Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) has been recently approved as a treatment of patients with phenylketonuria. However, as a confirmation of BH4-responsiveness, it might require a very expensive trial treatment with BH4 or prolonged BH4-loading procedures. The selection of patients eligible for BH4-therapy by means of genotyping of the PAH gene mutations may be recommended as a complementary approach. A population-wide genotyping study was carried out in 1286 Polish phenyloketonuria-patients. The aim was to estimate the BH4 demand and to cover prospectively the treatment by a National Health Fund. A total of 95 types of mutations were identified. Genetic variants corresponding with probable BH4-responsiveness were found in 28.2% of cases. However, patients with mild or classical phenylketonuria who require continuous treatment accounted for 11.4% of the studied population only. Analysis of the published data shows similar percentage of the "BH4-responsive" variants of a PAH gene in patients from other countries of Eastern Europe. Therefore, it can be concluded, that the proportion of phenylketonuria-patients who could benefit from the use of BH4 reaches approximately 10% in the entire region.
INTRODUCTION: Mutations in the NLRP3 gene are associated with the dominantly inherited cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS). The significance of the V198M variant is unclear; it has been reported in association with various CAPS phenotypes and as a variant of uncertain consequence. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical phenotypes and treatments in individuals with V198M assessed in a single UK center. METHODS: DNA samples from 830 subjects with fever syndromes or a family history of CAPS were screened for mutations in the NLRP3 gene with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. A detailed medical history was available in all cases. Inflammatory disease activity was monitored monthly with measurements of serum amyloid A protein (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in symptomatic individuals. RESULTS: NLRP3 V198M was identified in 19 subjects. It was found in association with CAPS in five cases, in one patient with Schnitzler syndrome, in three patients who also had a nucleotide alteration in another fever gene, and in three other patients with evidence of an autoinflammatory phenotype. Seven asymptomatic individuals were detected during screening of family members. CONCLUSIONS: The NLRP3 V198M variant shows variable expressivity and reduced penetrance. It may be associated with classical inherited or apparently sporadic CAPS and with atypical autoinflammatory disease of varying severity, intriguingly including Schnitzler syndrome. The factors that influence the pathogenic consequences of this variant remain unknown. However, the remarkable response to interleukin 1 (IL-1) blockade in all but one individual in our series confirms that their clinical features are indeed mediated by IL-1.
The treatment of phenylketonuria (PKU) patients constitutes a phenylalanine (Phe) intake restriction in their diet, which is achieved by adding a special Phe-free amino acid mixture to the diet. It has been reported that this diet could have some micronutrient deficiency. Several authors have also reported an increased oxidative stress or impaired antioxidant status in human and experimental PKU. Our project assessed the concentrations of retinol, alpha-tocopherol, coenzyme Q10, and anti-oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) antibodies in PKU childrens plasma. It was found that retinol concentration in PKU children remains within the norm despite a low intake. The lower plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration in PKU children compared with normal children was associated with the lower level of antibodies against ox-LDL. This raises the question whether higher than observed circulatory alpha-tocopherol is indeed beneficial to lower plasma ox-LDL levels. Further studies are needed to explain the genetic factor in PKU patients (e.g., CD36/FAT polymorphism gene). The open clinical question is whether daily supplementation of alpha-tocopherol changes the PKU patients level of antibodies against ox-LDL.
The spleen plays an important role in the granulocyte homeostasis due to such mechanisms as pooling, elimination of senescent cells and regulatory effects on granulocyte renewal in the bone marrow. The expression profile of granulocyte receptors was tested in children with congenital asplenia, and splenectomized for spherocytosis. Receptors tested included those appearing with maturation (CD16, CD11b, CD11c, TREM-1), disappearing (CD54, CD49d, CD64) and maintained during maturation (CD11a, CD45). In general, we found that the circulating granulocyte pool in the asplenic patients had phenotypical features of highly matured but not apoptotic neutrophils with a significantly elevated expression of CD16 (CD16(high)), tendency to a lower expression of CD45 (CD45(low)) and an unchanged expression of CD64 (and other markers indicating systemic inflammatory reactions). The high fluorescence intensity of CD11b,c, and TREM-1 in the congenital asplenia may indicate a potentially elevated pro-inflammatory status of granulocytes, possibly due to the low activity of vagus nerve and spleen-dependent cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.
V(D)J rearrangement in lymphoid cells involves repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Defects in this process lead to increased radiosensitivity and severe combined immunodeficiency (RS-SCID). Here, a SCID patient, M3, is described with a T(-)B(+)NK(+) phenotype but without causative mutations in CD3delta, epsilon, zeta or IL7Ralpha, genes specifically involved in T cell development. Clonogenic survival of M3 fibroblasts showed an increased sensitivity to the DSB-inducing agents ionizing radiation and bleomycin, as well as the crosslinking compound, mitomycin C. We did not observe inactivating mutations in known NHEJ genes and results of various DSB-repair assays in G(1) M3 cells were indistinguishable from those obtained with normal cells. However, we found increased chromosomal radiosensitivity at the G(2) phase of the cell cycle. Checkpoint analysis indicated functional G(1)/S and intra-S checkpoints after irradiation but impaired activation of the "early" G(2)/M checkpoint. Together these results indicate a novel class of RS-SCID patients characterized by the specific absence of T lymphocytes and associated with defects in G(2)-specific DSB repair. The pronounced G(2)/M radiosensitivity of the RS-SCID patient described here, suggests a defect in a putative novel and uncharacterized factor involved in cellular DNA damage responses and T cell development.
Has elimination diet applied in children with food hypersensitivity in infancy any effect on plasma levels of anti-oxidative vitamins and antibodies to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (anti-ox-LDL antibody) titer in these children at their pre-school age?"
Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect of phagocyte NADPH-oxidase and characterized by severe, recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is the leading cause of mortality in patients with CGD. We report the case of a 3-year-old boy with CGD, who developed IA despite antifungal prophylaxis. His treatment consisted of a 10-month-long multi-drug antifungal therapy, together with surgery, but these did not cause any substantial clinical improvement. BMT in high-risk patients with CGD remains a challenge due to both, higher risk of graft rejection and inflammatory flare in the course of immune recovery. Our patient rejected the first matched unrelated donor (MUD) allograft after RIC regimen recommended by the EBMT Inborn Errors Working Party for high-risk patients. After treosulfan-based conditioning and second MUD peripheral blood stem cell transplantation both, full reconstitution of the granulocytic series and complete recovery from IA, were achieved.
The aim of the current study was to examine whether a congenital lack of the spleen changes distribution, state of activation and function of peripheral lymphocyte T subsets. Seven children with congenital asplenia (CA) aged 1.5-17 years and seven age-matched controls were tested. By triple-color flow cytometry we examined: (1) the expression of CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD19(+), and CD56(+) on lymphocytes; (2) the distribution of CD45RA(+) and CD45RO(+) in CD4(+) and CD8(+); (3) the expression of CD27(+) in the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T-cell-bearing CD45RA(+), CD45RO(+), or CD45RB(+). Lymphocyte proliferative responses and cytokines production (IFN-gamma, IL-6, TNF-alfa, and IL-10) in anti-CD3-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells were tested. The results indicate (1) a normal distribution of the basic lymphocyte subsets, (2) low CD3(+)/CD8(+) percentage but expressing CD8(+high) and non-significantly elevated CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio, (3) CD45RA(+high) and CD27(+high) in the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell, and (4) CD45RB(+high) in the CD4(+) and CD45RO(+high) in the CD8(+). The distribution of CD27(+) in the CD45RA(+) and CD45RO(+) CD4(+) T cells remained unchanged. However, the percentage of CD8(+)/CD45RO(+)/CD27(+) T cells tended to be elevated. Altogether, these data indicate that CA is connected with (1) the presence CD4(+) T cells expressing the "naive" phenotype (CD45RA(+high) RB(+high) and CD27(+high)), (2) high numbers of activated CD8(+) T cells shifted toward the memory phenotype (CD45RO(+high)) but still showing high CD27(+) expression, which may indicate failure in T CD8(+) cytotoxic effectors differentiation, and (3) a tendency to the rather pro-inflammatory status of cells, low IL-10 expression, and suboptimal lymphocytes responses to mitogenic stimulation.
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