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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Aggregation in complex triacylglycerol oils: coarse-grained models, nanophase separation, and predicted x-ray intensities.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are biologically important molecules which form crystalline nanoplatelets (CNPs) and, ultimately, fat crystal networks in edible oils. Characterizing the self-assembled hierarchies of these networks is important to understanding their functionality and oil binding capacity. We have modelled CNPs in multicomponent oils and studied their aggregation. The oil comprises (a) a liquid componentt, and (b) components which phase separately on a nano-scale (nano-phase separation) to coat the surfaces of the CNPs impenetrably, either isotropically or anisotropically, with either liquid-like coatings or crystallites, forming a coating of thickness ?. We modelled three cases: (i) liquid-liquid nano-phase separation, (ii) solid-liquid nano-phase separation, with CNPs coated isotropically, and (iii) CNPs coated anisotropically. The models were applied to mixes of tristearin and triolein with fully hydrogenated canola oil, shea butter with high oleic sunflower oil, and cotton seed oil. We performed Monte Carlo simulations, computed structure functions and concluded: (1) three regimes arose: (a) thin coating regime, [Formula: see text] (b) transition regime, [Formula: see text] and (c) thick coating regime, [Formula: see text]. (arbitrary units, u) (2) The thin coating regime exhibits 1D TAGwoods, which aggregate, via DLCA/RLCA, into fractal structures which are uniformly distributed in space. (3) In the thick coating regime, for an isotropic coating, TAGwoods are not formed and coated CNPs will not aggregate but will be uniformly distributed in space. For anisotropic coating, TAGwoods can be formed and might form 1D strings but will not form DLCA/RLCA clusters. (4) The regimes are, approximately: thin coating, [Formula: see text] transition regime, [Formula: see text] and thick coating, [Formula: see text] (5) The minimum minority TAG concentration required to undergo nano-phase separation is, approximately, 0.29% (thin coatings) and 0.94% (thick coatings). Minority components can have substantial effects upon aggregation for concentrations less than 1%.
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Ultra small angle x-ray scattering in complex mixtures of triacylglycerols.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Ultra-small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) has been used to elucidate, in situ, the aggregation structure of unsheared model edible oils. Each system comprised one or two solid lipids and a combination of liquid lipids. The 3D nano- to micro-structures of each system were characterized. The length scale investigated, using the Bonse-Hart camera at beamline ID-15D at the Advanced Photon Source, ANL, ranged from 300?Å-10?µm. Using the Unified Fit model, level-1 analysis showed that the scatterers were 2D objects with either a smooth, a rough, or a diffuse surface. These 2D objects had an average radius of gyration Rg1 between 200-1500?Å. Level-2 analysis displayed a slope between -1 and -2. Use of the Guinier-Porod model gave s ? 1 thus showing that it was cylinders (TAGwoods) aggregating with fractal dimension 1 ? D2 ? 2. D2 = 1 is consistent with 1D structures formed from TAGwoods, while D2 = 2 implies that the TAGwoods had formed structures characteristic of diffusion or reaction limited cluster-cluster aggregation (DLCA/RLCA). These aggregates exhibited radii of gyration, Rg2, between 2500 and 6500?Å. Level-3 analyses showed diffuse surfaces, for most of the systems. These interpretations are in accord with theoretical models which studied crystalline nano-platelets (CNPs) coated with nano-scale layers arising from phase separation at the CNP surfaces. These layers could be due to either liquid-liquid phase separation with the CNPs coated, uniformly or non-uniformly, by a diffuse layer of TAGs, or solid-liquid phase separation with the CNPs coated by a rough layer of crystallites.A fundamental understanding of the self-organizing structures arising in these systems helps advance the characterization of fat crystal networks from nanometres to micrometres. This research can be used to design novel fat structures that use healthier fats via nano- and meso-scale structural engineering.
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Interaction of protamine with gram-negative bacteria membranes: possible alternative mechanisms of internalization in Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
J. Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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This study was concerned with the interaction between the cationic antimicrobial peptide, protamine (Ptm) and the cytoplasmic membranes of the gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The objective of the study was to explain the observed paradox of internalization without permanent disruption of the cell envelope. We carried out Monte Carlo computer simulation of Ptm in an aqueous environment in the presence of ~100?mM NaCl and model membranes consisting of either (65:35) or (75:25) PE:PG molar ratios. The (75:25) model, representative of the gram-negative cytoplasmic membrane, showed that the Ptm center of mass remained at least 7?nm from the membrane surface leading to the prediction that Ptm would not internalize via disruption of the inner membrane. By using immunoelectron microscopy of Ptm-treated cells, we showed that Ptm internalization to the cytoplasm took place rapidly in the presence or absence of the outer envelope. Ultrastructural examination revealed no obvious morphological changes to cells that were treated with subinhibitory or bactericidal levels of Ptm. Reconstituted phospholipid bilayers were constructed and were unperturbed by Ptm treatment over a wide range of concentrations and applied transmembrane voltages. We conclude that in the cases of the cell envelopes of E.?coli, S.?typhimurium and P.?aeruginosa, Ptm internalized by means independent of the phospholipid bilayer, most likely mediated by one or more membrane proteins such as cation-selective barrel-like proteins. Work is currently underway to test this hypothesis.
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Protein specificity of charged sequences in polyanions and heparins.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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Long-range electrostatic interactions are generally assigned a subordinate role in the high-affinity binding of proteins by glycosaminoglycans, the most highly charged biopolyelectrolytes. The discovery of high and low sulfation domains in heparan sulfates, however, suggests selectivity via complementarity of their linear sulfation patterns with protein charge patterns. We examined how charge sequences in anionic/nonionic copolymers affect their binding to a protein with prominent charge anisotropy. Experiments and united-atom Monte Carlo simulations, together with Delphi electrostatic modeling for the protein, confirm strongest binding when polyanion sequences allow for optimization of repulsive and attractive electrostatics. Simulations also importantly identified retention of considerable polyion conformational freedom, even for strong binding. The selective affinity for heparins of high and low charge density found for this protein is consistent with nonspecific binding to distinctly different protein charge domains. These findings suggest a more nuanced view of specificity than previously proposed for heparinoid-binding proteins.
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Quantitative determination of ion distributions in bacterial lipopolysaccharide membranes by grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2010
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A model of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria was created by the deposition of a monolayer of purified rough mutant lipopolysaccharides at an air/water interface. The density profiles of monovalent (K(+)) and divalent (Ca(2+)) cations normal to the lipopolysaccharides (LPS) monolayers were investigated using grazing-incidence X-ray fluorescence. In the absence of Ca(2+), a K(+) concentration peak was found in the negatively charged LPS headgroup region. With the addition of CaCl(2), Ca(2+) ions almost completely displaced K(+) ions from the headgroup region. By integrating the experimentally reconstructed excess ion density profiles, we obtained an accurate measurement of the effective charge density of LPS monolayers. The experimental findings were compared to the results of Monte Carlo simulations based on a coarse-grained minimal model of LPS molecules and showed excellent agreement.
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Crucial roles of charged saccharide moieties in survival of gram negative bacteria against protamine revealed by combination of grazing incidence x-ray structural characterizations and Monte Carlo simulations.
Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2010
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Grazing incidence x-ray scattering techniques and Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are combined to reveal the influence of molecular structure (genetic mutation) and divalent cations on the survival of gram negative bacteria against cationic peptides such as protamine. The former yields detailed structures of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) membranes with minimized radiation damages, while the minimal computer model based on the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann theory allows for the simulation of conformational changes of macromolecules (LPSs and peptides) that occur in the time scale of ms. The complementary combination of the structural characterizations and MC simulation demonstrates that the condensations of divalent ions (Ca2+ or Mg2+) in the negatively charged core saccharides are crucial for bacterial survival.
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Calcium ions induce collapse of charged O-side chains of lipopolysaccharides from Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
J R Soc Interface
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) monolayers deposited on planar, hydrophobic substrates were used as a defined model of outer membranes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain dps 89. To investigate the influence of ions on the (out-of-plane) monolayer structure, we measured specular X-ray reflectivity at high energy (22 keV) to ensure transmission through water. Electron density profiles were reconstructed from the reflectivity curves, and they indicate that the presence of Ca(2+) ions induces a significant change in the conformation of the charged polysaccharide head groups (O-side chains). Monte Carlo simulations based on a minimal computer model of LPS molecules allow for the modelling of 100 or more molecules over 10(-3) s and theoretically explained the tendency found by experiments.
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Modeling the surface of Campylobacter fetus: protein surface layer stability and resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
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Campylobacter fetus is a Gram negative bacterium recognized for its virulence in animals and humans. This bacterium possesses a paracrystalline array of high molecular weight proteins known as surface-layer proteins covering its cell surface. A mathematical model has been made of the outer membrane of this bacterium, both with its surface-layer proteins (S+) and without (S-). Monte Carlo computer simulation was used to understand the stability of the surface-layer protein structure as a function of ionic concentration. The interactions of an electrically-charged antimicrobial agent, the cationic antimicrobial peptide protamine, with surface-layer proteins and with the lipopolysaccharides of the outer membrane were modeled and analyzed. We found that (1) divalent ions stabilize the surface-layer protein array by reducing the fluctuations perpendicular and parallel to the membrane plane thereby promoting adhesion to the LPS region. This was achieved via (2) divalent ions bridging the negatively-charged LPS Core. The effect of this bridging is to bring individual Core regions closer together so that the O-antigens can (3) increase their attractive van der Waals interactions and "collapse" to form a surface with reduced perpendicular fluctuations. These findings provide support for the proposal of Yang et al. [1]. (4) No evidence for a significant increase in Ca(2+) concentration in the region of the surface-layer protein subunits was observed in S+ simulations compared to S- simulations. (5) We predicted the trends of protamine MIC tests performed on C. fetus and these were in good agreement with our experimental results.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.