Video
Goodness-of-fit test for proportional subdistribution hazards model.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper concerns using modified weighted Schoenfeld residuals to test the proportionality of subdistribution hazards for the Fine-Gray model, similar to the tests proposed by Grambsch and Therneau for independently censored data. We develop a score test for the time-varying coefficients based on the modified Schoenfeld residuals derived assuming a certain form of non-proportionality. The methods perform well in simulations and a real data analysis of breast cancer data, where the treatment effect exhibits non-proportional hazards.
Related JoVE Video
Differentiated markers in undifferentiated cells: expression of smooth muscle contractile proteins in multipotent bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.
Dev. Growth Differ.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In studying the differentiation of stem cells along smooth muscle lineage, smooth muscle cell (SMC) contractile proteins serve as markers for the relative state of maturation. Yet, recent evidence suggests that some SMC markers are probably expressed in multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Such a paradox necessitates investigations to re-examine their role as differentiated markers in MSCs. We tried to detect the expression of four widely used SMC markers including ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA), h1-calponin, desmin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SM-MHC), as well as the other isoforms of calponin family in resting MSCs. Then we used three different conditions to initiate MSCs differentiation along SMC lineage, and examined the alternation of SMC markers expression at both the transcript level and protein level. Desmin and h1-calponin are expressed in MSCs, in the presence or absence of SMC induction conditions. Moreover, MSCs are shown to express all known isoforms of calponin. Double-staining reveals that h1-calponin +/?-SMA - cells constitute the majority of resting MSCs. Under differentiated conditions, expression of SM-MHC was initiated and expression of ?-SMA was promoted. The expression of SM-MHC and upregulation of ?-SMA are relatively reliable indications of a mature smooth muscle phenotype in MSCs. Given that the cells are particularly rich in calponins expression, we postulate possible roles of these proteins in regulating cellular function by taking part in actin cytoskeleton and signaling. These findings imply that an extensive study of the cell physiology of MSCs should focus on the functional roles for these proteins, rather than simply regard them as differentiated markers.
Related JoVE Video
Magnetic targeting enhances retrograde cell retention in a rat model of myocardial infarction.
Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Retrograde coronary venous infusion is a promising delivery method for cellular cardiomyoplasty. Poor cell retention is the major obstacle to the establishment of this method as the preferred route for cell delivery. Here, we explored whether magnetic targeting could enhance retrograde cell retention in a rat model of myocardial infarction.
Related JoVE Video
Multimodality noninvasive cardiac imaging established the diagnosis of aneurysms of Vieussens arterial ring.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Noninvasive cardiac imagines are rapidly evolving in recent years. In this patient with Vieussens arterial ring aneurysm, multimodality noninvasive cardiac imaging provided sufficient information for diagnosis and surgical decision making. This report no only provides unique information leading to better understanding on aneurysms of Vieussens arterial ring, but also highlights the important role of multimodality noninvasive cardiac imagines in the diagnosis and management of certain cardiac emergencies.
Related JoVE Video
MALDI-TOF MS distinctly differentiates nontypable Haemophilus influenzae from Haemophilus haemolyticus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nontypable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) and Haemophilus haemolyticus exhibit different pathogenicities, but to date, there remains no definitive and reliable strategy for differentiating these strains. In this study, we evaluated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) as a potential method for differentiating NTHi and H. haemolyticus. The phylogenetic analysis of concatenated 16S rRNA and recombinase A (recA) gene sequences, outer membrane protein P6 gene sequencing and single-gene PCR were used as reference methods. The original reference database (ORD, provided with the Biotyper software) and new reference database (NRD, extended with Chinese strains) were compared for the evaluation of MALDI-TOF MS. Through a search of the ORD, 76.9% of the NTHi (40/52) and none of the H. haemolyticus (0/20) strains were identified at the species level. However, all NTHi and H. haemolyticus strains used for identification were accurately recognized at the species level when searching the NRD. From the dendrogram clustering of the main spectra projections, the Chinese and foreign H. influenzae reference strains were categorized into two distinct groups, and H. influenzae and H. haemolyticus were also separated into two categories. Compared to the existing methods, MALDI-TOF MS has the advantage of integrating high throughput, accuracy and speed. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF MS is an excellent method for differentiating NTHi and H. haemolyticus. This method can be recommended for use in appropriately equipped laboratories.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term therapeutic effects of corticoamygdalohippocampectomy for bilateral mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.
Surg Neurol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Some cases of paradoxical mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) are shown to be bilateral MTLE (BMTLE) by intracranial electrodes. The treatment for BMTLE is difficult, which poses several questions. Can corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH) be applied to treat BMTLE? What are the long-term therapeutic effects if CAH is performed in BMTLE patients?
Related JoVE Video
Sirtuin 1-mediated cellular metabolic memory of high glucose via the LKB1/AMPK/ROS pathway and therapeutic effects of metformin.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cellular metabolic memory occurs in diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we investigate the role of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and metformin in this phenomenon. In bovine retinal capillary endothelial cells (BRECs) and retinas of diabetic rats, the inflammatory gene, nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), and the proapoptotic gene, Bax, induced by hyperglycemia, remained elevated after returning to normoglycemia. BRECs with small interfering RNA-mediated SIRT1 knockdown had increased sensitivity to hyperglycemia stress, whereas SIRT1 overexpression or activation by metformin inhibited the increase of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species-mediated glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase by poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activity through the upregulation of liver kinase B1/AMP-activated protein kinase (LKB1/AMPK), ultimately suppressing NF-?B and Bax expression. Furthermore, we showed that hyperglycemia led to PARP activation, which in turn may have downregulated SIRT1. Of importance, this study also demonstrated that metformin suppressed the "memory" of hyperglycemia stress in the diabetic retinas, which may be involved in the SIRT1/LKB1/AMPK pathway. Our data suggest that SIRT1 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of the cellular metabolic memory, and the use of metformin specifically for such therapy may be a new avenue of investigation in the diabetes field.
Related JoVE Video
Novel photocatalytic antibacterial activity of TiO2 microspheres exposing 100% reactive {111} facets.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
TiO(2) microspheres constructed by well-crystallized faceted nanorods with high aspect ratios expose 100% photocatalytic reactive {111} facets on the spherical surface. The microspheres demonstrated excellent photocatalytic antibacterial activity towards Staphylococcus aureus due to effective suppression of photoinduced electron-hole pair recombination and active TiO(2)@?OH core-shell structure.
Related JoVE Video
Competing risks regression for clustered data.
Biostatistics
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A population average regression model is proposed to assess the marginal effects of covariates on the cumulative incidence function when there is dependence across individuals within a cluster in the competing risks setting. This method extends the Fine-Gray proportional hazards model for the subdistribution to situations, where individuals within a cluster may be correlated due to unobserved shared factors. Estimators of the regression parameters in the marginal model are developed under an independence working assumption where the correlation across individuals within a cluster is completely unspecified. The estimators are consistent and asymptotically normal, and variance estimation may be achieved without specifying the form of the dependence across individuals. A simulation study evidences that the inferential procedures perform well with realistic sample sizes. The practical utility of the methods is illustrated with data from the European Bone Marrow Transplant Registry.
Related JoVE Video
[Observation and comparision on morphological characteristics of pollen of Lonicera japonica in different cultivars].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare morphological characteristics of pollen of Lonicera japonica in different cultivars cultivated in Shandong and provide a basis for distinguishing different cultivars and selecting fine breeding.
Related JoVE Video
Astragalus polysaccharides lowers plasma cholesterol through mechanisms distinct from statins.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the efficacy and underlying mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. The effect of APS (0.25 g/kg/d) on plasma and liver lipids, fecal bile acids and neutral sterol, cholesterol absorption and synthesis, HMG-CoA reductase activity, and gene and protein expressions in the liver and small intestine was investigated in twenty-four hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Treatment periods lasted for three months. APS significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol by 45.8%, triglycerides by 30%, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 47.4%, comparable to simvastatin. Further examinations revealed that APS reduced total cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver, increased fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion, inhibited cholesterol absorption, and by contrast, increased hepatic cholesterol synthesis and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Plasma total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with cholesterol absorption rates. APS up-regulated cholesterol-7?-hydroxylase and LDL-receptor gene expressions. These new findings identify APS as a potential natural cholesterol lowering agent, working through mechanisms distinct from statins.
Related JoVE Video
Birefringence measurement of the retinal nerve fiber layer by swept source polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A Swept Source Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (SS-PS-OCT) instrument has been designed, constructed, and verified to provide high sensitivity depth-resolved birefringence and phase retardation measurements of the retinal nerve fiber layer. The swept-source laser had a center wavelength of 1059 nm, a full-width-half-max spectral bandwidth of 58 nm and an A-line scan rate of 34 KHz. Power incident on the cornea was 440 µW and measured axial resolution was 17 µm in air. A multiple polarization state nonlinear fitting algorithm was used to measure retinal birefringence with low uncertainty. Maps of RNFL phase retardation in a subject measured with SS-PS-OCT compare well with those generated using a commercial scanning laser polarimetry instrument. Peak-to-valley variation of RNFL birefringence given here is less than values previously reported at 840nm.
Related JoVE Video
Direct laser writing of micro-supercapacitors on hydrated graphite oxide films.
Nat Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microscale supercapacitors provide an important complement to batteries in a variety of applications, including portable electronics. Although they can be manufactured using a number of printing and lithography techniques, continued improvements in cost, scalability and form factor are required to realize their full potential. Here, we demonstrate the scalable fabrication of a new type of all-carbon, monolithic supercapacitor by laser reduction and patterning of graphite oxide films. We pattern both in-plane and conventional electrodes consisting of reduced graphite oxide with micrometre resolution, between which graphite oxide serves as a solid electrolyte. The substantial amounts of trapped water in the graphite oxide makes it simultaneously a good ionic conductor and an electrical insulator, allowing it to serve as both an electrolyte and an electrode separator with ion transport characteristics similar to that observed for Nafion membranes. The resulting micro-supercapacitor devices show good cyclic stability, and energy storage capacities comparable to existing thin-film supercapacitors.
Related JoVE Video
Correlation study on behavioral problems and self-concept of children with oppositional defiant disorder.
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the behavioral problems and self-concept of children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and the correlation between them.
Related JoVE Video
?-Tocotrienol inhibits cell viability through suppression of ?-catenin/Tcf signaling in human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?-Tocotrienol, a major component of the tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil, has been suggested to have antioxidant and anticancer activity as well as potent chemopreventive effects on tumor cells. In this study, the mechanisms underlying ?-tocotrienol-mediated growth inhibition of human carcinoma HT-29 cells were further investigated, especially in correlation with the involvement of ?-catenin/T-cell factor (Tcf) signaling pathway. We found that ?-tocotrienol could strongly suppress the transcriptional activity of ?-catenin/Tcf signaling pathway in HT-29 cells. ?-Tocotrienol inhibited the expression level of total ?-catenin protein but did not significantly affect the phosphorylated ?-catenin level. Meanwhile, ?-tocotrienol down-regulated the protein level of nuclear ?-catenin and induced its redistribution to cell membrane. Furthermore, ?-tocotrienol suppressed the expression of downstream target genes such as c-myc, cyclin D1 and survivin. The results demonstrated that ?-tocotrienol-inhibited growth and -induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells were accompanied by significant inhibition of ?-catenin/Tcf signaling. Blocking the expression of ?-catenin with small interfering RNA significantly suppressed the ability of ?-tocotrienol to reduce viability and induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells. Thus, our data suggested that ?-tocotrienol exerts its anticancer activity through ?-catenin/Tcf signaling, and ?-catenin is a target for ?-tocotrienol in the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Physico-chemical characteristics and lead biosorption properties of Enteromorpha prolifera.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biosorption of lead ions onto Enteromorpha prolifera has been investigated. The physico-chemical properties of the biosorbent were characterized by thermal stability, zeta potential, and Boehm titration methods. Batch adsorption experiments were carried out to examine the effect of various parameters such as initial pH, particle size, adsorbent dosage, ionic strength, time, and temperature on biosorption. The kinetic studies showed that the adsorption process was very fast and equilibrium was reached after about 60 min of contact. The pseudo-first-order Lagergren equation, pseudo second-order rate equation, and second-order rate equation were used to describe the kinetic adsorption process. Thermodynamic parameters were determined at three different temperatures. The negative values of free energy change indicated the spontaneous nature of adsorption process.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of hydrophobic and hydrophilic modifications on gene delivery of amphiphilic chitosan based nanocarriers.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The structure-activity relationships between hydrophobic and hydrophilic modification on chitosan and resultant physicochemical properties along with performances in dealing with critical gene delivery barriers were investigated through amphiphilic linoleic acid(LA) and poly (?-malic acid) (PMLA) double grafted chitosan (LMC)/plasmid DNA (pDNA) nanocomplexes. LMC polymers with various LA and PMLA substitution degrees were synthesized and their hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity was characterized. Compared to chitosan, LMC nanoparticles retained the pDNA binding ability at pH 5.5 when they formed nanocomplexes with pDNA encoding enhanced green fluorescence protein (pEGFP) and the resultant complexes showed diameters below 300 nm. Hydrophobic LA and hydrophilic PMLA substitution contributed to suppressed non-specific adsorption, reduced interactions inside LMC/pDNA nanocomplexes, and enhanced pDNA dissociation. However, enzymatic degradation resistance, cell adsorption, and cellular uptake through clathrin-mediated pathway were promoted by hydrophobic LA grafting while being inhibited by hydrophilic PMLA substitution. In vitro transfection assay suggested the optimal LMC/pEGFP nanocomplexes mediated an 8.0-fold improved transfection compared to chitosan/pEGFP nanocomplexes. The 4.2-fold and 2.2-fold higher intramuscular gene expression in mice compared to chitosan/pEGFP and polyethyleneimine (PEI)/pEGFP nanocomplexes further demonstrated the superiority of LMC/pDNA nanocomplexes. Therefore, amphiphilic chitosan derivates with appropriate combination of hydrophobic and hydrophilic modification would be promising gene delivery nanocarriers.
Related JoVE Video
Correlation between ficolin-3 and vascular endothelial growth factor-to-pigment epithelium-derived factor ratio in the vitreous of eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the relationship of ficolin-3 with inflammatory and angiogenic factors, namely, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), in the vitreous of eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR).
Related JoVE Video
Reproductive toxicity assessment of surface water of the Tai section of the Yangtze River, China by in vitro bioassays coupled with chemical analysis.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reproductive toxicity of organic extracts of the surface water from the Tai section of the Yangtze River was assessed by in vitro cytotoxity assays and selected persistent organic pollutants including PCBs, OCPs and PAHs were quantified by instrumental analysis. Eleven of the US EPA priority PAHs were detected. Individual PAHs were found to range from 0.7 to 20 ng/L. Concentrations of BaP did not exceed the national drinking water source quality standard of China. However, a 286-fold concentrated organic extract induced significant reproductive toxicity in adult male rats. The morphology of cells, MTT assay and LDH release assay were all affected by exposure to the organic extracts of water. The results of the reproductive toxicity indicated that PAHs posed the greatest risk of the chemicals studied. The compounds present in the water could be bioconcentrated and result in adverse effects.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.