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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mutational spectrum of myeloid malignancies with inv(3)/t(3;3) reveals a predominant involvement of RAS/RTK signaling pathways.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
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Myeloid malignancies bearing chromosomal inv(3)/t(3;3) abnormalities are among the most therapy-resistant leukemias. Deregulated expression of EVI1 is the molecular hallmark of this disease; however, the genome-wide spectrum of cooperating mutations in this disease subset has not been systematically elucidated. Here, we show that 98% of inv(3)/t(3;3) myeloid malignancies harbor mutations in genes activating RAS/receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathways. In addition, hemizygous mutations in GATA2 as well as heterozygous alterations in RUNX1, SF3B1, and genes encoding epigenetic modifiers frequently co-occur with the inv(3)/t(3;3) aberration. Notably, neither mutational patterns nor gene expression profiles differ across inv(3)/t(3;3) AML, CML, and MDS cases, suggesting recognition of inv(3)/t(3;3) myeloid malignancies as one disease entity irrespective of blast count. The high incidence of activating RAS/RTK signaling mutations may provide a target for a rational treatment strategy in this high-risk patient group.
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Two splice-factor mutant leukemia subgroups uncovered at the boundaries of MDS and AML using combined gene expression and DNA-methylation profiling.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Mutations in splice factor (SF) genes occur more frequently in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) than in acute myeloid leukemias (AML). We sequenced complementary DNA from bone marrow of 47 refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB) patients, 29 AML cases with low marrow blast cell count, and 325 other AML patients and determined the presence of SF-hotspot mutations in SF3B1, U2AF35, and SRSF2. SF mutations were found in 10 RAEB, 12 AML cases with low marrow blast cell count, and 25 other AML cases. Our study provides evidence that SF-mutant RAEB and SF-mutant AML are clinically, cytologically, and molecularly highly similar. An integrated analysis of genomewide messenger RNA (mRNA) expression profiling and DNA-methylation profiling data revealed 2 unique patient clusters highly enriched for SF-mutant RAEB/AML. The combined genomewide mRNA expression profiling/DNA-methylation profiling signatures revealed 1 SF-mutant patient cluster with an erythroid signature. The other SF-mutant patient cluster was enriched for NRAS/KRAS mutations and showed an inferior survival. We conclude that SF-mutant RAEB/AML constitutes a related disorder overriding the artificial separation between AML and MDS, and that SF-mutant RAEB/AML is composed of 2 molecularly and clinically distinct subgroups. We conclude that SF-mutant disorders should be considered as myeloid malignancies that transcend the boundaries of AML and MDS.
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Impaired health-related quality of life in acute myeloid leukemia survivors: a single-center study.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and its treatment on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) by comparing the HRQOL of AML survivors with the HRQOL in the general population.
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Outcome of patients with abnl(17p) acute myeloid leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and abnormalities of chromosome 17p (abnl(17p)) are at high-risk of treatment failure. Poor outcomes have been reported with conventional chemotherapy. To accurately define the outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in patients with abnl(17p) AML, we analyzed the results of patients with this abnormality who received an allogeneic HSCT between January 2000 and December 2010 in 1 of 4 well-defined cohorts (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Haemato Oncology Foundation for Adults in the Netherlands, Study Alliance Leukemia, German Cooperative Transplant Study Group). Data of 201 patients with a median age of 54 years were evaluable. At the time of analysis, 30 patients were alive with a median follow-up of 30 months. The 3-year probability of overall survival (OS) was 15% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10-20). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 3 years was 49% (95% CI, 42-56). Notably, almost 70% of all relapses occurred within the first 6 months after HSCT. Patients who were transplanted in first complete remission (CR1) had superior OS compared with those with advanced disease (22% vs 9%, P < .001). Our findings confirm the high-risk of treatment failure in abnl(17p) AML even after allogeneic HSCT in CR1. Although allogeneic HSCT remains a valid option in CR1, alternative treatment strategies are needed for the remaining patients.
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Internal tandem duplication of the FLT3 gene confers poor overall survival in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based chemotherapy: an International Consortium on Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia study.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Activating internal tandem duplication (ITD) mutations in the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) gene (FLT3-ITD) are associated with poor outcome in acute myeloid leukemia, but their prognostic impact in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) remains controversial. Here, we screened for FLT3-ITD mutations in 171 APL patients, treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracycline-based chemotherapy. We identified FLT3-ITD mutations in 35 patients (20 %). FLT3-ITD mutations were associated with higher white blood cell counts (P?
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Prognostic impact of KMT2E transcript levels on outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based chemotherapy: an International Consortium on Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia study.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The KMT2E (MLL5) gene encodes a histone methyltransferase implicated in the positive control of genes related to haematopoiesis. Its close relationship with retinoic acid-induced granulopoiesis suggests that the deregulated expression of KMT2E might lead acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) blasts to become less susceptible to the conventional treatment protocols. Here, we assessed the impact of KMT2E expression on the prognosis of 121 APL patients treated with ATRA and anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Univariate analysis showed that complete remission (P = 0·006), 2-year overall survival (OS) (P = 0·005) and 2-year disease-free survival (DFS) rates (P = 0·037) were significantly lower in patients with low KMT2E expression; additionally, the 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse was higher in patients with low KMT2E expression (P = 0·04). Multivariate analysis revealed that low KMT2E expression was independently associated with lower remission rate (odds ratio [OR]: 7·18, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1·71-30·1; P = 0·007) and shorter OS (hazard ratio [HR]: 0·27, 95% CI: 0·08-0·87; P = 0·029). Evaluated as a continuous variable, KMT2E expression retained association with poor remission rate (OR: 10·3, 95% CI: 2·49-43·2; P = 0·001) and shorter survival (HR: 0·17, 95% IC: 0·05-0·53; P = 0·002), while the association with DFS was of marginal significance (HR: 1·01; 95% CI: 0·99-1·02; P = 0·06). In summary, low KMT2E expression may predict poor outcome in APL patients.
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A single oncogenic enhancer rearrangement causes concomitant EVI1 and GATA2 deregulation in leukemia.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Chromosomal rearrangements without gene fusions have been implicated in leukemogenesis by causing deregulation of proto-oncogenes via relocation of cryptic regulatory DNA elements. AML with inv(3)/t(3;3) is associated with aberrant expression of the stem-cell regulator EVI1. Applying functional genomics and genome-engineering, we demonstrate that both 3q rearrangements reposition a distal GATA2 enhancer to ectopically activate EVI1 and simultaneously confer GATA2 functional haploinsufficiency, previously identified as the cause of sporadic familial AML/MDS and MonoMac/Emberger syndromes. Genomic excision of the ectopic enhancer restored EVI1 silencing and led to growth inhibition and differentiation of AML cells, which could be replicated by pharmacologic BET inhibition. Our data show that structural rearrangements involving the chromosomal repositioning of a single enhancer can cause deregulation of two unrelated distal genes, with cancer as the outcome.
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Integrated genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling reveals BCL11B as a putative oncogene in acute myeloid leukemia with 14q32 aberrations.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Acute myeloid leukemia is a neoplasm characterized by recurrent molecular aberrations traditionally demonstrated by cytogenetic analyses. We used high density genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling to reveal acquired cryptic abnormalities in acute myeloid leukemia. By genome-wide genotyping of 137 cases of primary acute myeloid leukemia, we disclosed a recurrent focal amplification on chromosome 14q32, which included the genes BCL11B, CCNK, C14orf177 and SETD3, in two cases. In the affected cases, the BCL11B gene showed consistently high mRNA expression, whereas the expression of the other genes was unperturbed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization on 40 cases of acute myeloid leukemia with high BCL11B mRNA expression [2.5-fold above median; 40 out of 530 cases (7.5%)] revealed 14q32 abnormalities in two additional cases. In the four BCL11B-rearranged cases the 14q32 locus was fused to different partner chromosomes. In fact, in two cases, we demonstrated that the focal 14q32 amplifications were integrated into transcriptionally active loci. The translocations involving BCL11B result in increased expression of full-length BCL11B protein. The BCL11B-rearranged acute myeloid leukemias expressed both myeloid and T-cell markers. These biphenotypic acute leukemias all carried FLT3 internal tandem duplications, a characteristic marker of acute myeloid leukemia. BCL11B mRNA expression in acute myeloid leukemia appeared to be strongly associated with expression of other T-cell-specific genes. Myeloid 32D(GCSF-R) cells ectopically expressing Bcl11b showed decreased proliferation rate and less maturation. In conclusion, by an integrated approach involving high-throughput genome-wide genotyping and gene expression profiling we identified BCL11B as a candidate oncogene in acute myeloid leukemia.
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Leukemic stem cell frequency: a strong biomarker for clinical outcome in acute myeloid leukemia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia is probably caused by the presence of leukemia initiating cells, also referred to as leukemic stem cells, at diagnosis and their persistence after therapy. Specific identification of leukemia stem cells and their discrimination from normal hematopoietic stem cells would greatly contribute to risk stratification and could predict possible relapses.
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High prognostic impact of flow cytometric minimal residual disease detection in acute myeloid leukemia: data from the HOVON/SAKK AML 42A study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Half the patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who achieve complete remission (CR), ultimately relapse. Residual treatment-surviving leukemia is considered responsible for the outgrowth of AML. In many retrospective studies, detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) has been shown to enable identification of these poor-outcome patients by showing its independent prognostic impact. Most studies focus on molecular markers or analyze data in retrospect. This study establishes the value of immunophenotypically assessed MRD in the context of a multicenter clinical trial in adult AML with sample collection and analysis performed in a few specialized centers.
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The value of allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in prognostically favorable acute myeloid leukemia with double mutant CEBPA.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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The clinical value of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT) and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (autoHSCT) in the subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with double mutant CEBPA (CEBPAdm) has remained unsettled. Among 2983 patients analyzed for CEBPA mutational status (age 18-60 years) treated on 4 published Dutch-Belgian-Swiss Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group (HOVON/SAKK) and 3 German-Austrian AML Study Group (AMLSG) protocols (2 published, 1 registered, clinicaltrials.gov NCT00151255), 124 had AML with CEBPAdm and achieved first complete remission (CR1). Evaluation of the clinical impact of alloHSCT and autoHSCT vs chemotherapy was performed by addressing time dependency in the statistical analyses. Thirty-two patients proceeded to alloHSCT from a matched related (MRD, n = 29) or a matched unrelated donor (MUD, n = 3), 20 to autoHSCT in CR1 and 72 received chemotherapy. Relapse-free survival was significantly superior in patients receiving an alloHSCT or autoHSCT in CR1 as compared with chemotherapy (P < .001), whereas overall survival was not different (P < .12). Forty-five patients relapsed. Of 42 patients treated with reinduction therapy, 35 achieved a second CR (83%) and most patients (n = 33) received an alloHSCT MRD, n = 11; MUD, n = 19; haplo-identical donor, n = 3). Survival of relapsed patients measured from date of relapse was 46% after 3 years. Adult AML patients with CEBPAdm benefit from alloHSCT and autoHSCT; relapsed patients still have a favorable outcome after reinduction followed by alloHSCT.
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The development and validation of a decision-analytic model representing the full disease course of acute myeloid leukemia.
Pharmacoeconomics
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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The treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is moving towards personalized medicine. However, due to the low incidence of AML, it is not always feasible to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of personalized medicine using clinical trials. Decision analytic models provide an alternative data source.
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Gemtuzumab ozogamicin in acute myeloid leukemia: a remarkable saga about an active drug.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Despite living in an era of unprecedented progress in the understanding of the genetic and molecular biology of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), this has not translated into significant advances in therapy. Never before have so many potential targets been studied. Yet most have not advanced beyond the phase 1 and, occasionally, phase 2 studies. The few ongoing phase 3 studies seem unlikely to have more than a marginal benefit, if at all. Thus, it is not surprising that in past few decades almost no new drugs for AML have received regulatory approval. In 2000, gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) was granted accelerated approval by the US Food and Drug Administration based on promising phase 2 data in relapsed older adults with AML. GO held promise as a new agent that also could be efficacious in newly diagnosed AML with acceptable toxicity. Several phase 3 studies were designed to test GO in this setting. The results of a randomized study by the Southwest Oncology Group led in 2010 to the voluntary withdrawal of this agent when improved efficacy could not be demonstrated and toxicity appeared excessive. Since then, 4 randomized studies have been completed that, in aggregate, strongly support the efficacy of this agent in newly diagnosed AML with acceptable toxicity. There is a very plausible explanation for this discrepancy, making a compelling case for reapproval of GO in AML.
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Detection of mutant NPM1 mRNA in acute myeloid leukemia using custom gene expression arrays.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Mutations in the gene encoding nucleophosmin (NPM1) carry a prognostic value for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Various techniques are currently being used to detect these mutations in routine molecular diagnostics. Incorporation of accurate NPM1 mutation detection on a gene expression platform would enable simultaneous detection with various other expression biomarkers. Here we present an array-based mutation detection using custom probes for NPM1 WT mRNA and NPM1 type A, B, and D mutant mRNA. This method was 100% accurate on a training cohort of 505 newly diagnosed unselected AML cases. Validation on an independent cohort of 143 normal-karyotype AML cases revealed no false-negative results, and one false positive (sensitivity 100.0% and specificity 98.7%). Based on this, we conclude that this method provides a reliable method for NPM1 mutation detection. The method can be applied to other genes/mutations as long as the mutant alleles are sufficiently highly expressed.
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Detection of CEBPA double mutants in acute myeloid leukemia using a custom gene expression array.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Double (bi-allelic) mutations in the gene encoding the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha (CEBPA) transcription factor have a favorable prognostic impact in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Double mutations in CEBPA can be detected using various techniques, but it is a notoriously difficult gene to sequence due to its high GC-content. Here we developed a two-step gene expression classifier for accurate and standardized detection of CEBPA double mutations. The key feature of the two-step classifier is that it explicitly removes cases with low CEBPA expression, thereby excluding CEBPA hypermethylated cases that have similar gene expression profiles as a CEBPA double mutant, which would result in false-positive predictions. In the second step, we have developed a 55 gene signature to identity the true CEBPA double-mutation cases. This two-step classifier was tested on a cohort of 505 unselected AML cases, including 26 CEBPA double mutants, 12 CEBPA single mutants, and seven CEBPA promoter hypermethylated cases, on which its performance was estimated by a double-loop cross-validation protocol. The two-step classifier achieves a sensitivity of 96.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 81.1 to 99.3) and specificity of 100.0% (95% CI 99.2 to 100.0). There are no false-positive detections. This two-step CEBPA double-mutation classifier has been incorporated on a microarray platform that can simultaneously detect other relevant molecular biomarkers, which allows for a standardized comprehensive diagnostic assay. In conclusion, gene expression profiling provides a reliable method for CEBPA double-mutation detection in patients with AML for clinical use.
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A standardized microarray assay for the independent gene expression markers in AML: EVI1 and BAALC.
Exp Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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High levels of BAALC, ERG, EVI1 and MN1 expression have been associated with shorter overall survival in AML but standardized and clinically validated assays are lacking. We have therefore developed and optimized an assay for standardized detection of these prognostic genes for patients with intermediate cytogenetic risk AML. In a training set of 147 intermediate cytogenetic risk cases we performed cross validations at 5 percentile steps of expression level and observed a bimodal significance profile for BAALC expression level and unimodal significance profiles for ERG and MN1 levels with no statistically significant cutoff points near the median expression level of BAALC, ERG or MN1. Of the possible cutoff points for expression levels of BAALC, ERG and MN1, just the 30th and 75th percentile of BAALC expression level and the 30th percentile of MN1 expression level cutoff points showed clinical significance. Of these only the 30th percentile of BAALC expression level reproduced in an independent verification (extended training) data set of 242 cytogenetically normal AML cases and successfully validated in an external cohort of 215 intermediate cytogenetic risk AML cases. Finally, we show independent prognostic value for high EVI1 and low BAALC in multivariate analysis with other clinically relevant molecular AML markers. We have developed a highly standardized molecular assay for the independent gene expression markers EVI1 and BAALC.
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A phase I first-in-human study with tefinostat - a monocyte/macrophage targeted histone deacetylase inhibitor - in patients with advanced haematological malignancies.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Tefinostat (CHR-2845) is a monocyte/macrophage targeted histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). This first-in-human, standard 3 + 3 dose escalating trial of oral, once daily tefinostat was conducted to determine the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of tefinostat in relapsed/refractory haematological diseases. Eighteen patients were enrolled at doses of 20-640 mg. Plasma concentrations of tefinostat exceeded those demonstrated to give in vitro anti-proliferative activity. Flow cytometric pharmacodynamic assays demonstrated monocyte-targeted increases in protein acetylation, without corresponding changes in lymphocytes. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were not observed and dose escalation was halted at 640 mg without identification of the maximum tolerated dose. Drug-related toxicities were largely Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events grade 1/2 and included nausea, anorexia, fatigue, constipation, rash and increased blood creatinine. A patient with chronic monomyelocytic leukaemia achieved a bone marrow response, with no change in peripheral monocytes. An acute myeloid leukaemia type M2 patient showed a >50% decrease in bone marrow blasts and clearance of peripheral blasts. In conclusion, tefinostat produces monocyte-targeted HDACi activity and is well tolerated, without the DLTs, e.g. fatigue, diarrhoea, thrombocytopenia, commonly seen with non-targeted HDACi. The early signs of efficacy and absence of significant toxicity warrant further evaluation of tefinostat in larger studies. (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00820508).
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Significance of FAB subclassification of "acute myeloid leukemia, NOS" in the 2008 WHO classification: analysis of 5848 newly diagnosed patients.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies acute myeloid leukemia (AML) via genetic, immunophenotypic, biological, and clinical features. Still, "AML, not otherwise specified (NOS)" is further subdivided based on morphologic criteria similar to those of the French-American-British (FAB) classification. We analyzed the relevance of this practice in patients with newly diagnosed "AML, NOS" with available FAB information undergoing curative-intent therapy in trials of 3 cooperative study groups (Dutch-Belgian Cooperative Trial Group for Hematology/Oncology [HOVON], UK Medical Research Council/National Cancer Research Institute [MRC/NCRI], and the US cooperative group Southwest Oncology Group [SWOG]) or at MD Anderson Cancer Center. Ignoring information on NPM1 and CEBPA, 5848 patients met criteria for "AML, NOS." After multivariate adjustment, FAB M0 was independently associated with significantly lower likelihood of achieving complete remission and inferior relapse-free and overall survival as compared with FAB M1, M2, M4, M5, and M6, with inconclusive data regarding M7. However, restricting attention to known NPM1(neg) patients, FAB M0 was no longer associated with worse outcomes; restricting attention to patients known to be NPM1(neg)/CEPBA(neg) (ie, honoring the provisional entities of "AML with mutated NPM1" and "AML with mutated CEBPA") did not affect this result. In conclusion, in the 2008 WHO classification scheme, FAB subclassification does not provide prognostic information for "AML, NOS" cases if data on NPM1 and CEBPA mutations are available.
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Improving acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) outcome in developing countries through networking, results of the International Consortium on APL.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Thanks to modern treatment with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy, acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is now the most curable type of leukemia. However, this progress has not yielded equivalent benefit in developing countries. The International Consortium on Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (IC-APL) was established to create a network of institutions in developing countries that would exchange experience and data and receive support from well-established US and European cooperative groups. The IC-APL formulated expeditious diagnostic, treatment, and supportive guidelines that were adapted to local circumstances. APL was chosen as a model disease because of the potential impact on improved diagnosis and treatment. The project included 4 national coordinators and reference laboratories, common clinical record forms, 5 subcommittees, and laboratory and data management training programs. In addition, participating institutions held regular virtual and face-to-face meetings. Complete hematological remission was achieved in 153/180 (85%) patients and 27 (15%) died during induction. After a median follow-up of 28 months, the 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse, overall survival (OS), and disease-free survival (DFS) were 4.5%, 80%, and 91%, respectively. The establishment of the IC-APL network resulted in a decrease of almost 50% in early mortality and an improvement in OS of almost 30% compared with historical controls, resulting in OS and DFS similar to those reported in developed countries.
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Sense and nonsense of high-dose cytarabine for acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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High-dose cytarabine applied during remission induction or as consolidation after attainment of a complete remission has become an established element in the treatment of adults with acute myeloid leukemia. Recent evidence has challenged the need for these exceptionally high-dose levels of cytarabine. In this review, we present a reappraisal of the usefulness of high-dose cytarabine for acute myeloid leukemia treatment.
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Acquired mutations in ASXL1 in acute myeloid leukemia: prevalence and prognostic value.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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Somatic mutations in the additional sex comb-like 1 (ASXL1) gene have been described in various types of myeloid malignancies, including acute myeloid leukemia. Analysis of novel markers, such as ASXL1 mutations, in independent clinical trials is indispensable before considering them for clinical decision-making. We analyzed 882 well-characterized acute myeloid leukemia cases to determine the prevalence and prognostic impact of ASXL1 exon12 mutations. Truncating ASXL1 mutations were present in 46 cases (5.3%). ASXL1 mutations were inversely associated with FLT3 internal tandem duplications and mutually exclusive with NPM1 mutations. ASXL1 mutations were an unfavorable prognostic factor as regards survival (median overall survival 15.9 months vs. 22.3 months; P=0.019), with a significantly lower complete response rate (61% vs. 79.6%; P=0.004). In multivariate analyses, ASXL1 mutations were independently associated with inferior poor overall survival (HR 1.52, P=0.032). In conclusion, ASXL1 mutations are common mutations in acute myeloid leukemia and indicate a poor therapy outcome.
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Phase 1/2 study to assess the safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics of barasertib (AZD1152) in patients with advanced acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2011
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The primary objective of this 2-part phase 1/2 study was to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) of the potent and selective Aurora B kinase inhibitor barasertib (AZD1152) in patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Part A determined the MTD of barasertib administered as a continuous 7-day infusion every 21 days. In part B, the efficacy of barasertib was evaluated at the MTD. In part A, 32 patients were treated with barasertib 50 mg (n = 3), 100 mg (n = 3), 200 mg (n = 3), 400 mg (n = 4), 800 mg (n = 7), 1200 mg (n = 6), and 1600 mg (n = 6). Dose-limiting toxicities (stomatitis/mucosal inflammation events) were reported in the 800 mg (n = 1), 1200 mg (n = 1), and 1600 mg (n = 2) groups. The MTD was defined as 1200 mg. In part B, 32 patients received barasertib 1200 mg. In each part of the study, 8 of 32 patients had a hematologic response according to Cheson AML criteria. The most commonly reported grade ? 3 events were febrile neutropenia (n = 24) and stomatitis/mucosal inflammation (n = 16). We concluded that the MTD of barasertib is 1200 mg in patients with relapsed or newly diagnosed AML. Toxicity was manageable and barasertib treatment resulted in an overall hematologic response rate of 25%. This study is registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT00497991.
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Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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We report the results of a prospective, randomized phase 3 trial evaluating autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (ASCT) versus intensive consolidation chemotherapy in newly diagnosed AML patients in complete remission (CR1). Patients with AML (16-60 years) in CR1 after 2 cycles of intensive chemotherapy and not eligible for allogeneic SCT were randomized between intensive chemotherapy with etoposide and mitoxantrone or ASCT ater high-dose cyclophosphamide and busulfan. Of patients randomized (chemotherapy, n = 259; ASCT, n = 258), more than 90% received their assigned treatment. The 2 groups were comparable with regard to prognostic factors. The ASCT group showed a markedly reduced relapse rate (58% vs 70%, P = .02) and better relapse-free survival at 5 years (38% vs 29%, P = .065, hazard ratio = 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.66-1.1) with nonrelapse mortality of 4% versus 1% in the chemotherapy arm (P = .02). Overall survival was similar (44% vs 41% at 5 years, P = .86) because of more opportunities for salvage with second-line chemotherapy and stem cell transplantation in patients relapsing on the chemotherapy arm. This large study shows a relapse advantage for ASCT as postremission therapy but similar survival because more relapsing patients on the chemotherapy arm were salvaged with a late transplantation for relapse. This trial is registered at www.trialregister.nl as #NTR230 and #NTR291.
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MiR-17/20/93/106 promote hematopoietic cell expansion by targeting sequestosome 1-regulated pathways in mice.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pivotal for regulation of hematopoiesis but their critical targets remain largely unknown. Here, we show that ectopic expression of miR-17, -20,-93 and -106, all AAAGUGC seed-containing miRNAs, increases proliferation, colony outgrowth and replating capacity of myeloid progenitors and results in enhanced P-ERK levels. We found that these miRNAs are endogenously and abundantly expressed in myeloid progenitors and down-regulated in mature neutrophils. Quantitative proteomics identified sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1), an ubiquitin-binding protein and regulator of autophagy-mediated protein degradation, as a major target for these miRNAs in myeloid progenitors. In addition, we found increased expression of Sqstm1 transcripts during CSF3-induced neutrophil differentiation of 32D-CSF3R cells and an inverse correlation of SQSTM1 protein levels and miR-106 expression in AML samples. ShRNA-mediated silencing of Sqstm1 phenocopied the effects of ectopic miR-17/20/93/106 expression in hematopoietic progenitors in vitro and in mice. Further, SQSTM1 binds to the ligand-activated colony-stimulating factor 3 receptor (CSF3R) mainly in the late endosomal compartment, but not in LC3 positive autophagosomes. SQSTM1 regulates CSF3R stability and ligand-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. We demonstrate that AAAGUGC seed-containing miRNAs promote cell expansion, replating capacity and signaling in hematopoietic cells by interference with SQSTM1-regulated pathways.
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Risk stratification of intermediate-risk acute myeloid leukemia: integrative analysis of a multitude of gene mutation and gene expression markers.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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Numerous molecular markers have been recently discovered as potential prognostic factors in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). It has become of critical importance to thoroughly evaluate their interrelationships and relative prognostic importance. Gene expression profiling was conducted in a well-characterized cohort of 439 AML patients (age < 60 years) to determine expression levels of EVI1, WT1, BCL2, ABCB1, BAALC, FLT3, CD34, INDO, ERG and MN1. A variety of AML-specific mutations were evaluated, that is, FLT3, NPM1, N-RAS, K-RAS, IDH1, IDH2, and CEBPA(DM/SM) (double/single). Univariable survival analysis shows that (1) patients with FLT3(ITD) mutations have inferior overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS), whereas CEBPA(DM) and NPM1 mutations indicate favorable OS and EFS in intermediate-risk AML, and (2) high transcript levels of BAALC, CD34, MN1, EVl1, and ERG predict inferior OS and EFS. In multivariable survival analysis, CD34, ERG, and CEBPA(DM) remain significant. Using survival tree and regression methodologies, we show that CEBPA(DM), CD34, and IDH2 mutations are capable of separating the intermediate group into 2 AML subgroups with highly distinctive survival characteristics (OS at 60 months: 51.9% vs 14.9%). The integrated statistical approach demonstrates that from the multitude of biomarkers a greatly condensed subset can be selected for improved stratification of intermediate-risk AML.
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Cytarabine dose for acute myeloid leukemia.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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Cytarabine (ara-C) is an important drug in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). High-dose cytarabine (2000 to 3000 mg per square meter of body-surface area) is toxic but results in higher rates of relapse-free survival than does the conventional dose of 100 to 400 mg per square meter. Intermediate dose levels have not been thoroughly evaluated.
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Integrative prognostic risk score in acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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To integrate available clinical and molecular information for cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (CN-AML) patients into one risk score, 275 CN-AML patients from multicenter treatment trials AML SHG Hannover 0199 and 0295 and 131 patients from HOVON/SAKK protocols as external controls were evaluated for mutations/polymorphisms in NPM1, FLT3, CEBPA, MLL, NRAS, IDH1/2, and WT1. Transcript levels were quantified for BAALC, ERG, EVI1, ID1, MN1, PRAME, and WT1. Integrative prognostic risk score (IPRS) was modeled in 181 patients based on age, white blood cell count, mutation status of NPM1, FLT3-ITD, CEBPA, single nucleotide polymorphism rs16754, and expression levels of BAALC, ERG, MN1, and WT1 to represent low, intermediate, and high risk of death. Complete remission (P = .005), relapse-free survival (RFS, P < .001), and overall survival (OS, P < .001) were significantly different for the 3 risk groups. In 2 independent validation cohorts of 94 and 131 patients, the IPRS predicted different OS (P < .001) and RFS (P < .001). High-risk patients with related donors had longer OS (P = .016) and RFS (P = .026) compared with patients without related donors. In contrast, intermediate-risk group patients with related donors had shorter OS (P = .003) and RFS (P = .05). Donor availability had no impact on outcome of patients in the low-risk group. Thus, the IPRS may improve consolidation treatment stratification in CN-AML patients. Study registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00209833.
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Retroviral integration mutagenesis in mice and comparative analysis in human AML identify reduced PTP4A3 expression as a prognostic indicator.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) results from multiple genetic and epigenetic aberrations, many of which remain unidentified. Frequent loss of large chromosomal regions marks haplo-insufficiency as one of the major mechanisms contributing to leukemogenesis. However, which haplo-insufficient genes (HIGs) are involved in leukemogenesis is largely unknown and powerful experimental strategies aimed at their identification are currently lacking. Here, we present a new approach to discover HIGs, using retroviral integration mutagenesis in mice in which methylated viral integration sites and neighbouring genes were identified. In total we mapped 6 genes which are flanked by methylated viral integration sites (mVIS). Three of these, i.e., Lrmp, Hcls1 and Prkrir, were up regulated and one, i.e., Ptp4a3, was down regulated in the affected tumor. Next, we investigated the role of PTP4A3 in human AML and we show that PTP4A3 expression is a negative prognostic indicator, independent of other prognostic parameters. In conclusion, our novel strategy has identified PTP4A3 to potentially have a role in AML, on one hand as a candidate HIG contributing to leukemogenesis in mice and on the other hand as a prognostic indicator in human AML.
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Therapeutic advances in acute myeloid leukemia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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The choice of treatment approach and outcome in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) depends on the age of the patient. In younger patients, arbitrarily defined as being younger than 60 years, 70% to 80% enter complete disease remission with several anthracycline-based chemotherapy combinations. Consolidation with high-dose cytarabine or stem-cell transplantation in high-risk patients will restrict overall relapse to approximately 50%. A number of demographic features can predict the outcome of treatment including cytogenetics and an increasing list of molecular features (ie, FLT3, NPM1, MLL, WT1, CEBPalpha, EVI1). These are increasingly being used to direct postinduction therapy, but they are also molecular targets for a new generation of small molecule inhibitors that are in early development; however, randomized data have yet to emerge. In older patients who comprise the majority, which will increase with demographic change, the initial clinical decision to be made is whether the patient should receive an intensive or nonintensive approach. If the same anthracycline/cytarabine-based approach is deployed, the remission rate will be around 50%, but the risk of subsequent relapse is approximately 85% at 3 years. This difference from younger patients is explained partly by the ability of patients to tolerate effective therapy, and also the aggregation of several poor risk factors compared with the young. There remains a substantial proportion of patients older than 60 years who do not receive intensive chemotherapy. Their survival is approximately 4 months, but there is considerable interest in developing new treatments for this patient group, including novel nucleoside analogs and several other agents.
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Prognostic impact, concurrent genetic mutations, and gene expression features of AML with CEBPA mutations in a cohort of 1182 cytogenetically normal AML patients: further evidence for CEBPA double mutant AML as a distinctive disease entity.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2010
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We evaluated concurrent gene mutations, clinical outcome, and gene expression signatures of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBPA) double mutations (CEBPA(dm)) versus single mutations (CEBPA(sm)) in 1182 cytogenetically normal acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients (16-60 years of age). We identified 151 (12.8%) patients with CEBPA mutations (91 CEBPA(dm) and 60 CEBPA(sm)). The incidence of germline mutations was 7% (5 of 71), including 3 C-terminal mutations. CEBPA(dm) patients had a lower frequency of concurrent mutations than CEBPA(sm) patients (P < .0001). Both, groups were associated with a favorable outcome compared with CEBPA(wt) (5-year overall survival [OS] 63% and 56% vs 39%; P < .0001 and P = .05, respectively). However, in multivariable analysis only CEBPA(dm) was a prognostic factor for favorable OS outcome (hazard ratio [HR] 0.36, P < .0001; event-free survival, HR 0.41, P < .0001; relapse-free survival, HR 0.55, P = .001). Outcome in CEBPA(sm) is dominated by concurrent NPM1 and/or FLT3 internal tandem duplication mutations. Unsupervised and supervised GEP analyses showed that CEBPA(dm) AML (n = 42), but not CEBPA(sm) AML (n = 18), expressed a unique gene signature. A 25-probe set prediction signature for CEBPA(dm) AML showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. Based on these findings, we propose that CEBPA(dm) should be clearly defined from CEBPA(sm) AML and considered as a separate entity in the classification of AML.
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Clinical significance of CD56 expression in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based regimens.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2010
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The expression of CD56 antigen in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) blasts has been associated with short remission duration and extramedullary relapse. We investigated the clinical significance of CD56 expression in a large series of patients with APL treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based regimens. Between 1996 and 2009, 651 APL patients with available data on CD56 expression were included in 3 subsequent trials (PETHEMA LPA96 and LPA99 and PETHEMA/HOVON LPA2005). Seventy-two patients (11%) were CD56(+) (expression of CD56 in ? 20% leukemic promyelocytes). CD56(+) APL was significantly associated with high white blood cell counts; low albumin levels; BCR3 isoform; and the coexpression of CD2, CD34, CD7, HLA-DR, CD15, and CD117 antigens. For CD56(+) APL, the 5-year relapse rate was 22%, compared with a 10% relapse rate for CD56(-) APL (P = .006). In the multivariate analysis, CD56 expression retained the statistical significance together with the relapse-risk score. CD56(+) APL also showed a greater risk of extramedullary relapse (P < .001). In summary, CD56 expression is associated with the coexpression of immaturity-associated and T-cell antigens and is an independent adverse prognostic factor for relapse in patients with APL treated with all-trans-retinoic acid plus idarubicin-derived regimens. This marker may be considered for implementing risk-adapted therapeutic strategies in APL. The LPA2005 trial is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00408278.
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Leukemic IDH1 and IDH2 mutations result in a hypermethylation phenotype, disrupt TET2 function, and impair hematopoietic differentiation.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2010
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Cancer-associated IDH mutations are characterized by neomorphic enzyme activity and resultant 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) production. Mutational and epigenetic profiling of a large acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patient cohort revealed that IDH1/2-mutant AMLs display global DNA hypermethylation and a specific hypermethylation signature. Furthermore, expression of 2HG-producing IDH alleles in cells induced global DNA hypermethylation. In the AML cohort, IDH1/2 mutations were mutually exclusive with mutations in the ?-ketoglutarate-dependent enzyme TET2, and TET2 loss-of-function mutations were associated with similar epigenetic defects as IDH1/2 mutants. Consistent with these genetic and epigenetic data, expression of IDH mutants impaired TET2 catalytic function in cells. Finally, either expression of mutant IDH1/2 or Tet2 depletion impaired hematopoietic differentiation and increased stem/progenitor cell marker expression, suggesting a shared proleukemogenic effect.
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Aberrant DNA hypermethylation signature in acute myeloid leukemia directed by EVI1.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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DNA methylation patterns are frequently dysregulated in cancer, although little is known of the mechanisms through which specific gene sets become aberrantly methylated. The ecotropic viral integration site 1 (EVI1) locus encodes a DNA binding zinc-finger transcription factor that is aberrantly expressed in a subset of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients with poor outcome. We find that the promoter DNA methylation signature of EVI1 AML blast cells differs from those of normal CD34(+) bone marrow cells and other AMLs. This signature contained 294 differentially methylated genes, of which 238 (81%) were coordinately hypermethylated. An unbiased motif analysis revealed an overrepresentation of EVI1 binding sites among these aberrantly hypermethylated loci. EVI1 was capable of binding to these promoters in 2 different EVI1-expressing cell lines, whereas no binding was observed in an EVI1-negative cell line. Furthermore, EVI1 was observed to interact with DNA methyl transferases 3A and 3B. Among the EVI1 AML cases, 2 subgroups were recognized, of which 1 contained AMLs with many more methylated genes, which was associated with significantly higher levels of EVI1 than in the cases of the other subgroup. Our data point to a role for EVI1 in directing aberrant promoter DNA methylation patterning in EVI1 AMLs.
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Phase I/II clinical study of Tosedostat, an inhibitor of aminopeptidases, in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplasia.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2010
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To identify the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and to evaluate the antileukemic activity of tosedostat (formerly CHR-2797), an orally bioavailable aminopeptidase inhibitor.
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Evidence for acute neurotoxicity after chemotherapy.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2010
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Chronic neurotoxicity is a recognized long-term complication following chemotherapy in a range of diseases. Neurotoxicity adversely affects patients quality of life. The objective of this study is to examine whether there is evidence of acute neurotoxicity.
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Acquired mutations in the genes encoding IDH1 and IDH2 both are recurrent aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia: prevalence and prognostic value.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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Somatic mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) were recently demonstrated in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), but their prevalence and prognostic impact remain to be explored in large extensively characterized AML series, and also in various other hematologic malignancies. Here, we demonstrate in 893 newly diagnosed cases of AML mutations in the IDH1 (6%) and IDH2 (11%) genes. Moreover, we identified IDH mutations in 2 JAK2 V617F myeloproliferative neoplasias (n = 96), a single case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 96), and none in chronic myeloid leukemias (n = 81). In AML, IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are more common among AML with normal karyotype and NPM1(mutant) genotypes. IDH1 mutation status is an unfavorable prognostic factor as regards survival in a composite genotypic subset lacking FLT3(ITD) and NPM1(mutant). Thus, IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are common genetic aberrations in AML, and IDH1 mutations may carry prognostic value in distinct subtypes of AML.
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High VEGFC expression is associated with unique gene expression profiles and predicts adverse prognosis in pediatric and adult acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2010
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High VEGFC mRNA expression of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts is related to increased in vitro and in vivo drug resistance. Prognostic significance of VEGFC on long-term outcome and its associated gene expression profiles remain to be defined. We studied effect of VEGFC on treatment outcome and investigated gene expression profiles associated with VEGFC using microarray data of 525 adult and 100 pediatric patients with AML. High VEGFC expression appeared strongly associated with reduced complete remission rate (P = .004), reduced overall and event-free survival (OS and EFS) in adult AML (P = .002 and P < .001, respectively). Multivariable analysis established high VEGFC as prognostic indicator independent of cytogenetic risk, FLT3-ITD, NPM1, CEBPA, age, and white blood cell count (P = .038 for OS; P = .006 for EFS). Also, in pediatric AML high VEGFC was related to reduced OS (P = .041). A unique series of differentially expressed genes was identified that distinguished AML with high VEGFC from AML with low VEGFC, that is, 331 up-regulated genes (representative of proliferation, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor activity, signal transduction) and 44 down-regulated genes (eg, related to apoptosis) consistent with a role in enhanced chemoresistance. In conclusion, high VEGFC predicts adverse long-term prognosis and provides prognostic information in addition to well-known prognostic factors.
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The impact of CD4+Foxp3+ Treg on immunity to murine cytomegalovirus after bone marrow transplantation depends on the peripheral or thymic source of T cell regeneration.
Transpl. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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The adoptive transfer of regulatory T cells (Treg) in murine models has been shown to ameliorate graft-versus-host disease while it may preserve the graft-versus-leukemia effect. However, the impact of Treg on infectious immunity after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is still unclear. Immunocompetence against opportunistic viral infections depends on the kinetics of T cell recovery after BMT through two distinctive processes, i.e. lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP) of mature T cells and generation of T cells through thymopoiesis.
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Risk-adapted treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia based on all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline with addition of cytarabine in consolidation therapy for high-risk patients: further improvements in treatment outcome.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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A risk-adapted strategy based on all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracycline monochemotherapy (PETHEMA LPA99 trial) has demonstrated a high antileukemic efficacy in acute promyelocytic leukemia. We designed a new trial (LPA2005) with the objective of achieving stepwise improvements in outcome. Between July 2005 and April 2009, low- and intermediate-risk patients (leukocytes < 10 x 10(9)/L) received a reduced dose of mitoxantrone for the second consolidation course, whereas high- risk patients younger than 60 years of age received cytarabine combined with ATRA and idarubicin in the first and third consolidation courses. Of 372 patients attaining complete remission after ATRA plus idarubicin (92.5%), 368 proceeded to consolidation therapy. For low- and intermediate-risk patients, duration of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia and hospital stay were significantly reduced without sacrificing antileukemic efficacy, compared with the previous LPA99 trial. For high-risk patients, the 3-year relapse rate was significantly lower in the LPA2005 trial (11%) than in the LPA99 (26%; P = .03). Overall disease-free survival was also better in the LPA2005 trial (P = .04). In conclusion, the lower dose of mitoxantrone resulted in a significant reduction of toxicity and hospital stay while maintaining the antileukemic activity, and the combination of ATRA, idarubicin, and cytarabine for high-risk acute promyelocytic leukemia significantly reduced the relapse rate in this setting. Registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00408278.
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High EVI1 expression predicts outcome in younger adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia and is associated with distinct cytogenetic abnormalities.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2010
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PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to investigate frequency and prognostic significance of high EVI1 expression in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). PATIENTS AND METHODS A diagnostic assay detecting multiple EVI1 splice variants was developed to determine the relative EVI1 expression by single real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 1,382 newly diagnosed adult patients with AML younger than 60 years. Patients were treated on four Dutch-Belgian HOVON (n = 458) and two German-Austrian AML Study Group protocols (n = 924). Results The EVI1 assay was tested in the HOVON cohort and validated in the AMLSG cohort. High EVI1 levels (EVI1(+)) were found with similar frequencies in both cohorts combined, with a 10.7% incidence (148 of 1,382). EVI1(+) independently predicted low complete remission (CR) rate (odds ratio, 0.54; P = .002), adverse relapse-free survival (RFS; hazard ratio [HR], 1.32; P = .05), and event-free survival (EFS; HR, 1.46; P < .001). This adverse prognostic impact was more pronounced in the intermediate cytogenetic risk group (EFS; HR, 1.64; P < .001; and RFS; HR, 1.55; P = .02), and was also apparent in cytogenetically normal AML (EFS; HR, 1.67; P = .008). Besides inv(3)/t(3;3), EVI1(+) was significantly associated with chromosome abnormalities monosomy 7 and t(11q23), conferring prognostic impact within these two cytogenetic subsets. EVI1(+) was virtually absent in favorable-risk AML and AML with NPM1 mutations. Patients with EVI1(+) AML (n = 28) who received allogeneic stem cell transplantation in first CR had significantly better 5-year RFS (33% +/- 10% v 0%). CONCLUSION EVI1 expression in AML is unequally distributed in cytogenetic subtypes. It predicts poor outcome, particularly among intermediate cytogenetic risk AML. Patients with EVI1(+) AML may benefit from allogeneic transplantation in first CR. Pretreatment EVI1 screening should be included in risk stratification.
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Gemtuzumab ozogamicin as postremission treatment in AML at 60 years of age or more: results of a multicenter phase 3 study.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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In older patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), the prevention of relapse has remained one of the major therapeutic challenges, with more than 75% relapses after complete remission. The anti-CD33 immunotoxin conjugate gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) has shown antileukemic remission induction activity in patients with relapsed AML. Patients with AML or refractory anemia with excess blasts in first complete remission attained after intensive induction chemotherapy were randomized between 3 cycles of GO (6 mg/m(2) every 4 weeks) or no postremission therapy (control) to assess whether GO would improve outcome. The 2 treatment groups (113 patients receiving GO vs 119 control patients) were comparable with regard to age (60-78 years, median 67 years), performance status, and cytogenetics. A total of 110 of 113 received at least 1 cycle of GO, and 65 of 113 patients completed the 3 cycles. Premature discontinuation was mainly attributable to incomplete hematologic recovery or intercurrent relapse. Median time to recovery of platelets 50 x 10(9)/L and neutrophils 0.5 x 10(9)/L after GO was 14 days and 20 days. Nonhematologic toxicities were mild overall, but there was 1 toxic death caused by liver failure. There were no significant differences between both treatment groups with regard to relapse probabilities, nonrelapse mortality, overall survival, or disease-free survival (17% vs 16% at 5 years). Postremission treatment with GO in older AML patients does not provide benefits regarding any clinical end points. The HOVON-43 study is registered at The Netherlands Trial Registry (number NTR212) and at http://www.controlled-trials.com as ISRCTN77039377.
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A variant allele of Growth Factor Independence 1 (GFI1) is associated with acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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The GFI1 gene encodes a transcriptional repressor, which regulates myeloid differentiation. In the mouse, Gfi1 deficiency causes neutropenia and an accumulation of granulomonocytic precursor cells that is reminiscent of a myelodysplastic syndrome. We report here that a variant allele of GFI1 (GFI1(36N)) is associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in white subjects with an odds ratio of 1.6 (P < 8 x 10(-5)). The GFI1(36N) variant occurred in 1806 AML patients with an allele frequency of 0.055 compared with 0.035 in 1691 healthy control patients in 2 independent cohorts. We observed that both GFI1 variants maintain the same activity as transcriptional repressors but differ in their regulation by the AML1/ETO (RUNX1/RUNX1T1) fusion protein produced in AML patients with a t(8;21) translocation. AML1/ETO interacts and colocalizes with the more common GFI1(36S) form in the nucleus and inhibits its repressor activity. However, the variant GFI1(36N) protein has a different subnuclear localization than GFI1(36S). As a consequence, AML1/ETO does not colocalize with GFI1(36N) and is unable to inhibit its repressor activity. We conclude that both variants of GFI1 differ in their ability to be regulated by interacting proteins and that the GFI1(36N) variant form exhibits distinct biochemical features that may confer a predisposition to AML.
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DNA methylation signatures identify biologically distinct subtypes in acute myeloid leukemia.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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We hypothesized that DNA methylation distributes into specific patterns in cancer cells, which reflect critical biological differences. We therefore examined the methylation profiles of 344 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Clustering of these patients by methylation data segregated patients into 16 groups. Five of these groups defined new AML subtypes that shared no other known feature. In addition, DNA methylation profiles segregated patients with CEBPA aberrations from other subtypes of leukemia, defined four epigenetically distinct forms of AML with NPM1 mutations, and showed that established AML1-ETO, CBFb-MYH11, and PML-RARA leukemia entities are associated with specific methylation profiles. We report a 15 gene methylation classifier predictive of overall survival in an independent patient cohort (p < 0.001, adjusted for known covariates).
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Efficacy of escalated imatinib combined with cytarabine in newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2009
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In order to improve the molecular response rate and prevent resistance to treatment, combination therapy with different dosages of imatinib and cytarabine was studied in newly diagnosed patients with chronic myeloid leukemia in the HOVON-51 study.
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Additional chromosome abnormalities in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2009
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Acute promyelocytic leukemia is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia characterized by the t(15;17). The incidence and prognostic significance of additional chromosomal abnormalities in acute promyelocytic leukemia is still a controversial matter.
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Diagnosis and management of acute myeloid leukemia in adults: recommendations from an international expert panel, on behalf of the European LeukemiaNet.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2009
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In 2003, an international working group last reported on recommendations for diagnosis, response assessment, and treatment outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Since that time, considerable progress has been made in elucidating the molecular pathogenesis of the disease that has resulted in the identification of new diagnostic and prognostic markers. Furthermore, therapies are now being developed that target disease-associated molecular defects. Recent developments prompted an international expert panel to provide updated evidence- and expert opinion-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of AML, that contain both minimal requirements for general practice as well as standards for clinical trials. A new standardized reporting system for correlation of cytogenetic and molecular genetic data with clinical data is proposed.
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High-dose daunorubicin in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2009
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A complete remission is essential for prolonging survival in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Daunorubicin is a cornerstone of the induction regimen, but the optimal dose is unknown. In older patients, it is usual to give daunorubicin at a dose of 45 to 50 mg per square meter of body-surface area.
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FLT3 inhibition as a targeted therapy for acute myeloid leukemia.
Curr Opin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
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The management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) presents significant challenges, and there remains a need for new therapies with greater efficacy and better tolerability than existing treatments. An improved understanding of the genetic and molecular changes underlying AML can help both to guide treatment strategies and to predict clinical outcomes, thereby enabling more precise decision-making regarding the optimal treatment strategy for individual patients.
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AML at older age: age-related gene expression profiles reveal a paradoxical down-regulation of p16INK4A mRNA with prognostic significance.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2009
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has a different clinical and biologic behavior in patients at older age. To gain further insight into the molecular differences, we examined a cohort of 525 adults to compare gene expression profiles of the one-third of youngest cases (n = 175; median age 31 years) with the one-third of oldest cases (n = 175; median age 59 years). This analysis revealed that 477 probe sets were up-regulated and 492 probe sets were down-regulated with increasing age at the significance level of P < .00001. After validation with 2 independent AML cohorts, the 969 differentially regulated probe sets on aging could be pointed to 41 probe sets, including the tumor-suppressor gene CDKN2A (encoding p16(INK4A)). In contrast to the induced p16(INK4A) expression that is associated with physiologic aging, p16(INK4A) is down-regulated in AML samples of patients with increasing age. However, this was only noticed in the intermediate- and unfavorable-risk group and not in the favorable-risk group and the molecularly defined subset "NPM1 mutant without FLT3-ITD." Multivariate analysis revealed p16(INK4A), besides cytogenetic risk groups, as an independent prognostic parameter for overall survival in older patients. We conclude that, in addition to altered clinical and biologic characteristics, AML presenting at older age shows different gene expression profiles.
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Modeling the functional heterogeneity of leukemia stem cells: role of STAT5 in leukemia stem cell self-renewal.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2009
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Although the cancer stem cell (CSC) concept implies that CSCs are rare, recent reports suggest that CSCs may be frequent in some cancers. We hypothesized that the proportion of leukemia stem cells would vary as a function of the number of dysregulated pathways. Constitutive expression of MN1 served as a 1-oncogene model, and coexpression of MN1 and a HOX gene served as a 2-oncogene model. Leukemia-initiating cell (LIC) number and in vitro expansion potential of LICs were functionally assessed by limiting dilution analyses. LIC expansion potential was 132-fold increased in the 2- compared with the 1-oncogene model, although phenotypically, both leukemias were similar. The 2-oncogene model was characterized by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) hypersensitivity and activated STAT/ERK signaling. GM-CSF hypersensitivity of the 2-oncogene model (MN1/HOXA9) was lost in Stat5b(-/-) cells, and the LIC expansion potential was reduced by 86- and 28-fold in Stat5b(-/-) and Stat1(-/-) cells, respectively. Interestingly, in 201 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, coexpression of MN1 and HOXA9 was restricted to patients with the poorest prognosis and was associated with highly active STAT signaling. Our data demonstrate the functional heterogeneity of LICs and show that STAT signaling is critical for leukemia stem cell self-renewal in MN1- and HOXA9-expressing leukemias.
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Keratinocyte growth factor improves allogeneic bone marrow engraftment through a CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cell-dependent mechanism.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) protects mice from acute graft-vs-host disease and graft rejection by cytoprotective and yet incompletely understood immunological mechanisms. Recently, we showed that administration of KGF induces selective peripheral expansion of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg). In this study, we set out to assess whether the peripheral expansion of Treg accounts for the immunomodulatory effects of KGF after bone marrow (BM) transplantation. To exclude potentially confounding cytoprotective and thymopoietic effects of KGF, we applied KGF to congenic wild-type mice that served as T cell provider mice for T and B cell-deficient RAG-1(-/-) mice that were subsequently transplanted with allogeneic BM. Treatment of congenic T cell provider mice with KGF significantly improved engraftment and reduced graft rejection in BMT recipients. CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg remained increased for 4 wk, while expansion of congenic CD3(+) T cells was inhibited. To assess a causal relationship between expansion of Treg and improved BM engraftment, congenic Scurfy mice, which lack Foxp3(+) Treg, served as T cell provider mice and were treated with KGF. KGF-treatment of Scurfy mice did not affect engraftment nor did it inhibit the expansion of congenic T cells. These data demonstrate that administration of KGF to the T cell provider mice improves engraftment of allogeneic BM through a CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg-dependent mechanism.
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Management of acute promyelocytic leukemia: recommendations from an expert panel on behalf of the European LeukemiaNet.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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The introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and, more recently, arsenic trioxide (ATO) into the therapy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has revolutionized the management and outcome of this disease. Several treatment strategies using these agents, usually in combination with chemotherapy, but also without or with minimal use of cytotoxic agents, have provided excellent therapeutic results. Cure of APL patients, however, is also dependent on peculiar aspects related to the management and supportive measures that are crucial to counteract life-threatening complications associated with the disease biology and molecularly targeted treatment. The European LeukemiaNet recently appointed an international panel of experts to develop evidence- and expert opinion-based guidelines on the diagnosis and management of APL. Together with providing current indications on genetic diagnosis, modern risk-adapted front-line therapy and salvage treatment, the review contains specific recommendations for the identification and management of most important complications such as the bleeding disorder, APL differentiation syndrome, QT prolongation and other ATRA- and ATO-related toxicities, as well as for molecular assessment of response to treatment. Finally, the approach to special situations is also discussed, including management of APL in children, elderly patients, and pregnant women.
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Myeloablative allogeneic versus autologous stem cell transplantation in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first remission: a prospective sibling donor versus no-donor comparison.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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While commonly accepted in poor-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is still disputed in adult patients with standard-risk ALL. We evaluated outcome of patients with ALL in first complete remission (CR1), according to a sibling donor versus no-donor comparison. Eligible patients (433) were entered in 2 consecutive, prospective studies, of whom 288 (67%) were younger than 55 years, in CR1, and eligible to receive consolidation by either an autologous SCT or an allo-SCT. Allo-SCT was performed in 91 of 96 patients with a compatible sibling donor. Cumulative incidences of relapse at 5 years were, respectively, 24 and 55% for patients with a donor versus those without a donor (hazard ratio [HR], 0.37; 0.23-0.60; P < .001). Nonrelapse mortality estimated 16% (+/- 4) at 5 years after allo-SCT. As a result, disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years was significantly better in the donor group: 60 versus 42% in the no-donor group (HR: 0.60; 0.41-0.89; P = .01). After risk-group analysis, improved outcome was more pronounced in standard-risk patients with a donor, who experienced an overall survival of 69% at 5 years (P = .05). In conclusion, standard-risk ALL patients with a sibling donor may show favorable survival following SCT, due to both a strong reduction of relapse and a modest nonrelapse mortality. This trial is registered with http://www.trialregister.nl under trial ID NTR228.
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Prediction of molecular subtypes in acute myeloid leukemia based on gene expression profiling.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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We examined the gene expression profiles of two independent cohorts of patients with acute myeloid leukemia [n=247 and n=214 (younger than or equal to 60 years)] to study the applicability of gene expression profiling as a single assay in prediction of acute myeloid leukemia-specific molecular subtypes. The favorable cytogenetic acute myeloid leukemia subtypes, i.e., acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21), t(15;17) or inv(16), were predicted with maximum accuracy (positive and negative predictive value: 100%). Mutations in NPM1 and CEBPA were predicted less accurately (positive predictive value: 66% and 100%, and negative predictive value: 99% and 97% respectively). Various other characteristic molecular acute myeloid leukemia subtypes, i.e., mutant FLT3 and RAS, abnormalities involving 11q23, -5/5q-, -7/7q-, abnormalities involving 3q (abn3q) and t(9;22), could not be correctly predicted using gene expression profiling. In conclusion, gene expression profiling allows accurate prediction of certain acute myeloid leukemia subtypes, e.g. those characterized by expression of chimeric transcription factors. However, detection of mutations affecting signaling molecules and numerical abnormalities still requires alternative molecular methods.
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Differentiation syndrome in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline chemotherapy: characteristics, outcome, and prognostic factors.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Differentiation syndrome (DS) can be a life-threatening complication in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) undergoing induction therapy with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). Detailed knowledge about DS has remained limited. We present an analysis of the incidence, characteristics, prognostic factors, and outcome of 739 APL patients treated with ATRA plus idarubicin in 2 consecutive trials (Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematología [PETHEMA] LPA96 and LPA99). Overall, 183 patients (24.8%) experienced DS, 93 with a severe form (12.6%) and 90 with a moderate form (12.2%). Severe but not moderate DS was associated with an increase in mortality. A bimodal incidence of DS was observed, with peaks occurring in the first and third weeks after the start of ATRA therapy. A multivariate analysis indicated that a WBC count greater than 5 x 10(9)/L and an abnormal serum creatinine level correlated with an increased risk of developing severe DS. Patients receiving systematic prednisone prophylaxis (LPA99 trial) in contrast to those receiving selective prophylaxis with dexamethasone (LPA96 trial) had a lower incidence of severe DS. Patients developing severe DS showed a reduced 7-year relapse-free survival in the LPA96 trial (60% vs 85%, P = .003), but this difference was not apparent in the LPA99 trial (86% vs 88%).
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A decade of genome-wide gene expression profiling in acute myeloid leukemia: flashback and prospects.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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The past decade has shown a marked increase in the use of high-throughput assays in clinical research into human cancer, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In particular, genome-wide gene expression profiling (GEP) using DNA microarrays has been extensively used for improved understanding of the diagnosis, prognosis, and pathobiology of this heterogeneous disease. This review discusses the progress that has been made, places the technologic limitations in perspective, and highlights promising future avenues.
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Double CEBPA mutations, but not single CEBPA mutations, define a subgroup of acute myeloid leukemia with a distinctive gene expression profile that is uniquely associated with a favorable outcome.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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Mutations in CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha (CEBPA) are seen in 5% to 14% of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and have been associated with a favorable clinical outcome. Most AMLs with CEBPA mutations simultaneously carry 2 mutations (CEBPA(double-mut)), usually biallelic, whereas single heterozygous mutations (CEBPA(single-mut)) are less frequently seen. Using denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography and nucleotide sequencing, we identified among a cohort of 598 newly diagnosed AMLs a subset of 41 CEBPA mutant cases (28 CEBPA(double-mut) and 13 CEBPA(single-mut) cases). CEBPA(double-mut) associated with a unique gene expression profile as well as favorable overall and event-free survival, retained in multivariable analysis that included cytogenetic risk, FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutation, white blood cell count, and age. In contrast, CEBPA(single-mut) AMLs did not express a discriminating signature and could not be distinguished from wild-type cases as regards clinical outcome. These results demonstrate significant underlying heterogeneity within CEBPA mutation-positive AML with prognostic relevance.
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Genome-wide epigenetic analysis delineates a biologically distinct immature acute leukemia with myeloid/T-lymphoid features.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Acute myeloid leukemia is a heterogeneous disease from the molecular and biologic standpoints, and even patients with a specific gene expression profile may present clinical and molecular heterogeneity. We studied the epigenetic profiles of a cohort of patients who shared a common gene expression profile but differed in that only half of them harbored mutations of the CEBPA locus, whereas the rest presented with silencing of this gene and coexpression of certain T-cell markers. DNA methylation studies revealed that these 2 groups of patients could be readily segregated in an unsupervised fashion based on their DNA methylation profiles alone. Furthermore, CEBPA silencing was associated with the presence of an aberrant DNA hypermethylation signature, which was not present in the CEBPA mutant group. This aberrant hypermethylation occurred more frequently at sites within CpG islands. CEBPA-silenced leukemias also displayed marked hypermethylation compared with normal CD34(+) hematopoietic cells, whereas CEBPA mutant cases showed only mild changes in DNA methylation compared with these normal progenitors. Biologically, CEBPA-silenced leukemias presented with a decreased response to myeloid growth factors in vitro.
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PBX3 is an important cofactor of HOXA9 in leukemogenesis.
Blood
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Although PBX proteins are known to increase DNA-binding/transcriptional activity of HOX proteins through their direct binding, the functional importance of their interaction in leukemogenesis is unclear.We recently reported that overexpression of a 4-homeobox-gene signature (ie, PBX3/HOXA7/HOXA9/HOXA11) is an independent predictor of poor survival in patients with cytogenetically abnormal acute myeloid leukemia (CA-AML). Here we show that it is PBX3, but not PBX1 or PBX2, that is consistently coexpressed with HOXA9 in various subtypes of CA-AML, particularly MLL-rearranged AML, and thus appears as a potential pathologic cofactor of HOXA9 in CA-AML. We then show that depletion of endogenous Pbx3 expression by shRNA significantly inhibits MLL-fusion-mediated cell transformation, and coexpressed PBX3 exhibits a significantly synergistic effect with HOXA9 in promoting cell transformation in vitro and leukemogenesis in vivo. Furthermore, as a proof of concept, we show that a small peptide, namely HXR9, which was developed to specifically disrupt the interactions between HOX and PBX proteins, can selectively kill leukemic cells with overexpression of HOXA/PBX3 genes. Collectively, our data suggest that PBX3 is a critical cofactor of HOXA9 in leukemogenesis, and targeting their interaction is a feasible strategy to treat presently therapy resistant CA-AML (eg, MLL-rearranged leukemia) in which HOXA/PBX3 genes are overexpressed.
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Addition of bevacizumab to chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia at older age: a randomized phase 2 trial of the Dutch-Belgian Cooperative Trial Group for Hemato-Oncology (HOVON) and the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research (SAKK).
Blood
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An urgent need for new treatment modalities is emerging in elderly patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We hypothesized that targeting VEGF might furnish an effective treatment modality in this population. Elderly patients with AML were randomly assigned in this phase 2 study (n = 171) to receive standard chemotherapy (3 + 7) with or without bevacizumab at a dose of 10 mg/kg intravenously at days 1 and 15. In the second cycle, patients received cytarabine 1000 mg/m(2) twice daily on days 1-6 with or without bevacizumab. The complete remission rates in the 2 arms were not different (65%). Event-free survival at 12 months was 33% for the standard arm versus 30% for the bevacizumab arm; at 24 months, it was 22% and 16%, respectively (P = .42). The frequencies of severe adverse events (SAEs) were higher in the bevacizumab arm (n = 63) compared with the control arm (n = 28; P = .043), but the percentages of death or life-threatening SAEs were lower in the bevacizumab arm (60% vs 75% of SAEs). The results of the present study show that the addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy does not improve the therapeutic outcome of older AML patients. This trial is registered as number NTR904 in The Nederlands Trial Register (www.trialregister.nl).
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The European LeukemiaNet AML Working Party consensus statement on allogeneic HSCT for patients with AML in remission: an integrated-risk adapted approach.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol
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Allogeneic haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is frequently applied as part of the treatment in patients with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in their first or subsequent remission. Allogeneic HSCT reduces relapse, but nonrelapse mortality and morbidity might counterbalance this beneficial effect. Here, we review recent studies reporting new disease-specific prognostic markers, in addition to allogeneic-HSCT-related risk factors, which can be assessed at specific time points during treatment. We propose risk assessment as a dynamic process during treatment, incorporating both disease-related and transplant-related factors for the decision to proceed either to allogeneic HSCT or to apply a nontransplant strategy. We suggest that allogeneic HSCT might be favoured if the projected disease-free survival is expected to improve by at least 10% based on an individuals risk assessment. The approach requires initial disease risk assessment, identifying a sibling or unrelated donor soon after diagnosis and the incorporation of time-dependent risk factors, all within the context of an integrated therapeutic management approach.
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The human GFI136N variant induces epigenetic changes at the Hoxa9 locus and accelerates K-RAS driven myeloproliferative disorder in mice.
Blood
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The coding single nucleotide polymorphism GFI136N in the human gene growth factor independence 1 (GFI1) is present in 3%-7% of whites and increases the risk for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by 60%. We show here that GFI136N, in contrast to GFI136S, lacks the ability to bind to the Gfi1 target gene that encodes the leukemia-associated transcription factor Hoxa9 and fails to initiate histone modifications that regulate HoxA9 expression. Consistent with this, AML patients heterozygous for the GFI136N variant show increased HOXA9 expression compared with normal controls. Using ChipSeq, we demonstrate that GFI136N specific epigenetic changes are also present in other genes involved in the development of AML. Moreover, granulomonocytic progenitors, a bone marrow subset from which AML can arise in humans and mice, show a proliferative expansion in the presence of the GFI136N variant. In addition, granulomonocytic progenitors carrying the GFI136N variant allele have altered gene expression patterns and differ in their ability to grow after transplantation. Finally, GFI136N can accelerate a K-RAS driven fatal myeloproliferative disease in mice. Our data suggest that the presence of a GFI136N variant allele induces a preleukemic state in myeloid precursors by deregulating the expression of Hoxa9 and other AML-related genes.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.