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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Identification of a common molecular pathway in hypertensive renal damage: comparison of rat and human gene expression profiles.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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There is a common structural progression in hypertensive renal damage with early arterial damage and fibrosis in the juxtamedullary cortex.
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Arterial damage precedes the development of interstitial damage in the nonclipped kidney of two-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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The progression of damage in the renal cortex has not been investigated in the nonclipped kidney of the two-kidney, one-clip model of renal hypertension. In other hypertensive models, damage has been found to progress from the juxtamedullary cortex (JMC) and outward, which has been attributed to early vascular effects.
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Nitric oxide in afferent arterioles after uninephrectomy depends on extracellular L-arginine.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Uninephrectomy (UNX) causes hyperperfusion of the contralateral remaining kidney via increased nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Although the exact mechanism remains largely unknown, we hypothesize that this would be localized to the afferent arteriole and that it depends on cellular uptake of l-arginine. The experiments were performed in rats 2 days (early) or 6 wk (late) after UNX and compared with controls (Sham) to study acute and chronic effects on NO metabolism. Renal blood flow was increased after UNX (21 ± 2 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1) in sham, 30 ± 3 in early, and 26 ± 1 in late, P < 0.05). NO inhibition with N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME) caused a greater increase in renal vascular resistance in early UNX compared with Sham and late UNX (138 ± 24 vs. 88 ± 10, and 84 ± 7%, P < 0.01). The lower limit of autoregulation was increased both in early and late UNX compared with Sham (P < 0.05). L-NAME did not affect the ANG II-induced contraction of isolated afferent arterioles (AA) from Sham. AA from early UNX displayed a more pronounced contraction in response to L-NAME (-57 ± 7 vs. -16 ± 7%, P < 0.05) and in the absence of L-arginine (-41 ± 4%, P < 0.05) compared with both late UNX and Sham. mRNA expression of endothelial NO synthase was reduced, whereas protein expression was unchanged. Cationic amino acid transporter-1 and -2 mRNA was increased, while protein was unaffected in isolated preglomerular resistance vessels. In conclusion, NO-dependent hyperperfusion of the remaining kidney in early UNX is associated with increased NO release from the afferent arteriole, which is highly dependent on extracellular L-arginine availability.
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Long-term risk of ESRD in IgAN; validation of Japanese prognostic model in a Norwegian cohort.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Recently, a Japanese model used to predict 10-year risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patients was published. We tested the applicability of the Japanese model in predicting 10- to 20-year risk of ESRD and all-cause mortality in a cohort of Norwegian IgAN patients.
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Pre-transplant course and risk of kidney transplant failure in IgA nephropathy patients.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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There is lack of knowledge to what degree clinical/morphological presentation and course of IgA nephropathy (IgAN) prior to end-stage renal disease are risk factors for graft loss after kidney transplantation. Material and
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Afferent arteriolopathy and glomerular collapse but not segmental sclerosis induce tubular atrophy in old spontaneously hypertensive rats.
Virchows Arch.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2011
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In chronic renal disease, the temporal and spatial relationship between vascular, glomerular and tubular changes is still unclear. Hypertension, an important cause of chronic renal failure, leads to afferent arteriolopathy, segmental glomerulosclerosis and tubular atrophy in the juxtamedullary cortex. We investigated the pathological changes of hypertensive renal disease in aged spontaneously hypertensive rats using a large number of serial sections, where we traced and analyzed afferent arteriole, glomerulus and proximal tubule of single nephrons. Our major finding was that both afferent arteriolopathy and glomerular capillary collapse were linked to tubular atrophy. Only nephrons with glomerular collapse (n?=?13) showed tubules with reduced diameter indicating atrophy [21.66?±?2.56 ?m vs. tubules in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) 38.56?±?0.56 ?m, p?
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Are adverse pregnancy outcomes risk factors for development of end-stage renal disease in women with diabetes?
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2010
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It is unknown whether adverse pregnancy-related outcomes in women with pregestational diabetes are associated with later development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) or death.
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Previous preeclampsia and risk for progression of biopsy-verified kidney disease to end-stage renal disease.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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A recent study has shown that preeclampsia is an important risk marker for end-stage renal disease (ESRD), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The present study investigated whether previous preeclampsia was associated with progression of established kidney disease. Material and methods. Data from the Norwegian Kidney Biopsy Registry and the Medical Birth Registry of Norway were linked. We included women who, after their last pregnancy, had had a representative kidney biopsy in 1988-2005. Women were followed up for the development of ESRD using data from the Norwegian Renal Registry. Baseline was set at the time of biopsy and Cox regression statistics were performed.
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Losartan increases NO release in afferent arterioles during regression of L-NAME-induced renal damage.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis (NOS) induces hypertension and heavy proteinuria. Renal structure and function have shown striking improvement after interventions targeting ANG II or endothelin (ET) receptors in rats recovering after long-term NOS inhibition. To search for mechanisms underlying losartan-assisted regression of renal disease in rodents, we measured NO release and contractility to ET in afferent arterioles (AAs) from Sprague-Dawley rats recovering for 2 wk after 4 wk of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester treatment. Losartan administration during the recovery period decreased blood pressure (113 ± 4 vs. 146 ± 5 mmHg, P < 0.01), reduced protein/creatinine ratio more (proteinuria decrease: ?1,836 ± 214 vs. ?1,024 ± 180 mg/mmol, P < 0.01), and normalized microvascular hypertrophy (AA media/lumen ratio: 1.74 ± 0.05 vs. 2.09 ± 0.08, P < 0.05) compared with no treatment. In diaminofluorescein-FM-loaded AAs from losartan-treated animals, NO release (% of baseline) was increased compared with untreated animals after stimulation with 10(-7) M ACh (118 ± 4 vs. 90 ± 7%, t = 560 s, P < 0.001) and 10(-9) M ET (123 ± 4 vs. 101 ± 5%, t = 560 s, P < 0.001). There was also a blunted contractile response to 10(-7) M ET in AAs from losartan-treated animals compared with untreated animals (?4.01 ± 2.9 vs. ?14.6 ± 1.7 ?m, P < 0.01), which disappeared after acute NOS inhibition (?10.7 ± 3.7 vs. ?12.5 ± 2.9 ?m, not significant). Contractile dose responses to ET (10(-9), 10(-8), 10(-7) M) were enhanced by NOS inhibition and blunted by exogenous NO (10(-2) mM S-nitroso-N-acetyl-penicillamine) in losartan-treated but not in untreated vessels. Reducing blood pressure similar to losartan with hydralazine did not improve AA hypertrophy, ET-induced contractility, ET-induced NO release, and NO sensitivity. In conclusion, blockade of the local action of ANG II improved endothelial function in AAs, a mechanism that is likely to contribute to the beneficial effects of AT(1a)R antagonism during the recovery of renal function after long-term NOS inhibition in rats.
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AT(1) receptor activation regulates the mRNA expression of CAT1, CAT2, arginase-1, and DDAH2 in preglomerular vessels from angiotensin II hypertensive rats.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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Previously, we found increased expression of l-arginine metabolizing enzymes in both kidneys from two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats (Helle F, Hultstrom M, Skogstrand T, Palm F, Iversen BM. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F78-F86, 2009). In the present study, we investigate whether AT(1) receptor activation can induce the changes observed in 2K1C. Four groups of rats were infused with 80 ng/min ANG II or saline for 14 days and/or given 60 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1) losartan. Gene expression was studied in isolated preglomerular vessels by RT-PCR. Dose-responses to ANG II were studied in isolated preglomerular vessels with and without acute NOS inhibition [10(-4) mol/l N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME)]. Expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), caveolin-1, and arginase-2 were not changed by ANG II infusion. CAT1 (0.3 8 +/- 0.07 to 0.73 +/- 0.12, P < 0.05), CAT2 (1.14 +/- 0.29 to 2.74 +/- 0.48), DDAH2 (1.09 +/- 0.27 to 2.3 +/- 0.46), and arginase-1 (1.08 +/- 0.17 to 1.82 +/- 0.22) were increased in ANG II-infused rats. This was prevented by losartan treatment, which reduced the expression of eNOS (0.97 +/- 0.26 to 0.37 +/- 0.11 in controls; 0.8 +/- 0.16 to 0.36 +/- 0.1 in ANG II-infused rats) and caveolin-1 (2.49 +/- 0.59 to 0.82 +/- 0.24 in controls and 2.59 +/- 0.61 to 1.1 +/- 0.25 in ANG II-infused rats). ANG II (10(-10) mol/l) caused vessels from ANG II-infused animals to contract to 53 +/- 15% of baseline diameter and 90 +/- 5% of baseline diameter in controls (P < 0.05) and was further enhanced by l-NAME to 4 +/- 4% of baseline diameter (P < 0.05). In vivo losartan treatment reduced the reactivity of isolated vessels to 91 +/- 2% of baseline in response to 10(-7) mol/l ANG II compared with 82 +/- 3% in controls (P < 0.05) and prevented the increased responsiveness caused by ANG II infusion. In conclusion, CAT1, CAT2, DDAH2, and arginase-1 expression in renal resistance vessels is regulated through the AT(1) receptor. This finding may be of direct importance for NOS and the regulation of preglomerular vascular function.
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Angiotensin II-induced contraction is attenuated by nitric oxide in afferent arterioles from the nonclipped kidney in 2K1C.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2009
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Two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) is a model of renovascular hypertension where we previously found an exaggerated intracellular calcium (Ca(i)(2+)) response to ANG II in isolated afferent arterioles (AAs) from the clipped kidney (Helle F, Vagnes OB, Iversen BM. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 291: F140-F147, 2006). To test whether nitric oxide (NO) ameliorates the exaggerated ANG II response in 2K1C, we studied ANG II (10(-7) mol/l)-induced calcium signaling and contractility with or without the NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME). In AAs from the nonclipped kidney, l-NAME increased the ANG II-induced Ca(i)(2+) response from 0.28 +/- 0.05 to 0.55 +/- 0.09 (fura 2, 340 nm/380 nm ratio) and increased contraction from 80 +/- 6 to 60 +/- 6% of baseline (P < 0.05). In vessels from sham and clipped kidneys, l-NAME had no effect. In diaminofluorescein-FM diacetate-loaded AAs from the nonclipped kidney, ANG II increased NO-derived fluorescence to 145 +/- 34% of baseline (P < 0.05 vs. sham), but not in vessels from the sham or clipped kidney. Endothelial NOS (eNOS) mRNA and ser-1177 phosphorylation were unchanged in both kidneys from 2K1C, while eNOS protein was reduced in the clipped kidney compared with sham. Cationic amino acid transferase-1 and 2 mRNAs were increased in 2K1C, indicating increased availability of l-arginine for NO synthesis, but counteracted by decreased scavenging of the eNOS inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 2. In conclusion, the Ca(i)(2+) and contractile responses to ANG II are blunted by NO release in the nonclipped kidney. This may protect the nonclipped kidney from the hypertension and elevated ANG II levels in 2K1C.
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Collagen-binding proteins in age-dependent changes in renal collagen turnover: microarray analysis of mRNA expression.
Physiol. Genomics
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Aging is associated with progressive structural and functional deterioration of the kidney. Among the morphological changes associated with renal aging is an accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM) in the glomeruli and tubuloinsterstitium, which may ultimately lead to the development of renal fibrosis. The mechanisms governing the regulation of ECM metabolism during renal aging are only incompletely defined. We present data from a genome-wide mRNA expression study on renal tissue from 90 wk old male Wistar rats and 10 wk old controls using Illumina BeadArray cDNA microarray. Regulation of candidate gene products was verified by real-time PCR. Morphological changes were evaluated by routine histological methods. Activated fibroblasts were identified by their expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen I. Morphological analysis demonstrated an expansion of the tubulointerstitial compartment with increased amounts of fibrous collagen but no overt glomerular or tubular damage in the aged rats. Activated fibroblasts were readily detectable in the adventitial layer of large renal vessels in controls and were not found in the old animals. In agreement with this finding, gene expression analysis revealed significant downregulation of collagen I mRNA along with numerous other ECM components. Concomitantly, collagen-stabilizing proteins were induced, whereas matrix metalloproteinase 9, an enzyme involved in collagen breakdown, was reduced. In conclusion, our results suggest that ECM expansion during renal aging results from an augmented stabilization in conjunction with a reduced breakdown of collagen fibers. Collagen stabilizing proteins may be essential for the control of renal ECM turnover and the pathogenesis of kidney fibrosis.
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