Wolbachia pipientis, a widespread vertically transmitted intracellular bacterium, provides a tool for insect control through manipulation of host-microbe interactions. We report proteomic characterization of wStr, a Wolbachia strain associated with a strong cytoplasmic incompatibility phenotype in its native host, Laodelphax striatellus. In the Aedes albopictus?C/wStr1 mosquito cell line, wStr maintains a robust, persistent infection. MS/MS analyses of gel bands revealed a protein 'footprint' dominated by Wolbachia-encoded chaperones, stress response and cell membrane proteins, including the surface antigen WspA, a peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein and a 73?kDa outer membrane protein. Functional classifications and estimated abundance levels of 790 identified proteins suggested that expression, stabilization and secretion of proteins predominate over bacterial genome replication and cell division. High relative abundances of cysteine desulphurase, serine/glycine hydroxymethyl transferase, and components of the ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex in conjunction with above average abundances of glutamate dehydrogenase and proline utilization protein A support Wolbachia genome-based predictions for amino acid metabolism as a primary energy source. wStr expresses 15 Vir proteins of a Type IV secretion system and its transcriptional regulator. Proteomic characterization of a robust insect-associated Wolbachia strain provides baseline information that will inform further development of in vitro protocols for Wolbachia manipulation.
Wolbachia are obligate intracellular bacteria that cause cytoplasmic incompatibility in mosquitoes. In an incompatible cross, eggs of uninfected females fail to hatch when fertilized by sperm from infected males. We used polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and tandem mass spectrometry to identify Wolbachia proteins in infected mosquito gonads. These included surface proteins with masses of 25 and 18 kDa and the DNA binding protein, HU beta. Using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, we showed that the HU gene is transcribed in Wolbachia-infected Culex pipiens and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. We sequenced HU genes from four Wolbachia strains and compared deduced protein sequences with additional homologs from the databases. Among the Rickettsiales, Wolbachia HU has distinct N- and C-terminal basic/acidic amino acid motifs as well as a pair of conserved, cysteine residues.
We have shown that, in contrast to selenomethionine (SeMet) or selenite, methylseleninic acid (MSeA) and Se-methylselenocysteine (MSeC) exert prostate cancer (PCa) inhibitory effect in preclinical models. Here we investigated the prostate proteome signatures of mice treated with each selenium (Se) form for hypothesis generation concerning their potential in vivo molecular targets and cancer risk modification. Nude mice bearing subcutaneous PC-3 xenografts were treated daily with each Se form (3 mg Se/kg) orally for 45 days. Five prostates were pooled from each group. Their proteomes were profiled by LC-MS/MS with iTRAQ labeling. Of the 1,088 proteins identified, 72 were significantly modulated by one or more Se forms. MSeA and MSeC each induced separate sets of tumor suppressor proteins and suppressed different onco-proteins. Proteins induced by selenite and shared with MSeC were related to energy metabolism (e.g., fatty-acid synthase), and those induced by SeMet included vimentin and heat-shock protein-70, favoring cancer growth. While proteome changes induced by MSeA were associated with PCa risk reduction, desirable risk-reducing signatures induced by MSeC were counterbalanced by risk-promoting patterns shared with selenite and SeMet. We propose that the balance of oncogenic vs. suppressor protein patterns in the prostate may impact the direction of PCa risk modification by a given selenium.
Because the Selenium (Se) and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) failed to show the efficacy of selenomethionine for prostate cancer prevention, there is a critical need to identify safe and efficacious Se forms for future trials. We have recently shown significant preventive benefit of methylseleninic acid (MSeA) and Se-methylselenocysteine (MSeC) in the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) model by oral administration. The present work applied iTRAQ proteomic approach to profile protein changes of the TRAMP prostate and to characterize their modulation by MSeA and MSeC to identify their potential molecular targets. Dorsolateral prostates from wild-type mice at 18 weeks of age and TRAMP mice treated with water (control), MSeA, or MSeC (3 mg Se/kg) from 8 to 18 weeks of age were pooled (9-10 mice per group) and subjected to protein extraction, followed by protein denaturation, reduction, and alkylation. After tryptic digestion, the peptides were labeled with iTRAQ reagents, mixed together, and analyzed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Of 342 proteins identified with >95% confidence, the expression of 75 proteins was significantly different between TRAMP and wild-type mice. MSeA mainly affected proteins related to prostate functional differentiation, androgen receptor signaling, protein (mis)folding, and endoplasmic reticulum-stress responses, whereas MSeC affected proteins involved in phase II detoxification or cytoprotection, and in stromal cells. Although MSeA and MSeC are presumed precursors of methylselenol and were equally effective against the TRAMP model, their distinct affected protein profiles suggest biological differences in their molecular targets outweigh similarities.
DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) is the active ingredient used in many commonly used insect repellents, but its mode of action remains poorly understood. Efforts to identify properties that could lead to the development of more effective active ingredients have distinguished among DEETs repellent, deterrent, and insecticidal activities. We used an Aedes albopictus mosquito cell line to evaluate DEETs toxicological properties in the absence of sensory input mediated by the olfactory system. When cells were treated with DEET and labeled with [(35)S]methionine/cysteine, a single 25-kDa protein was induced, relative to other proteins, on SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The 25-kDa band from DEET-treated cells was enriched in peptides corresponding to glutathione S-transferase D10 and/or theta in the Aedes aegypti genome. Consistent with the increased expression of the labeled protein, DEET-treated cells had increased glutathione S-transferase activity, and the radiolabeled band bound to Sepharose 4B containing reduced glutathione. By analyzing partial tryptic digests, we established that DEET induces the homolog of A. aegypti glutathione S-transferase, class theta, corresponding to protein XP_001658009.1 in the NCBI database. This specific effect of DEET at the subcellular level suggests that DEET induces physiological responses that extend beyond recognition by the peripheral olfactory system.
Two genotypically and microbiologically distinct strains of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) exist - S and C MAP strains that primarily infect sheep and cattle, respectively. Concentration of iron in the cultivation medium has been suggested as one contributing factor for the observed microbiologic differences. We recently demonstrated that S strains have defective iron storage systems, leading us to propose that these strains might experience iron toxicity when excess iron is provided in the medium. To test this hypothesis, we carried out transcriptional and proteomic profiling of these MAP strains under iron-replete or -deplete conditions.
New biomarkers that replace or are used in conjunction with the current ovarian cancer diagnostic antigen, CA125, are needed for detection of ovarian cancer in the presurgical setting, as well as for detection of disease recurrence. We previously demonstrated the upregulation of leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein-1 (LRG1) in the sera of ovarian cancer patients compared to healthy women using quantitative mass spectrometry.
As part of a multi-endpoint systems approach to develop comprehensive methods for assessing endocrine stressors in vertebrates, differential protein profiling was used to investigate expression patterns in the brain of the amphibian model (Xenopus laevis) following in vivo exposure to a suite of T4 synthesis inhibitors. We specifically address the application of Two Dimensional Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (2D PAGE), Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) and LC-MS/MS to assess changes in relative protein expression levels. 2D PAGE and iTRAQ proved to be effective complementary techniques for distinguishing protein changes in the developing amphibian brain in response to T4 synthesis inhibition. This information served to evaluate the use of distinctive protein profiles as a potential mechanism to screen chemicals for endocrine activity in anurans. Regulatory pathways associated with proteins expressed as a result of chemical effect are reported. To our knowledge, this is also the first account of the anuran larvae brain proteome characterization using proteomic technologies. Correlation of protein changes to other cellular and organism-level responses will aid in the development of a more rapid and cost-effective, non-mammalian screening assay for thyroid axis-disrupting chemicals.
Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer death for women in the US, yet survival rates are over 90% when it is diagnosed at an early stage, highlighting the need for biomarkers for early detection. To enhance the discovery of tumor-specific proteins that could represent novel serum biomarkers for ovarian cancer, we depleted serum of highly abundant proteins which can mask the detection of proteins present in serum at low concentrations. Three commercial immunoaffinity columns were used in parallel to deplete the highly abundant proteins in serum from 60 patients with serous ovarian carcinoma and 60 non-cancer controls. Medium and low abundance serum proteins from each serum pool were then evaluated by the quantitative proteomic technique of differential in-gel electrophoresis. The number of protein spots that were elevated in ovarian cancer sera by at least twofold ranged from 36 to 248, depending upon the depletion and separation methods. From the 33 spots picked for MS analysis, nine different proteins were identified, including the novel candidate ovarian cancer biomarkers leucine-rich alpha2 glycoprotein-1 and ficolin 3. Western blotting validated the relative increases in serum protein levels for three of the proteins identified, demonstrating the utility of this approach for the identification of novel serum biomarkers for ovarian cancer.
We used Wolbachia pipientis strain wAlbB from Aedes albopictus Aa23 cells to infect clonal Ae. albopictus TK-6 cells, which are resistant to 5-bromodeoxyuridine. Infected TK-6 cells were cultured in medium containing 5-bromodeoxyuridine to select against Aa23 cells that might have persisted in the inoculum. Infected TK-6 lines retained the Wolbachia infection for 5 mo, indicating that their metabolic processes support Wolbachia growth and multiplication. To investigate early events after Wolbachia infection, we labeled infected cells with (35)S[methionine/cysteine]. Patterns of labeled proteins on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels were similar in control and infected cells, with the exception of a 29-kDa protein. Tandem mass spectrometry revealed that the 29-kDa band included alpha and beta subunits of the 26S proteasome. Independent confirmation of the up-regulation of the proteasome was established by probing Western blots with a monoclonal antibody to the proteasome-associated co-factor, ubiquitin. Wolbachias loss of metabolic pathways for the synthesis of most amino acids and retention of pathways for their uptake and metabolism suggest that proteasome activation provides a mechanism whereby controlled degradation of intracellular host proteins would increase availability of amino acids to support establishment and maintenance of the Wolbachia infection.
Many plant proteins are modified with N-linked oligosaccharides at asparagine-X-serine/threonine sites during transit through the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi. We have identified a number of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) proteins with modifications consisting of an N-linked N-acetyl-D-glucosamine monosaccharide (N-GlcNAc). Electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry analysis of peptides bearing this modification mapped the modification to asparagine-X-serine/threonine sites on proteins that are predicted to transit through the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. A mass labeling method was developed and used to study N-GlcNAc modification of two thioglucoside glucohydrolases (myrosinases), TGG1 and TGG2 (for thioglucoside glucohydrolase). These myrosinases are also modified with high-mannose (Man)-type glycans. We found that N-GlcNAc and high-Man-type glycans can occur at the same site. It has been hypothesized that N-GlcNAc modifications are generated when endo-?-N-acetylglucosaminidase (ENGase) cleaves N-linked glycans. We examined the effects of mutations affecting the two known Arabidopsis ENGases on N-GlcNAc modification of myrosinase and found that modification of TGG2 was greatly reduced in one of the single mutants and absent in the double mutant. Surprisingly, N-GlcNAc modification of TGG1 was not affected in any of the mutants. These data support the hypothesis that ENGases hydrolyze high-Man glycans to produce some of the N-GlcNAc modifications but also suggest that some N-GlcNAc modifications are generated by another mechanism. Since N-GlcNAc modification was detected at only one site on each myrosinase, the production of the N-GlcNAc modification may be regulated.
Our previous studies revealed that the staphylococcal protein Gcp is essential for bacterial growth; however, the essential function of Gcp remains undefined. In this study, we demonstrated that Gcp plays an important role in the modulation of the branched-chain amino acids biosynthesis pathway. Specifically, we identified that the depletion of Gcp dramatically elevated the production of key enzymes that are encoded in the ilv-leu operon and responsible for the biosynthesis of the branched-chain amino acids isoleucine, leucine, and valine (ILV) using proteomic approaches. Using qPCR and promoter-lux reporter fusions, we established that Gcp negatively modulates the transcription of the ilv-leu operon. Gel-shift assays revealed that Gcp lacks the capacity to bind the promoter region of ilv. Moreover, we found that the depletion of Gcp did not influence the transcription level of CodY, a known repressor of the ilv-leu operon, while induced the transcription of CcpA, a known positive regulator of the ilv-leu operon. In addition, the depletion of Gcp decreased the biosynthesis of N(6)-threonylcarbamoyladenosine (t6A). To elucidate whether the essentiality of Gcp is attributable to its negative modulation of ILV biosynthesis, we determined the impact of the ilv-leu operon on the requirement of Gcp for growth, and revealed that the deletion of the ilv-leu operon did not affect the essentiality of Gcp. Taken together, our results indicate that the essentiality of Gcp isnt attributable to its negative regulation of ILV biosynthesis in S. aureus. These findings provide new insights into the biological function of the staphylococcal Gcp.
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