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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Protein conformational modulation by photons: a mechanism for laser treatment effects.
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Responsiveness to low-level laser treatment (LLTT) at a wavelength of 450-910 nm has established it as an effective treatment of medical, veterinary and dental chronic pain, chronic inflammation conditions (arthritis and macular degeneration), wound repair, and lymphoedema, yet the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of LLLT remain unclear. However, there is now sufficient evidence from recent research to propose an integrated model of LLLT action. The hypothesis presented in this paper is that external applications of photons (through laser at an appropriate dose) modulates the nervous system through an integrated mechanism. This stimulated mechanism involves protein-to-protein interaction, where two or more proteins bind together to facilitate molecular processes, including modification of proteins by members of SUMO (small ubiquitin-related modifier proteins) and also protein phosphorylation and tyrosination. SUMO has been shown to have a role in multiple nuclear and perinuclear targets, including ion channels, and in the maintenance of telomeres and the post-translational modification of genes. The consequence of laser application in treatment, therefore, can be seen as influencing the transmission of neural information via an integrated and rapid modulation of ion channels, achieved through both direct action on photo-acceptors (such as cytochrome c-oxidase) and through indirect modulation via enzymes, including tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), tyrosine kinases and tyrosine kinase receptors. This exogenous action then facilitates an existing photonic biomodulation mechanism within the body, and initiates ion channel modulation both in the periphery and the central nervous system (CNS). Evidence indicates that the ion channel modulation functions predominately through the potassium channels, including two pore leak channels (K2P), which act as signal integrators from the periphery to the cortex. Photonic action also transforms SUMOylation processes at the cell membrane, nucleus and telomeres via signalling processes from the mitochondria (which is the main target of laser absorption) to these targets. Under the hypothesis, these observed biological effects would play a part in the bystander effect, the abscopal effect, and other systemic effects observed with the application of low level laser (LLLT). The implications of the hypothesis are important in that they point to mechanisms that can account for the effectiveness of laser in the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases, chronic pain and neurodegenerative disorders.
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Mosquito consumption by insectivorous bats: does size matter?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Insectivorous bats have often been touted as biological control for mosquito populations. However, mosquitoes generally represent only a small proportion of bat diet. Given the small size of mosquitoes, restrictions imposed on prey detectability by low frequency echolocation, and variable field metabolic rates (FMR), mosquitoes may not be available to or profitable for all bats. This study investigated whether consumption of mosquitoes was influenced by bat size, which is negatively correlated with echolocation frequency but positively correlated with bat FMR. To assess this, we investigated diets of five eastern Australian bat species (Vespadelus vulturnus Thomas, V. pumilus Gray, Miniopterus australis Tomes, Nyctophilus gouldi Tomes and Chalinolobus gouldii Gray) ranging in size from 4-14 g in coastal forest, using molecular analysis of fecal DNA. Abundances of potential mosquito and non-mosquito prey were concurrently measured to provide data on relative prey abundance. Aedes vigilax was locally the most abundant mosquito species, while Lepidoptera the most abundant insect order. A diverse range of prey was detected in bat feces, although members of Lepidoptera dominated, reflecting relative abundance at trap sites. Consumption of mosquitoes was restricted to V. vulturnus and V. pumilus, two smaller sized bats (4 and 4.5 g). Although mosquitoes were not commonly detected in feces of V. pumilus, they were present in feces of 55 % of V. vulturnus individuals. To meet nightly FMR requirements, Vespadelus spp. would need to consume ~600-660 mosquitoes on a mosquito-only diet, or ~160-180 similar sized moths on a moth-only diet. Lower relative profitability of mosquitoes may provide an explanation for the low level of mosquito consumption among these bats and the absence of mosquitoes in feces of larger bats. Smaller sized bats, especially V. vulturnus, are likely to be those most sensitive to reductions in mosquito abundance and should be monitored during mosquito control activities.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.