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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Impact of chronic graft-versus-host disease on late relapse and survival on 7489 patients after myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for leukemia.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Purpose: Malignancy relapse remains a major obstacle for successful allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is associated with fewer relapses. However, when studying effects of cGVHD on relapse it is difficult to separate from acute GVHD effects as most cases of cGVHD occur within the first year post-transplant at the time when acute GVHD is still active. Experimental design: The current study based on CIBMTR registry data investigated cGVHD and its association with the incidence of late relapse and survival in 7489 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) who were leukemia-free at12 months after myeloablative allogeneic HCT. Results: Forty-seven percent of the study population was diagnosed with cGVHD at 12 months after transplant. The protective effect of cGVHD on relapse was present only in patients with CML (RR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.37-0.59, P <0.0001). cGVHD was significantly associated with higher risk of treatment related mortality, (RR: 2.43, 95% CI: 2.09-2.82, P <0.0001) and inferior overall survival (RR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.41-1.73, P <0.0001) for all diseases. In patients with CML all organ sites and presentation types of cGVHD were equally associated with lower risk of late relapse. Conclusions: These results indicate that clinically relevant anti-leukemia effects of cGVHD on late relapses are present only in CML but not in AML, ALL or MDS. Chronic GVHD in patients who are one year survivors after myeloablative allogeneic HCT is primarily associated with higher TRM and inferior survival.
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Cyclosporine in Combination with Mycophenolate Mofetil versus Methotrexate for Graft versus Host Disease Prevention in Myeloablative HLA-identical Sibling Donor Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) despite current prophylaxis. Methotrexate (MTX) with a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) is the current standard, however, has several toxicities. Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is frequently used in reduced-intensity HCT, but data in myeloablative transplants is limited. We thus retrospectively identified 241 patients who underwent myeloablative HCT from an HLA-identical sibling donor; 174 patients received cyclosporine (CSA) + MMF and 67 received CSA +MTX. Patients receiving MMF+CSA had rapid neutrophil (median 11 versus 19 days with MTX+CSA), and platelet recovery (median 19 versus 25 days), lower incidence of severe mucositis by OMAS (19% versus 53%), and shorter length of hospital stay (median 25 versus 36 days) (p<0.001 for all comparisons). There were no significant differences in incidence of grade 2-4 (MMF+CSA 37% versus MTX+CSA 39%) or 3-4 acute GVHD (17% versus 12%), chronic GVHD (46% versus 56%), relapse (28% versus 27%), non-relapse mortality (20% versus 27%) or overall survival (47% versus 44%) (p=NS for all). However, in multivariable analysis, the use of MMF+CSA was associated with an increased risk of severe grade 3-4 acute GVHD (HR 2.92, 95% CI 1.2-7.15, p=0.019). There were no differences between the two regimens in multivariable analyses for other survival outcomes. This analysis demonstrates that the use of MMF in myeloablative sibling donor transplantation is well tolerated. However, there may be an increased risk of severe GVHD with MMF+CSA compared to MTX+CSA. Further studies evaluating optimal dosing strategies are needed.
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Synergistic Effect of Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I-Related Chain A and Human Leukocyte Antigen-DPB1 Mismatches in Association with Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease after Unrelated Donor Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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The clinical relevance of mismatches at the MHC class I-related chain A (MICA) in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains unclear. We investigated the association of MICA donor/recipient mismatch and whether there is an interaction between these and HLA-DPB1 mismatch on clinical outcomes after unrelated donor HSCT. Our study included 227 patients who underwent unrelated donor allogeneic HSCT at our institution between 2000 and 2010. Among these, 177 (78%) received HSCT from a 10/10 HLA-matched donor. MICA genotyping was performed using commercially available kits. In univariable analysis, the risk of grade II to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was greater for patients with MICA mismatch (hazard ratio [HR], 1.73; P = .02) than for those with HLA-DPB1 mismatch (HR, 1.62; P = .07). When MICA and HLA-DPB1 were assessed simultaneously, patients mismatched at both loci had the greatest risk (HR, 2.51; P < .01) and those mismatched at only 1 locus had somewhat greater risk (HR, 1.53; P = .12) than patients matched at both loci; this remained significant in multivariable analysis. The 100-day incidence was 66%, 45%, and 31%, respectively (P = .03). Results were similar for grade III and IV acute GVHD, with 100-day incidence 34%, 16%, and 8% (P = .01). These results are clinically pertinent to donor selection strategies and indicate that patients with mismatch at both MICA and HLA-DPB1 are at increased risk for acute GVHD.
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Outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation for diffuse large B cell lymphoma transformed from follicular lymphoma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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There are limited data on the outcomes of autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in diffuse large B cell lymphoma transformed from follicular lymphoma. We analyzed transplantation outcomes in 141 subjects with biopsy-proven diffuse large B-cell lymphoma transformed from follicular lymphoma reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research between 1990 and 2009. Two groups were identified: autologous HCT (auto-HCT; n = 108) and allogeneic HCT (allo-HCT; n = 33). Fewer auto-HCTs were done for transformed follicular lymphoma in 2003 to 2009, with a shift favoring allo-HCT. Auto-HCT was associated with a 1-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) of 8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4% to 14%), 5-year progression-free survival of 35% (95% CI, 26% to 45%), and 5-year overall survival of 50% (95% CI, 40% to 59%). In contrast, allo-HCT was associated with a 1-year NRM of 41% (95% CI, 23% to 58%), 5-year progression-free survival of 18% (95% CI, 6% to 35%), and 5-year overall survival of 22% (95% CI, 8% to 41%). Auto-HCT for transformed follicular lymphoma achieves sustained remission in a high proportion of subjects. The high NRM of allo-HCT offset any benefit that might be associated with this transplantation modality.
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Risk for developing myelodysplastic syndromes in prostate cancer patients definitively treated with radiation.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Exposure to ionizing radiation has been linked to myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS); it is not clear whether therapeutic radiation doses used for prostate cancer pose an increased MDS risk.
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Better leukemia-free and overall survival in AML in first remission following cyclophosphamide in combination with busulfan compared with TBI.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Cyclophosphamide combined with total body irradiation (Cy/TBI) or busulfan (BuCy) are the most widely used myeloablative conditioning regimens for allotransplants. Recent data regarding their comparative effectiveness are lacking. We analyzed data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research for 1230 subjects receiving a first hematopoietic cell transplant from a human leukocyte antigen-matched sibling or from an unrelated donor during the years 2000 to 2006 for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) after conditioning with Cy/TBI or oral or intravenous (IV) BuCy. Multivariate analysis showed significantly less nonrelapse mortality (relative risk [RR] = 0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.86; P = .007), and relapse after, but not before, 1 year posttransplant (RR = 0.23; 95% CI: 0.08-0.65; P = .006), and better leukemia-free survival (RR = 0.70; 95% CI: 0.55-0.88; P = .003) and survival (RR = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.52-0.88; P = .003) in persons receiving IV, but not oral, Bu compared with TBI. In combination with Cy, IV Bu is associated with superior outcomes compared with TBI in patients with AML in first CR.
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Unrelated donor allogeneic transplantation after failure of autologous transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia: a study from the center for international blood and marrow transplantation research.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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The survival of patients with relapsed acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) is very poor. We studied the outcomes of 302 patients who underwent secondary allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) from an unrelated donor (URD) using either myeloablative (n = 242) or reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC; n = 60) regimens reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research. After a median follow-up of 58 months (range, 2 to 160 months), the probability of treatment-related mortality was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38%-50%) at 1-year. The 5-year incidence of relapse was 32% (95% CI, 27%-38%), and that of overall survival was 22% (95% CI, 18%-27%). Multivariate analysis revealed a significantly better overal survival with RIC regimens (hazard ratio [HR], 0.51; 95% CI, 0.35-0.75; P <.001), with Karnofsky Performance Status score ?90% (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.82: P = .001) and in cytomegalovirus-negative recipients (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.44-0.94; P = .022). A longer interval (>18 months) from auto-HCT to URD allo-HCT was associated with significantly lower riak of relapse (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, 0.09-0.38; P <.001) and improved leukemia-free survival (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.84; P = .006). URD allo-HCT after auto-HCT relapse resulted in 20% long-term leukemia-free survival, with the best results seen in patients with a longer interval to secondary URD transplantation, with a Karnofsky Performance Status score ?90%, in complete remission, and using an RIC regimen. Further efforts to reduce treatment-related mortaility and relapse are still needed.
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Safety and efficacy of upfront plerixafor + G-CSF versus placebo + G-CSF for mobilization of CD34(+) hematopoietic progenitor cells in patients ?60 and <60 years of age with non-Hodgkins lymphoma or multiple myeloma.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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The efficacy and safety of plerixafor + G-CSF in enhancing hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and collection has been demonstrated in two phase III studies involving patients with NHL or MM. In these pivotal studies, plerixafor + G-CSF significantly increased the proportion of patients achieving target stem cell yields, compared to placebo + G-CSF. In this analysis, we compare the efficacy and safety of plerixafor + G-CSF versus placebo + G-CSF in patients enrolled in the two phase III studies, stratified by age: ?60 years of age and <60 years of age. The proportion of older patients who achieved target stem cell yields was significantly higher in the plerixafor group than in placebo group (NHL: 50.9 vs. 25.4%, P < 0.001; MM: 69.6 vs. 23.7%, P < 0.001). In this older cohort, the median times to neutrophil and to platelet engraftment following autologous stem cell transplant were comparable between the plerixafor and placebo groups. Similar efficacy findings were observed in the younger age group. The most common adverse events (all grades) reported among older patients in the plerixafor group included diarrhea (41.3%), nausea (38.9%), fatigue (30.2%), and injection-site reaction (29.4%). The frequency of adverse events was similar between the older and the younger age groups. Taken together, our subanalysis demonstrate that plerixafor + G-CSF can be safely and effectively used in adult patients of all ages, including those ?60 years, to support optimal stem cell mobilization for autologous stem cell transplantation. Am. J. Hematol. 88:1017-1023, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin lymphoma with secondary CNS involvement.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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Pre-existing central nervous system (CNS) involvement may influence referral for autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The outcomes of 151 adult patients with NHL with prior secondary CNS involvement (CNS(+) ) receiving an AHCT were compared to 4688 patients without prior CNS lymphoma (CNS(-) ). There were significant baseline differences between the cohorts. CNS(+) patients were more likely to be younger, have lower performance scores, higher age-adjusted international prognostic index scores, more advanced disease stage at diagnosis, more aggressive histology, more sites of extranodal disease, and a shorter interval between diagnosis and AHCT. However, no statistically significant differences were identified between the two groups by analysis of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years. A matched pair comparison of the CNS(+) group with a subset of CNS(-) patients matched on propensity score also showed no differences in outcomes. Patients with active CNS lymphoma at the time of AHCT (n = 55) had a higher relapse rate and diminished PFS and OS compared with patients whose CNS lymphoma was in remission (n = 96) at the time of AHCT. CNS(+) patients can achieve excellent long-term outcomes with AHCT. Active CNS lymphoma at transplant confers a worse prognosis.
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Defining incidence, risk factors, and impact on survival of central line-associated blood stream infections following hematopoietic cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) commonly complicate the care of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HCT). We developed a modified CLABSI (MCLABSI) definition that attempts to exclude pathogens usually acquired because of disruption of mucosal barriers during the vulnerable neutropenic period following HCT that are generally included under the original definition (OCLABSI). We conducted a retrospective study of all AML and MDS patients undergoing HCT between August 2009 and December 2011 at the Cleveland Clinic (N = 73), identifying both OCLABSI and MCLABSI incidence. The median age at transplantation was 52 years (range, 16 to 70); 34 had a high (?3) HCT comorbidity index (HCT-CI); 34 received bone marrow (BM), 24 received peripheral stem cells (PSC), and 15 received umbilical cord blood cells (UCB). Among these 73 patients, 23 (31.5%) developed OCLABSI, of whom 16 (69.6%) died, and 8 (11%) developed MCLABSI, of whom 7 (87.5%) died. OCLABSI was diagnosed a median of 9 days from HCT: 5 days (range, 2 to 12) for UCB and 78 days (range, 7 to 211) for BM/PSC (P < .001). MCLABSI occurred a median of 12 days from HCT, with similar earlier UCB and later BM/PSC diagnosis (P = .030). Risk factors for OCLABSI in univariate analysis included CBC (P < .001), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatch (P = .005), low CD34(+) count (P = .007), low total nucleated cell dose (P = .016), and non-Caucasian race (P = .017). Risk factors for OCLABSI in multivariable analysis were UCB (P < .001) and high HCT-CI (P = .002). There was a significant increase in mortality for both OCLABSI (hazard ratio, 7.14; CI, 3.31 to 15.37; P < .001) and MCLABSI (hazard ratio, 6.44; CI, 2.28 to 18.18; P < .001). CLABSI is common and associated with high mortality in AML and MDS patients undergoing HCT, especially in UCB recipients and those with high HCT-CI. We propose the MCLABSI definition to replace the OCLABSI definition, given its greater precision for identifying preventable infection in HCT patients.
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Plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor improves the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and low circulating peripheral blood CD34+ cells.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Many institutions have adopted algorithms based on preapheresis circulating CD34+ cell counts to optimize the use of plerixafor. However, a circulating peripheral blood CD34+ cell threshold that predicts mobilization failure has not been defined. The superiority of plerixafor + granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) over placebo + G-CSF for hematopoietic stem cell mobilization and collection was shown for patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a phase III, prospective, randomized, controlled study. The question remains as to which patients may benefit most from the use of plerixafor. In this post hoc retrospective analysis, mobilization outcomes were compared between the 2 treatment arms in patients stratified by peripheral blood CD34+ cell count (<5, 5 to 9, 10 to 14, 15 to 19, or ?20 cells/?L) obtained before study treatment and apheresis. Compared with placebo plus G-CSF, plerixafor plus G-CSF significantly increased the peripheral blood CD34+ cells/?L over prior day levels in all 5 stratified groups. The probability of subsequent transplantation without a rescue mobilization was far greater in the plerixafor-treated patients for the lowest initial (day 4) peripheral blood CD34+ cells/?L groups (<5, 5 to 9, or 10 to 14). Engraftment and durability were the same for the 2 treatment groups for all strata, but the effect in the lower strata could be altered by the addition of cells from rescue mobilizations. These findings may provide insight into the optimal use of plerixafor in all patients undergoing stem cell mobilization.
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Risk factors for acute GVHD and survival after hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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Risk factors for acute GVHD (AGVHD), overall survival, and transplant-related mortality were evaluated in adults receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants (1999-2005) from HLA-identical sibling donors (SDs; n = 3191) or unrelated donors (URDs; n = 2370) and reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research, Minneapolis, MN. To understand the impact of transplant regimen on AGVHD risk, 6 treatment categories were evaluated: (1) myeloablative conditioning (MA) with total body irradiation (TBI) + PBSCs, (2) MA + TBI + BM, (3) MA + nonTBI + PBSCs, (4) MA + nonTBI + BM, (5) reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) + PBSCs, and (6) RIC + BM. The cumulative incidences of grades B-D AGVHD were 39% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37%-41%) in the SD cohort and 59% (95% CI, 57%-61%) in the URD cohort. Patients receiving SD transplants with MA + nonTBI + BM and RIC + PBSCs had significantly lower risks of grades B-D AGVHD than patients in other treatment categories. Those receiving URD transplants with MA + TBI + BM, MA + nonTBI + BM, RIC + BM, or RIC + PBSCs had lower risks of grades B-D AGVHD than those in other treatment categories. The 5-year probabilities of survival were 46% (95% CI, 44%-49%) with SD transplants and 33% (95% CI, 31%-35%) with URD transplants. Conditioning intensity, TBI and graft source have a combined effect on risk of AGVHD that must be considered in deciding on a treatment strategy for individual patients.
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Risk factors associated with increased nonrelapse mortality and with poor overall survival in children with chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
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There is a paucity of information regarding the factors that affect nonrelapse mortality (NRM) and overall survival among children that develop chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). We performed multivariate analyses using data from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to identify risk factors for NRM and survival in 1117 pediatric subjects with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, transplanted from related donors, unrelated donors (URD), or unrelated cord blood between 1995 and 2004. We identified 4 variables associated with higher NRM: HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, peripheral blood cell graft, Karnofsky/Lansky score < 80 at cGVHD diagnosis, and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L at cGVHD diagnosis. Factors associated with significantly worse survival were: age > 10 years, transplantation from HLA partially matched or mismatched URD, advanced disease at transplantation, Karnofsky/Lansky < 80; and platelets < 100 × 10(9)/L. Cumulative incidence of discontinuation of systemic immune suppression at 1, 3, and 5 years after diagnosis of cGVHD were 22% (20%-25%), 34% (31%-37%), and 37% (34%-40%), respectively. This is the largest study elucidating variables affecting outcome after diagnosis of cGVHD in pediatric allograft recipients. These variables may be useful for risk stratification, development of future clinical trials, and family counseling in children with cGVHD.
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Alternate donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in non-Hodgkin lymphoma using lower intensity conditioning: a report from the CIBMTR.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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We analyzed the outcomes of 248 (61% male) adult recipients of HLA-matched unrelated and HLA-mismatched related donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) after reduced or lower intensity conditioning (RIC), reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) from 1997 to 2004. Median age was 52 (range: 18-72 years); 31% had a Karnofsky performance score <90. Follicular NHL (43%) was the major histology. Incidence of grades II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) was 43% at 100 days; and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) was 44% at 3 years. Treatment-related mortality (TRM) at 100 days was 24%. Three-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were 41% and 32%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, use of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) and HLA mismatch were associated with increased TRM. High-grade histology, ATG use, and chemotherapy resistance were associated with lower PFS. Older age, shorter interval from diagnosis to HCT, non-total body irridiation (TBI) conditioning regimens, ex vivo T cell depletion, and HLA-mismatched unrelated donors were associated with mortality. GVHD did not influence relapse or PFS. Older age, aggressive histology, and chemotherapy resistance correlated with poorer survival. For selected patients with NHL, lack of an available sibling donor should not be a barrier to allogeneic HCT.
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Risk factors for 30-day hospital readmission following myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT).
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
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Patient readmission within 30 days from discharge has been perceived by the Centers for Medicare and Medical Services as an indicator of poor healthcare quality for specific high-cost medical conditions. Patients who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) are often being readmitted. Our study identified the risk factors for 30-day readmission among 618 adult recipients of myeloablative allo-HCT from 1990 to 2009. Two hundred forty-two (39%) of 618 patients (median age = 42 years [range: 18-66]) were readmitted a median of 10 days (range: 1-30) from their hospital discharge. Median duration of readmission was 8 days (range: 0-103). Infections (n = 68), fever with or without identified source of infection (n = 63), gastrointestinal complications (n = 44), graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (n = 38), and other reasons (n = 29) accounted for 28%, 26%, 18%, 16%, and 12% of readmissions, respectively. During their index admission, patients who were subsequently readmitted had more documented infections (P < .001), higher hematopoietic cell transplantation comorbidity index (HCT-CI) (P < .01), total body irridiation (TBI)-based conditioning (P < .001), unrelated donor (P < .001), and peripheral stem cell (P = .014) transplantation. In multivariable analysis, HCT-CI (odds ratio [OR] = 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.25-2.52), TBI-based preparative regimen (OR = 2.63; 95% CI, 1.67-4.13), and infection during admission for allo-HSCT (OR = 2.00; 95% CI, 1.37-2.92) predicted 30-day readmission. Thirty-day readmission itself was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR](Adj) = 1.66; 95% CI, 1.36-2.10). Our data emphasize the importance of a risk-standardized approach to 30-day hospital readmission if it is used as a quality-of-care metric for bone marrow transplantation.
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Cytomegalovirus reactivation after matched sibling donor reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant correlates with donor killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genotype.
Exp Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
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Cytomegalovirus reactivation is common after reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Natural killer and T cells mediate immunity against viruses including cytomegalovirus. The alloreactivity of natural killer cells and some T-cell subsets is mediated through the interaction of their killer immunoglobulin-like receptors with target cell ligands. This study sought to assess whether donor inhibitory or activating killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genotypes may influence post-transplant cytomegalovirus reactivation in transplant recipients.
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Chronic GVHD risk score: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research analysis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Several risk factors are associated with increased mortality in patients with chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD), but there is considerable variability in the reported factors. Therefore, we evaluated patient, transplantation, and cGVHD characteristics to develop a risk score in 5343 patients with cGVHD. Ten variables were identified as being significant in multivariate analysis of overall survival and nonrelapse mortality (NRM): age, prior acute GVHD, time from transplantation to cGVHD, donor type, disease status at transplantation, GVHD prophylaxis, gender mismatch, serum bilirubin, Karnofsky score, and platelet count. These 10 variables were used to build a cGVHD risk score, and 6 risk groups (RGs) were identified. The 5-year NRM was 5% (1%-9%) in RG1, 20% (19%-23%) in RG2, 33% (29%-37%) in RG3, 43% (40%-46%) in RG4, 63% (53%-74%) in RG5, and 72% (59%-85%) in RG6. The 5-year overall survival was highest at 91% (95% confidence interval [CI]:85%-97%) in RG1, followed by 67% (65%-69%) in RG2, 51% (46%-55%) in RG3, 40% (37%-43%) in RG4, 21% (12%-30%) in RG5, and 4% (0%-9%) in RG6 (all P < .01). This analysis demonstrates the usefulness of data from a large registry to develop risk-score categories for major transplantation outcomes. Validation of this cGVHD risk score is needed in a different population to ensure its broad applicability.
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Long-term survival and late deaths after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative but is associated with life-threatening complications. Most deaths occur within the first 2 years after transplantation. In this report, we examine long-term survival in 2-year survivors in the largest cohort ever studied.
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Autologous stem cell transplant for early relapsed/refractory Hodgkin lymphoma: results from two transplant centres.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Prior series have demonstrated that early relapsed (within 1 year) or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is associated with poor prognosis. To determine the outcome for patients with early relapsed/refractory HL in the modern era, we combined data from two large transplant centres, Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute (CCTCI) and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), and analysed consecutive patients transplanted for relapsed/refractory HL following induction failure or remission durations of <1 year. Two hundred and fourteen patients were analysed and the event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) at 6 years for all patients were 45% and 55%, respectively. Factors significant for prognosis in multivariate analysis were extranodal disease and bulky disease (?5 cm). Patients with 0, 1, or 2 risk factors achieved 6 year EFS of 65%, 47%, and 24% and 6 year OS of 81%, 55%, and 27%, respectively. Patients with the sole risk factor of early relapsed/refractory disease achieved good outcomes in this large series; however the presence of bulk and/or extranodal disease significantly reduced EFS and OS. Patients with these additional risk factors are best suited for clinical trials investigating novel salvage regimens and post-transplant maintenance strategies.
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Treatment with hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone combined with cytarabine and methotrexate results in poor mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells in patients with mantle cell lymphoma.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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Hyper-CVAD (fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, doxorubicin, and dexamethasone combined with cytarabine and methotrexate) is an intense chemotherapy regimen frequently used for hematologic malignancies including mantle cell lymphoma. To address whether treatment with hyper-CVAD impairs mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells, we retrospectively analyzed mobilization data from 77 consecutive adult patients with mantle cell lymphoma who underwent peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) mobilization for planned autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT). Compared to patients treated with alternative regimens, patients treated with hyper-CVAD collected fewer CD34+?cells, required more total days of pheresis, and more frequently required a second mobilization attempt, despite being more likely to have undergone mobilization with a VP16-containing regimen. In multivariable linear regression analysis, treatment with hyper-CVAD was associated with a significant reduction in total CD34+?cells mobilized (p?
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The non-relapse mortality rate for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is greater than relapse mortality 8 years after autologous stem cell transplantation and is significantly higher than mortality rates of population controls.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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High dose chemotherapy followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is the preferred treatment modality for patients with relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). To assess long-term outcomes of these patients, we retrospectively analysed data from 309 consecutive patients who underwent ASCT for DLBCL between 1994 and 2006. We found that non-relapse mortality (NRM) became the major cause of death beginning approximately 8 years after ASCT. The most common causes of NRM during the study period were respiratory failure (31%), infection (13%), cardiac toxicity (15%) and secondary malignancy (15%). The strongest predictor of relapse mortality (RM) was disease status at transplant: patients who were in second or greater complete or partial remission had a higher risk of RM than those in first complete or partial remission [hazard ratio (HR) 3·7, P<0·001], as did those who were relapsed or refractory (HR 4·9, P<0·001). We describe the longest reported follow-up of a large cohort of DLBCL patients uniformly-treated with ASCT. Although relapse was initially the more likely cause of death, NRM exceeded RM after 8 years. After ASCT, surviving patients have significantly increased risk mortality rates relative to the general population and this excess risk persists over time.
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Predicting hematopoietic stem cell mobilization failure in patients with multiple myeloma: a simple method using day 1 CD34+ cell yield.
J Clin Apher
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Early and reliable prediction of the likelihood of achieving adequate stem cell collection for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) would improve collection efficiency, prevent unnecessary aphereses, and permit appropriate treatment alterations. No previous study has reported a threshold CD34+ cell collection quantity on Day 1 or 2 of leukapheresis that could predict successful stem cell collection. We performed a retrospective analysis of all MM patients undergoing first attempt of stem cell collection at our institution from 2001 through 2008. Recursive partitioning analysis was used to identify Day 1 or Day 1+2 CD34+ collection quantity that predicted failure to reach target ? 2 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg within five days of collection. Totally, 172 patients were included in the analysis. Patients underwent mobilization with G-CSF or G-CSF+ chemotherapy. 23 of 172 patients (13.4%) failed to collect sufficient (? 2 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg) CD34+ cells after five days of apheresis: 22 of 29 who collected ? 0.70 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg and 1 of 143 who collected > 0.70 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg (75.9% vs. 0.7%, P < 0.001) on Day 1. Collection failure occurred in 23 of 30 patients who collected ? 1.54 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg and 0 of 142 who collected >1.54 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg (76.7% vs. 0%, P < 0.001) on Days 1 + 2. Day 1 CD34+ cell collection quantity identifies patients unlikely to achieve adequate collection for ASCT. Patients who collect ? 0.70 × 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg on day 1 could be considered for treatment modifications to improve CD34+ collection, such as early administration of plerixafor or large volume apheresis.
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Secondary solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation using busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
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Risks of secondary solid cancers among allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients who receive conditioning without total body irradiation are not well known. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors for solid cancers after HCT using high-dose busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning in 4318 recipients of first allogeneic HCT for acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission (N = 1742) and chronic myeloid leukemia in first chronic phase (N = 2576). Our cohort represented 22 041 person-years at risk. Sixty-six solid cancers were reported at a median of 6 years after HCT. The cumulative-incidence of solid cancers at 5 and 10 years after HCT was 0.6% and 1.2% among acute myeloid leukemia and 0.9% and 2.4% among chronic myeloid leukemia patients. In comparison to general population incidence rates, HCT recipients had 1.4× higher than expected rate of invasive solid cancers (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.79, P = .01). Significantly elevated risks were observed for tumors of the oral cavity, esophagus, lung, soft tissue, and brain. Chronic graft-versus-host disease was an independent risk factor for all solid cancers, and especially cancers of the oral cavity. Recipients of allogeneic HCT using busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning are at risk for developing solid cancers. Their incidence continues to increase with time, and lifelong cancer surveillance is warranted in this population.
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Transplanted CD34(+) cell dose is associated with long-term platelet count recovery following autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma or multiple myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is an established treatment for patients with hematologic malignancies, yet the impact of transplanted CD34(+) cell dose on clinical outcomes is unresolved. We conducted post hoc analyses of transplanted CD34(+) cell dose and hematopoietic recovery following ASCT in 438 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) or multiple myeloma (MM), using data from 2 multicenter phase 3 clinical studies that compared plerixafor plus granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) versus placebo plus G-CSF as stem cell mobilization regimens. Days to engraftment and the proportion of patients who reached predetermined blood count thresholds were compared across 3 CD34(+) cell dose levels: 2-4 × 10(6) cells/kg, 4-6 × 10(6) cells/kg, and >6 × 10(6) cells/kg, regardless of mobilization treatment. Short-term neutrophil and platelet engraftment times were similar regardless of cell dose. A significant linear trend was observed between transplanted CD34(+) cell dose and the proportion of patients with platelet count >150 × 10(9)/L at 100 days (P < .001), 6 months (P = .026), and 12 months (P = .020) in patients with NHL, and at 100 days in patients with MM (P = .004). A linear trend was also observed between transplanted cell dose and the proportion of patients with platelet count >100 × 10(9)/L at 100 days (P < .001) and 6 months (P = .023) in patients with NHL. A higher cell dose was associated with a lower percentage of NHL patients requiring red blood cell transfusions (P = .006). Our analyses confirm previous findings that transplanted CD34(+) cell dose may be associated with better long-term platelet recovery after ASCT.
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Utility of leflunomide in the treatment of complex cytomegalovirus syndromes.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) viremia that is resistant or refractory to the standard antiviral therapy still constitutes a major threat to high-risk transplant recipients. In addition, multiple CMV recurrences may lead to neutropenia because of repeated courses of therapy with ganciclovir derivatives. Leflunomide, a drug for rheumatoid arthritis, has been reported to have anti-CMV activity. This study reports on its use in 17 transplant recipients with complex CMV syndromes who had failed or were intolerant to other therapies.
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Vitamin D level after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2010
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Vitamin D (VD) deficiency can cause osteomalacia, bone pain, muscle weakness, fatigue, and increased risk of fracture, and may precipitate or exacerbate osteopenia and osteoporosis. Patients receiving treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) may have limited exposure to sunlight and often experience gastrointestinal side effects that may decrease their ability to maintain an adequate VD level. We hypothesized that patients with AML and ALL would have a low VD level after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT), and that these patients would have a high incidence of osteoporosis/osteopenia. We therefore studied the incidence of low VD level and low bone mineral density after HCT. Of 289 patients with AML or ALL undergoing HCT between January 1, 2000, and January 31, 2009, at the Cleveland Clinic, 58 (20.1%) patients had VD testing after HCT. Of these, 52 (89.7%) patients had a low VD level, and 6 (10.3%) had a normal level. Most patients with VD testing had graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and were taking corticosteroids (94.8% and 98.3%, respectively). Of the 49 patients with VD testing who also had bone mineral density testing, 65% had abnormal (low bone density) results. Only 21% of patients with VD testing were taking VD supplements prior to testing, and 65% had an elevated parathyroid hormone level. We found that most patients did not have VD testing after HCT, but those that did were very likely to have a low level and have low bone mineral density. Those with a low VD level were likely to have received corticosteroids, have GVHD, and have an elevated parathyroid hormone (PTH) level. Given the potential morbidity of low VD level, VD deficiency should be considered after HCT. Prospective study of VD level and its impact on morbidity and mortality after HCT is warranted.
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Effect of post-remission chemotherapy preceding allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant in patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first remission.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with intermediate or high risk cytogenetics are often considered for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHSCT) in first remission. Between attainment of remission and AHSCT, post-remission chemotherapy is frequently administered, though there is no evidence for its effectiveness. This study was performed to determine the impact of post-remission chemotherapy on outcome after AHSCT. A subset analysis was performed to determine whether the influence of post-remission chemotherapy might be different in those with intermediate compared to high risk cytogenetics. There was no significant difference in relapse mortality (RM) (p = 0.70), non-relapse mortality (NRM) (p = 0.12), or survival (OS) (p = 0.15) between post-remission chemotherapy groups. There was no difference in RM, NRM, or OS between cytogenetic groups according to whether they received post-remission chemotherapy. No differential effect between intermediate and high risk cytogenetics was detected (RM, p = 0.80; NRM, p = 0.23; OS, p = 0.26). These data do not show a benefit of post-remission chemotherapy before AHSCT.
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Validation of the Mantle Cell Lymphoma International Prognostic Index: A single-center retrospective analysis.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a unique, recently recognized entity with a variable clinical course [1]. Its historical grouping as an indolent lymphoma belies its common behavior, which is generally aggressive and incurable, with a median survival of about 5 years with modern therapy [2]. In an effort to improve outcomes in MCL, intensified therapies, including the rituximab plus HyperCVAD regimen [3] and incorporation of hematopoetic progenitor cell transplantation (HPCT) [4-6], have been used. However, although capable of inducing remissions in most patients, there is little proof that intensive first-line therapy prolongs overall survival (OS), and a continual relapse pattern is commonly observed [4,7-10].
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Pregnancy after hematopoietic cell transplantation: a report from the late effects working committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR).
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Preservation of fertility after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can have a significant influence on the quality of life of transplant survivors. We describe 178 pregnancies in HCT recipients that were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) between 2002 and 2007. There were 83 pregnancies in female HCT recipients and 95 pregnancies in female partners of male HCT recipients. Indications for transplantation included hematologic and other malignancies (N = 99) and nonmalignant disorders (N = 79, of which 75 patients had severe aplastic anemia). The cohort included recipients of autologous HCT (20 women, 13 men), myeloablative (MA) allogeneic HCT (12 women, 50 men), and nonmyeloablative allogeneic HCT (2 women, 2 men). Age at HCT was <20 years for 50% of women and 19% of men. Conditioning regimens included total body irradiation (TBI) in 16% of women and 19% of men; doses were MA in 10% of women and in 16% of men. Live births were reported in 86% of pregnancies in partners of male transplant patients and 85% of pregnancies in female transplant patients, with most pregnancies occurring 5 to 10 years after HCT. We conclude that some HCT recipients can retain fertility, including patients who have received TBI and/or MA conditioning. Young patients undergoing HCT should be counseled both before and after HCT about potential loss of fertility, methods for preserving fertility, and planning for future pregnancy. Fertility and outcomes of pregnancy after HCT need prospective evaluation in large transplant cohorts.
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Obesity does not preclude safe and effective myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in adults.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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The incidence of excessive adiposity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. We compared outcomes by body mass index (BMI) for adult patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who underwent autologous (auto, n = 373), related donor (RD, n = 2041), or unrelated donor (URD, n = 1801) allogeneic myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) from 1995 to 2004. Four weight groups by BMI (kg/m(2)) were defined: underweight <18 kg/m(2); normal 18-25 kg/m(2); overweight >25-30 kg/m(2); and obese >30 kg/m(2). Multivariable analysis referenced to the normal weight group showed an increased risk of death for underweight patients in the RD group (relative risk [RR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-2.89; P = .002), but not in the URD group. There were no other differences in outcomes among the other weight groups within the other HCT groups. Overweight and obese patients enjoyed a modest decrease in relapse incidence, although this did not translate into a survival benefit. Small numbers of patients limit the ability to better characterize the adverse outcomes seen in the underweight RD but not the underweight URD allogeneic HCT patients. Obesity alone should not be considered a barrier to HCT.
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Nonmyeloablative second transplants are associated with lower nonrelapse mortality and superior survival than myeloablative second transplants.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) for patients who have previously undergone allogeneic or autologous SCT is potentially curative, but dangerous. To identify patient, disease, and treatment characteristics associated with outcome, we analyzed prognostic factors in 98 consecutive patients who underwent second transplants using allogeneic donors at the Cleveland Clinic between May 1987 and October 2008. Inclusion criteria included age ?18 years, first SCT either autologous or allogeneic, and second SCT allogeneic. Patients whose second transplant was myeloablative (MA) had shorter survival (median 3.2 versus 14.7 months, P < .001) than patients whose second transplant was nonmyeloablative (NMA). In multivariable analysis, MA second transplant was associated with a higher risk of NRM (hazard ratio [HR] 2.01, P = 0.022) and death (HR 2.13, P = 0.002). Improved survival after NMA second transplant occurred primarily in patients without acute leukemia and when the first transplant was allogeneic. Among 17 patients transplanted within 3 months of first transplant, mortality was 100% and median survival was 2.3 months. MA transplantation within 3 months of prior SCT carries an unacceptably high rate of NRM. NMA second transplants were associated with substantially less NRM and despite a higher incidence of relapse, significantly improved survival compared to MA second transplants.
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Allogeneic transplantation for therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2009
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Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes (t-MDSs) and acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) have a poor prognosis with conventional therapy. Encouraging results are reported after allogeneic transplantation. We analyzed outcomes in 868 persons with t-AML (n = 545) or t-MDS (n = 323) receiving allogeneic transplants from 1990 to 2004. A myeloablative regimen was used for conditioning in 77%. Treatment-related mortality (TRM) and relapse were 41% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38-44) and 27% (24-30) at 1 year and 48% (44-51) and 31% (28-34) at 5 years, respectively. Disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 32% (95% CI, 29-36) and 37% (34-41) at 1 year and 21% (18-24) and 22% (19-26) at 5 years, respectively. In multivariate analysis, 4 risk factors had adverse impacts on DFS and OS: (1) age older than 35 years; (2) poor-risk cytogenetics; (3) t-AML not in remission or advanced t-MDS; and (4) donor other than an HLA-identical sibling or a partially or well-matched unrelated donor. Five-year survival for subjects with none, 1, 2, 3, or 4 of these risk factors was 50% (95% CI, 38-61), 26% (20-31), 21% (16-26), 10% (5-15), and 4% (0-16), respectively (P < .001). These data permit a more precise prediction of outcome and identify subjects most likely to benefit from allogeneic transplantation.
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Superior survival after replacing oral with intravenous busulfan in autologous stem cell transplantation for non-Hodgkin lymphoma with busulfan, cyclophosphamide and etoposide.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2009
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Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) with cyclophosphamide, etoposide and oral busulfan (BuCyVP) is an effective therapy for relapsed or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). Substituting intravenous for oral busulfan reduces variability in drug exposure, potentially improving the safety and efficacy of the BuCyVP regimen. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of 604 consecutively treated patients who underwent ASCT for NHL with BuCyVP using oral (n = 468) or IV (n = 136) busulfan, without measurement of busulfan levels for pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis. Patients who received oral busulfan experienced more severe oral mucositis and a higher incidence of nonrelapse mortality. Median overall survival (OS) after ASCT was 72 months with oral busulfan but was not reached for the IV busulfan group. IV busulfan was associated with a lower rate of relapse, and superior relapse-free survival (RFS) and OS. In multivariate models, the route of busulfan administration was an independent prognostic factor for relapse (P = 0.01), RFS (P = 0.002) and OS (P = 0.001). IV busulfan appears to provide better efficacy and lower toxicity than oral busulfan in ASCT with BuCyVP for NHL. Whether PK-based busulfan dosing can achieve further improvements in this setting is worthy of study.
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Incidence and reasons for late failure after allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation following BuCy2 in acute myeloid leukaemia.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2009
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The long-term follow-up is presented for 317 patients with acute myeloid leukaemia who underwent human leucocyte antigen-identical sibling marrow transplants between 1984 and 1995 following preparation with busulfan 16 mg/kg and cyclophosphamide 120 mg/kg. Among the 142 (45%) who were alive and leukaemia-free 3 years following transplantation, the leukaemia-free survival at 15 years was 72.8%. The cumulative incidence of late (>3 years beyond transplant) non-relapse mortality at 15 years was 12.9% and of late relapse was 16.5%. None of the variables considered (including age, disease stage, and graft-versus-host disease) were predictive of late failure.
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Phase III prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor compared with placebo plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for autologous stem-cell mobilization and transplantation for
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2009
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This study evaluates the safety and efficacy of plerixafor (AMD3100), a CXCR4 antagonist, in mobilizing hematopoietic stem cells for autologous stem-cell transplantation in non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) patients.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant for prolymphocytic leukemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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The poor prognosis of patients with prolymphocytic leukemia (PLL) has led some clinicians to recommend allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT). However, the data to support this approach is limited to case-reports and small case series. We reviewed the database of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) to determine outcomes after allotransplant for patients with PLL. We identified 47 patients with a median age of 54 years (range: 30-75 years). With a median follow-up of 13 months, progression-free survival (PFS) was 33% (95% confidence interval [CI] 20%-47%) at 1 year. The most common cause of death was relapse or progression in 49%. The cumulative incidence of treatment-related mortality (TRM) at 1-year posttransplant was 28%. The small patient population prohibited prognostic factor analysis, but these data support consideration of allotransplant for PLL. Further study of a larger population of patients is needed to determine which patients are more likely to benefit.
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High rate of survival in transformed lymphoma after autologous stem cell transplant: pathologic analysis and comparison with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2009
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Transformed lymphoma (TL) is historically associated with a poor prognosis, though autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) has been applied successfully. Better patient selection is needed for this intensive therapy. We analyzed the outcomes between de novo and transformed large B-cell lymphoma in patients undergoing ASCT, with regard to the immunohistochemical (IHC) features of potential prognostic utility including CD10, BCL6, MUM-1, Ki67, and BCL2. Of all patients undergoing ASCT for large B-cell lymphoma at the Cleveland Clinic Taussig Cancer Institute between 2003 and 2008, 56 patients (31 de novo and 25 TL) had undergone detailed IHC analysis. Three-year relapse-free-survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) for TL vs. patients with de novo large B-cell lymphoma were 64%vs. 59% and 63%vs. 59%, respectively. More patients with TL were characterized as germinal-center B cell-of-origin (92%) than patients with de novo large B-cell lymphoma (71%). Immunohistochemistry did not predict relapse-free or overall survival, and ASCT afforded a high rate of PFS in patients with TL.
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Outcome of transplantation for myelofibrosis.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
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Myelofibrosis is a myeloproliferative disorder incurable with conventional strategies. Several small series have reported long-term disease-free survival (DSF) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In this study, we analyze the outcomes of 289 patients receiving allogeneic transplantation for primary myelofibrosis between 1989 and 2002, from the database of the Center for International Bone Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). The median age was 47 years (range: 18-73 years). Donors were HLA identical siblings in 162 patients, unrelated individuals in 101 patients, and HLA nonidentical family members in 26 patients. Patients were treated with a variety of conditioning regimens and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis regimens. Splenectomy was performed in 65 patients prior to transplantation. The 100-day treatment-related mortality was 18% for HLA identical sibling transplants, 35% for unrelated transplants, and 19% for transplants from alternative related donors. Corresponding 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 37%, 30%, and 40%, respectively. DFS rates were 33%, 27%, and 22%, respectively. DFS for patients receiving reduced-intensity transplants was comparable: 39% for HLA identical sibling donors and 17% for unrelated donors at 3 years. In this large retrospective series, allogeneic transplantation for myelofibrosis resulted in long-term relapse-free survival (RFS) in about one-third of patients.
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A comparison of HLA-identical sibling allogeneic versus autologous transplantation for diffuse large B cell lymphoma: a report from the CIBMTR.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2009
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We compared outcomes of 916 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients aged >or=18 years undergoing first autologous (n = 837) or myeloablative (MA) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) (n = 79) between 1995 and 2003 reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). Median follow-up was 81 months for allogeneic HCT versus 60 months for autologous HCT. Allogeneic HCT recipients were more likely to have high-risk disease features including higher stage, more prior chemotherapy regimens, and resistant disease. Allogeneic HCT was associated with a higher 1 year treatment-related mortality (TRM) (relative risk [RR] 4.88, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.21-7.40, P < .001), treatment failure (RR 2.06, 95% CI, 1.54-2.75, P < .001), and mortality (RR 2.75, 95% CI, 2.03-3.72, P < .001). Risk of disease progression was similar in the 2 groups (RR 1.12, 95% CI, 0.73-1.72, P = .59). In fact, for 1-year survivors, no significant differences were observed for TRM, progression, progression-free (PFS) or overall survival (OS). Increased risks of TRM and mortality were associated with older age (>50 years), lower performance score, chemoresistance, and earlier year of transplant. In a cohort of mainly high-risk DLBCL patients, upfront MA allogeneic HCT, although associated with increased early mortality, was associated with a similar risk of disease progression compared to lower risk patients receiving autologous HCT.
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A prognostic scoring system for adult patients less than 60 years of age with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first relapse.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2009
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The outcome of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first relapse is poor. We retrospectively evaluated patients with ALL in first relapse, 18-60 years of age, to define a prognostic score. For all patients, a scoring system of 0-3 was developed with 1 point for each of the following: age at diagnosis >or=45 years, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) at the time of relapse >or=1.5 times upper limits of normal (ULN), not proceeding to allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT). A similar scoring system was developed for patients proceeding to BMT. LDH >or=1.5 times ULN at the time of relapse predicted poor overall survival. Patients with a prognostic score of greater than 1 have a poor prognosis, even with BMT, and should be considered for treatment with innovative approaches such as Phase 1 clinical trials.
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Elevated pretransplant ferritin is associated with a lower incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease and inferior survival after myeloablative allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2009
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Elevated pretransplant serum ferritin levels have been associated with an increased incidence of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). We studied 222 patients who underwent myeloablative allogeneic HCT in whom pretransplantation serum ferritin levels were available. Pretransplantation ferritin > 1910 microg/l was associated with lower overall survival (P = 0.003), lower relapse-free survival (P = 0.003), decreased chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) (P = 0.019) and increased non-relapse mortality (NRM) (P = 0.042). Similar results were obtained when pretransplantation ferritin was analysed as a continuous variable and by quartiles. Our results indicate that an elevated pretransplant ferritin level adversely impacts transplantation outcomes. The adverse impact of elevated ferritin on NRM and survival was despite its association with lower incidences of acute and chronic GVHD, which are major causes of NRM. The association of ferritin with iron overload and its influence on HCT outcomes requires further prospective validation.
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Impact of pre-transplant rituximab on survival after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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Incorporation of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab into front-line regimens to treat diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has resulted in improved survival. Despite this progress, however, many patients develop refractory or recurrent DLBCL and then undergo autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AuHCT). It is unclear to what extent pre-transplant exposure to rituximab affects outcomes after AuHCT. Outcomes of 994 patients receiving AuHCT for DLBCL between 1996 and 2003 were analyzed according to whether rituximab was (n = 176; +R cohort) or was not (n = 818; -R cohort) administered with front-line or salvage therapy before AuHCT. The +R cohort had superior progression-free survival (PFS; 50% vs 38%; P = .008) and overall survival (OS; 57% vs 45%; P = .006) at 3 years. Platelet and neutrophil engraftment were not affected by exposure to rituximab. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) did not differ significantly between the 2 cohorts. In multivariate analysis, the +R cohort had improved PFS (relative risk of relapse/progression or death, 0.64; P < .001) and improved OS (relative risk of death, 0.74; P = .039). We conclude that pre-transplant rituximab is associated with a lower rate of progression and improved survival after AuHCT for DLBCL, with no evidence of impaired engraftment or increased NRM.
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The graft-versus-leukemia effect using matched unrelated donors is not superior to HLA-identical siblings for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
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Do some patients benefit from an unrelated donor (URD) transplant because of a stronger graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect? We analyzed 4099 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) undergoing a myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from an URD (8/8 human leukocyte antigen [HLA]-matched, n=941) or HLA-identical sibling donor (n=3158) between 1995 and 2004 reported to the CIBMTR. In the Cox regression model, acute and chronic GVHD were added as time-dependent variables. In multivariate analysis, URD transplant recipients had a higher risk for transplantation-related mortality (TRM; relative risk [RR], 2.76; P< .001) and relapse (RR, 1.50; P< .002) in patients with AML, but not ALL or CML. Chronic GVHD was associated with a lower relapse risk in all diagnoses. Leukemia-free survival (LFS) was decreased in patients with AML without acute GVHD receiving a URD transplant (RR, 2.02; P< .001) but was comparable to those receiving HLA-identical sibling transplants in patients with ALL and CML. In patients without GVHD, multivariate analysis showed similar risk of relapse but decreased LFS for URD transplants for all 3 diagnoses. In conclusion, risk of relapse was the same (ALL, CML) or worse (AML) in URD transplant recipients compared with HLA-identical sibling transplant recipients, suggesting a similar GVL effect.
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Sibling versus unrelated donor allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myelogenous leukemia: refined HLA matching reveals more graft-versus-host disease but not less relapse.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2009
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Unrelated donor (URD) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can eradicate chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). It has been postulated that greater donor-recipient histoincompatibility can augment the graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect. We previously reported similar, but not equivalent, outcomes of URD versus sibling donor HCT for CML using an older, less precise classification of HLA matching. Here, we used our recently refined HLA-matching classification, which is suitable for interpretation when complete allele-level typing is unavailable, to reanalyze outcomes of previous HCT for CML. We found that using our new matching criteria identifies substantially more frequent mismatching than older, less precise "6 of 6 antigen-matched" URD-HCT. Under the new criteria, only 37% of those previously deemed "HLA- matched" were HLA well matched, and 44% were partially matched. Using our refined matching criteria confirms the greater risk of graft failure in partially matched or mismatched URD-recipient pairs compared with either sibling or well-matched URD-recipient pairs. Acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD, cGVHD) are significantly more frequent with all levels of recategorized URD HLA matching. Importantly, overall survival (OS) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) remain significantly worse after URD-HCT at any matching level. No augmented GVL effect accompanied URD HLA mismatch. Compared with sibling donor transplants, we observed only marginally increased (not statistically significant) risks of relapse in well-matched, partially matched, and mismatched URD-HCT. These data confirm the applicability of revised HLA-matching scheme in analyzing retrospective data sets when fully informative, allele-level typing is unavailable. In this analysis, greater histoincompatibility can augment GVHD, but does not improve protection against relapse; thus the best donor remains the most closely matched donor.
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Development of a modified surveillance definition of central line-associated bloodstream infections for patients with hematologic malignancies.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
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To develop a modified surveillance definition of central line-associated bloodstream infection (mCLABSI) specific for our population of patients with hematologic malignancies to better support ongoing improvement efforts at our hospital.
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Plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor versus placebo plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor for mobilization of CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells in patients with multiple myeloma and low peripheral blood CD34(+) cell count: results of
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Preapheresis peripheral blood (PB) CD34(+) cell count is a strong predictor of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) mobilization and is routinely used to optimize the timing, cost, and success of HSC collection in patients with multiple myeloma. However, a uniform PB CD34(+) cell count that predicts mobilization failure has not been defined, resulting in the development of institute-specific algorithms for mobilization, particularly regarding the decision of when to use the novel stem cell mobilization agent plerixafor. In this post hoc analysis, we evaluated the mobilization efficacy of plerixafor plus granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) versus placebo plus G-CSF in patients with multiple myeloma, stratified by preapheresis PB CD34(+) cell count: <10, <15, <20, and ?20 cells/?L. Regardless of the PB CD34(+) cell count, the total yield of CD34(+) cells from apheresis was significantly higher in the plerixafor group than in the placebo group, and significantly more patients in the plerixafor group collected the minimum (?2 × 10(6) cells/kg) and optimum (?6 × 10(6) cells/kg) stem cell yields on each day of apheresis. As a corollary, the greater stem cell collection in plerixafor-treated patients resulted in the need for significantly fewer days of apheresis to reach minimum and optimum cell doses across all cell count groups. For all CD34(+) cell count groups, the proportion of patients proceeding to transplantation and the median time to platelet and neutrophil engraftment were similar in the plerixafor and placebo groups. Our findings demonstrate that in patients with multiple myeloma who might be predicted to fail mobilization based on low PB CD34(+) cell count, the addition of plerixafor to G-CSF allows for collection of the minimal and optimal cell doses in a greater proportion of patients compared with G-CSF alone. In addition, plerixafor plus G-CSF significantly improves the likelihood of optimal HSC collection in patients with higher preapheresis PB CD34(+) cell counts (?20 cells/?L) compared with placebo plus G-CSF. Collectively, this analysis of predicted poor mobilizers validates the superiority of plerixafor plus G-CSF compared with G-CSF alone, which had been demonstrated previously in the overall patient population.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for advanced polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative for selected patients with advanced essential thrombocythemia (ET) or polycythemia vera (PV). From 1990 to 2007, 75 patients with ET (median age 49 years) and 42 patients with PV (median age 53 years) underwent transplantations at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center (FHCRC; n = 43) or at other Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) centers (n = 74). Thirty-eight percent of the patients had splenomegaly and 28% had a prior splenectomy. Most patients (69% for ET and 67% for PV) received a myeloablative (MA) conditioning regimen. Cumulative incidence of neutrophil engraftment at 28 days was 88% for ET patients and 90% for PV patients. Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) grades II to IV occurred in 57% and 50% of ET and PV patients, respectively. The 1-year treatment-related mortality (TRM) was 27% for ET and 22% for PV. The 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse was 13% for ET and 30% for PV. Five-year survival/progression-free survival (PFS) was 55%/47% and 71%/48% for ET and PV, respectively. Patients without splenomegaly had faster neutrophil and platelet engraftment, but there were no differences in TRM, survival, or PFS. Presence of myelofibrosis (MF) did not affect engraftment or TRM. Over 45% of the patients who undergo transplantations for ET and PV experience long-term PFS.
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p53-Independent, normal stem cell sparing epigenetic differentiation therapy for myeloid and other malignancies.
Semin. Oncol.
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Cytotoxic chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) usually produces only temporary remissions, at the cost of significant toxicity and risk for death. One fundamental reason for treatment failure is that it is designed to activate apoptosis genes (eg, TP53) that may be unavailable because of mutation or deletion. Unlike deletion of apoptosis genes, genes that mediate cell cycle exit by differentiation are present in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and AML cells but are epigenetically repressed: MDS/AML cells express high levels of key lineage-specifying transcription factors. Mutations in these transcription factors (eg, CEBPA) or their cofactors (eg., RUNX1) affect transactivation function and produce epigenetic repression of late-differentiation genes that antagonize MYC. Importantly, this aberrant epigenetic repression can be redressed clinically by depleting DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1, a central component of the epigenetic network that mediates transcription repression) using the deoxycytidine analogue decitabine at non-cytotoxic concentrations. The DNMT1 depletion is sufficient to trigger upregulation of late-differentiation genes and irreversible cell cycle exit by p53-independent differentiation mechanisms. Fortuitously, the same treatment maintains or increases self-renewal of normal hematopoietic stem cells, which do not express high levels of lineage-specifying transcription factors. The biological rationale for this approach to therapy appears to apply to cancers other than MDS/AML also. Decitabine or 5-azacytidine dose and schedule can be rationalized to emphasize this mechanism of action, as an alternative or complement to conventional apoptosis-based oncotherapy.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.