Diatoms are the primary source of nutrition and energy for the Southern Ocean ecosystem. Microalgae, including diatoms, synthesise biological macromolecules such as lipids, proteins and carbohydrates for growth, reproduction and acclimation to prevailing environmental conditions. Here we show that three key species of Southern Ocean diatom (Fragilariopsis cylindrus, Chaetoceros simplex and Pseudo-nitzschia subcurvata) exhibited phenotypic plasticity in response to salinity and temperature regimes experienced during the seasonal formation and decay of sea ice. The degree of phenotypic plasticity, in terms of changes in macromolecular composition, was highly species-specific and consistent with each species known distribution and abundance throughout sea ice, meltwater and pelagic habitats, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity may have been selected for by the extreme variability of the polar marine environment. We argue that changes in diatom macromolecular composition and shifts in species dominance in response to a changing climate have the potential to alter nutrient and energy fluxes throughout the Southern Ocean ecosystem.
In 1979, Miller and Patel showed that a solution containing two diacetylene monomers, 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-bis(phenylurethane) (HDDPU) and 2,4-hexadiyne-1,6-bis(p-chlorophenylurethane) (HDDCPU) could be used to develop latent fingermarks on a non-porous surface. In the current work, the same mixture (HDDPU:HDDCPU=10:1, in acetone solution) was used to develop fingermarks on a wide variety of surfaces, both non-porous and porous, including paper. An airbrush system was optimized for the application of the reagent solution. Once the solution evaporates on a surface, the monomers co-crystallize in different ways, depending upon a number of factors, including the surface residue. "Active" co-crystallization leads (with heat or radiation) to the formation of purple polymer, while "inactive" crystallization results in a non-polymerizable white deposit. Fingermark contrast was achieved as a result of active co-crystallization (giving purple polymer) in either the ridges or the furrows, depending upon the surface and other factors. A general observation (supported by spot tests with linseed oil, salt and amino acid solutions) was that on paper, oily materials are more likely to lead to the formation of the purple polymer, while the presence of water inhibits polymerization. However, these observations are not consistent across all other substrates. It is hypothesized that water disrupts hydrogen bonding between diacetylene molecules, and thus prevents the topochemical polymerization of the diacetylenes, which occurs in the solid state between favourably aligned monomers. An interesting observation was the development of fingermarks deposited on paper that had already been treated with the diacetylene reagent.
This article describes the first use of an anti-Stokes material, or up-converter, for the development of latent fingermarks on a range of non-porous surfaces. Anti-Stokes materials can absorb long-wavelength light and emit light at a shorter wavelength. This property is unusual in both natural and artificial materials and so fingermark detection techniques based on anti-Stokes luminescence are potentially sensitive and selective. Latent fingermarks on luminescent and non-luminescent substrates, including Australian polymer banknotes (a well-known difficult surface), were developed with sodium yttrium tetrafluoride doped with erbium and ytterbium (NaYF(4):Er,Yb) by dry powder, wet powder, and cyanoacrylate staining techniques. This study illustrates the potential of up-converter phosphors for the detection of latent fingermarks.
Four novel alkyl 2-cyanoacrylate monomers (alkyl=1-cyanoethyl, 2-cyanoethyl, trideuteromethyl and pentadeuteroethyl) have been tested for their ability to develop latent fingermarks that can then be visualized using mid-infrared spectral (chemical) imaging. Each of the four monomers was chosen for its potential to produce a strong, isolated infrared spectral band in its corresponding polymer (to provide spectral contrast against most backgrounds), as well as for its potential ability to be fumed onto fingermarks in the manner of conventional ethyl 2-cyanoacrylate (superglue). With the exception of the 2-cyanoethyl 2-cyanoacrylate, which had to be fumed under reduced pressure, all of the monomers were found to be sufficiently volatile to be fumed in a conventional fuming cabinet. All four monomers polymerized selectively on fingermark ridges on a variety of non-porous and semi-porous surfaces, leading to excellent development of the fingermarks. Unfortunately, although high quality mid-infrared spectral images of the fingermarks could be formed for all of the polymers at various frequencies, the new CN or CD stretching vibrations did not give rise to strong enough absorption intensities for good contrast on difficult backgrounds such as polymer banknotes. However, in the 1-cyanoethyl 2-cyanoacrylate polymer, the presence of the additional nitrile group had the unintended but desirable effect of shifting the strong CO absorption to higher frequencies, moving it away from interfering banknote absorptions. This enabled fingermark contrast to be achieved even against the intaglio printing on the banknotes.
In a further study of the thermal development of fingermarks on paper and similar surfaces, it is demonstrated that direct contact heating of the substrate using coated or ceramic surfaces at temperatures in excess of 230°C produces results superior to those obtained using hot air. Fingermarks can also be developed in this way on other cellulose-based substrates such as wood and cotton fabric, though ridge detail is difficult to obtain in the latter case. Fluorescence spectroscopy indicates that the phenomena observed during the thermal development of fingermarks can be reproduced simply by heating untreated white copy paper or filter paper, or these papers treated with solutions of sodium chloride or alanine. There is no evidence to suggest that the observed fluorescence of fingermarks heated on paper is due to a reaction of fingermark constituents on or with the paper. Instead, we maintain that the ridge contrast observed first as fluorescence, and later as brown charring, is simply an acceleration of the thermal degradation of the paper. Thermal degradation of cellulose, a major constituent of paper and wood, is known to give rise to a fluorescent product if sufficient oxygen is available [1-5]. However, the absence of atmospheric oxygen has only a slight effect on the thermal development of fingermarks, indicating that there is sufficient oxygen already present in paper to allow the formation of the fluorescent and charred products. In a depletion study comparing thermal development of fingermarks on paper with development using ninhydrin, the thermal technique was found to be as sensitive as ninhydrin for six out of seven donors. When thermal development was used in sequence with ninhydrin and DFO, it was found that only fingermarks that had been developed to the fluorescent stage (a few seconds of heating) could subsequently be developed with the other reagents. In the reverse sequence, no useful further development was noted for fingermarks that were treated thermally after having been developed with ninhydrin or DFO. Aged fingermarks, including marks from 1-year-old university examination papers were successfully developed using the thermal technique.
Although the ability to develop latent fingerprints on paper using heat alone has been noted previously, it has been considered impractical for casework and inferior to other techniques. Here a new refinement of the technique is demonstrated for the high quality development of latent fingerprints on porous surfaces such as paper. Fingerprints deposited on various papers were developed by exposing them to hot air with a temperature in the vicinity of 300 degrees C, for periods of c. 10-20 sec. Several different heating methods were tested. The novel observation was made that after shorter heating times, fluorescent prints could be observed. These became visible after longer heating times, as noted by earlier workers, but with greatly improved contrast compared with their results. Prints from various donors (and aged prints) were developed with excellent ridge contrast. Direct heating methods (such as with a hot plate or press) produced inferior results. The refined technique, which is simple, safe and inexpensive compared with conventional methods, has great potential for use in forensic laboratories.
The spatial distribution of trace elements in human lymph nodes partially infiltrated by melanoma cells was determined by elemental bio-imaging. Imaging of (31)P within the nodal capsule and normal lymph node tissue showed a clear demarcation of the tumour boundary, with a significant decrease in relative (31)P concentration within the tumour. The location of the tumour boundary was confirmed by haematoxylin and eosin staining of serial sections and observation by light microscopy. Further enhancement of the tumour boundary was achieved by imaging the (31)P/(34)S ratio. (31)P/(66)Zn ratio images showed a decreasing ratio beyond the tumour boundary that extended into peritumour normal lymph node tissue.
Methods were explored for the classification of heterogeneous powder mixtures using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) hyperspectral image data. The images collected were non-congruent, meaning that samples of the same mixture do not have the same spatial arrangements of their components in their images. In order to classify such images on a one-image-per-object basis, dimension reduction was carried out so as to produce a score or feature vector for each image that preserved information about the heterogeneity of the sample. These feature vectors were then classified using discriminant analysis (DA) or soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). The most successful approach was the use of a median-interquartile range "super-spectrum" as the feature vector representing each image; using principal component analysis (PCA) DA classification, 87.5% of training samples were correctly classified using leave-one-out cross-validation, and 100% of a test set were correctly classified. This compares with 52.5% and 72%, respectively, when single-point spectra were used to classify the samples.
FTIR and Raman spectral imaging can be used to simultaneously image a latent fingerprint and detect exogenous substances deposited within it. These substances might include drugs of abuse or traces of explosives or gunshot residue. In this work, spectral searching algorithms were tested for their efficacy in finding targeted substances deposited within fingerprints. "Reverse" library searching, where a large number of possibly poor-quality spectra from a spectral image are searched against a small number of high-quality reference spectra, poses problems for common search algorithms as they are usually implemented. Out of a range of algorithms which included conventional Euclidean distance searching, the spectral angle mapper (SAM) and correlation algorithms gave the best results when used with second-derivative image and reference spectra. All methods tested gave poorer performances with first derivative and undifferentiated spectra. In a search against a caffeine reference, the SAM and correlation methods were able to correctly rank a set of 40 confirmed but poor-quality caffeine spectra at the top of a dataset which also contained 4,096 spectra from an image of an uncontaminated latent fingerprint. These methods also successfully and individually detected aspirin, diazepam and caffeine that had been deposited together in another fingerprint, and they did not indicate any of these substances as a match in a search for another substance which was known not to be present. The SAM was used to successfully locate explosive components in fingerprints deposited on silicon windows. The potential of other spectral searching algorithms used in the field of remote sensing is considered, and the applicability of the methods tested in this work to other modes of spectral imaging is discussed.
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