Oral lichen planus is a chronic immune-mediated disease with an estimated prevalence of 0.5-2.5% in the general population. Patients with oral lichen planus are often emotionally unstable and anxious and may develop concomitant systemic disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate emotional characteristics of patients with oral lichen planus.
Proper sterilization or disinfection of removable prostheses and surgical guides has been problematic in dental practice because of the absence of simple and low-cost techniques that do not cause damage to acrylic resins.
For more than half a century, cytotoxic agents have been investigated as a possible treatment for cancer. Research on animal venoms has revealed their high toxicity on tissues and cell cultures, both normal and tumoral. Snake venoms show the highest cytotoxic potential, since ophidian accidents cause a large amount of tissue damage, suggesting a promising utilization of these venoms or their components as antitumoral agents. Over the last few years, we have studied the effects of snake venoms and their isolated enzymes on tumor cell cultures. Some in vivo assays showed antineoplastic activity against induced tumors in mice. In human beings, both the crude venom and isolated enzymes revealed antitumor activities in preliminary assays, with measurable clinical responses in the advanced treatment phase. These enzymes include metalloproteases (MP), disintegrins, L-amino acid oxidases (LAAOs), C-type lectins, and phospholipases A2 (PLA2s). Their mechanisms of action include direct toxic action (PLA2s), free radical generation (LAAOs), apoptosis induction (PLA2s, MP, and LAAOs), and antiangiogenesis (disintegrins and lectins). Higher cytotoxic and cytostatic activities upon tumor cells than normal cells suggest the possibility for clinical applications. Further studies should be conducted to ensure the efficacy and safety of different snake venom compounds for cancer drug development.
There is now a growing body of evidence that challenges the current view that Plasmodium vivax-infected erythrocyte (Pv-iE) are unable to sequester. Here we used ex vivo adhesion assays with Pv-iE before and after maturation to demonstrate a higher binding potential of schizonts compared to other asexual stages. These experimental results are correlated with our observations in a panel of 50 vivax malaria patients where schizonts were completely absent in 27 isolates, and few schizonts were observed in the remaining patients. These observations prompt a paradigm shift in P. vivax biology and open avenues to investigate the role of Pv-iE sequestration.
Pulmonary embolism is a serious and potentially fatal disorder. Pulmonary embolism risk stratification may allow early hospital discharge and outpatient treatment for low-risk patients. Also, it may prevent death by early medical intervention in high-risk groups. We evaluated objectively confirmed pulmonary embolism in 126 patients by multidetector computed tomographic pulmonary angiography at a single center from January 2008 to January 2010. The Pulmonary Severity Embolism Index (PESI), the right ventricle (RV) to left ventricle (LV) diameter (RV/LV) ratio and the vascular obstruction index (VOI) were derived from data extracted from electronic hospital records and image database. A total of six out of 96 patients (6.3%) died during follow-up. There was an association between PESI and mortality (P-value < 0.001 ?² test). PESI class I-II had a 100% negative predictive value for death in 90 days. No association was found between the RV/LV ratio, the VOI and mortality (P-value > 0.05 ?² test). Also, no association was found between the RV/LV ratio and the VOI and PESI (P-value > 0.05 ?² test). PESI is an accurate tool for pulmonary embolism prognostic stratification. It safely discriminates low-risk from high-risk patients regarding death outcome. We were unable to demonstrate an association between image scores and mortality.
OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the literature data regarding the critical size defect (CSD) in adult rat calvaria and to determine which defect dimensions could be considered as being critical size. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted at Ovid Medline and Embase up to July 2012. Studies presenting with at least one of the primary outcomes of interest (number of defects with complete closure and the percentage of new bone formation (%NBF) in rat calvaria) were included. Screening, data extraction and quality assessment were conducted independently and in duplicate. RESULTS: From 1461 citations, 257 full-text papers were screened and 61 papers were included in the analysis. Fourteen of 937 evaluated defects presented complete closure. Only 7 and 6 untreated sites in 5.0- and 6.0-mm-diameter defects, respectively, showed complete closure. A great variability among the preclinical models was seen, and the meta-analysis result showed a high heterogeneity regarding the mean %NBF. The mean %NBF according to the defect dimension was as follows: 18.29% and 21.44% for 5.0 mm central single defects at 1 and 3 months, respectively; 17.55%, 20.24% and 22.65% for 5.0 mm bilateral defects; 9.81%, 12.56% and 7.96% for 8.0 mm single defect; 11.18%, 9.48% and 26.24% for 9.0 mm single defects at 1, 2 and 3 months, respectively. CONCLUSION: Calvarial defects with a diameter of 5.0 mm could be considered as a CSD. However, there is a necessity for further standardization of the rat calvaria model to enable more accurate comparison among future studies.
Requests for laboratory tests are among the most relevant additional tools used by physicians as part of patients health problemsolving. However, the overestimation of complementary investigation may be linked to less reflective medical practice as a consequence of a poor physician-patient communication, and may impair patient-centered care. This scenario is likely to result from reduced consultation time, and a clinical model focused on the disease. We propose a new medical intervention program that specifically targets improving the patient-centered communication of laboratory tests results, the core of bioinformation in health care. Expectations are that medical students training in communication skills significantly improve physicians-patient relationship, reduce inappropriate use of laboratorial tests, and raise stakeholder engagement.
Gestational malaria is a multi-factorial syndrome leading to poor outcomes for both the mother and foetus. Although an unusual increasing in the number of hospitalizations caused by Plasmodium vivax has been reported in Brazil, mortality is rarely observed. This is a report of a gestational malaria case that occurred in the city of Manaus (Amazonas State, Brazil) and resulted in foetal loss. The patient presented placental mixed-infection by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum after diagnosis by nested-PCR, however microscopic analysis failed to detect P. falciparum in the peripheral blood. Furthermore, as the patient did not receive proper treatment for P. falciparum and hospitalization occurred soon after drug treatment, it seems that P. falciparum pathology was modulated by the concurrent presence of P. vivax. Collectively, this case confirms the tropism towards the placenta by both of these species of parasites, reinforces the notion that co-existence of distinct malaria parasites interferes on diseases outcomes, and opens discussions regarding diagnostic methods, malaria treatment during pregnancy and prenatal care for women living in unstable transmission areas of malaria, such as the Brazilian Amazon.
The diverse Brazilian AIDS epidemic has reached small cities and scant molecular information is available about the epidemic in Northern Brazil, where the incidence is growing. This study describes transmitted drug resistance and subtypes in the protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions among naive patients recruited in Palmas, the capital of Tocantins State, a newly built city in Northern Brazil. PR/RT regions were retrotranscribed from plasma HIV-1 RNA and 52 were sequenced after direct nested PCR. HIV-1 subtypes were assigned by phylogenetic analysis. Transmitted drug resistance was analyzed by the Calibrated Population Resistance tool Stanford Surveillance Drug Resistance Mutation. Most patients included (59.6%) were males, the median age was 30 years and were mainly referred because of heterosexual or homosexual unprotected sex. One male patient was from the Karajás indigenous tribe. The prevalence of transmitted resistance was 11.5% (CI 95%, 4.4-23.4%): nonnucleoside RT inhibitor mutations (n=3), nucleoside RT inhibitor mutations (n=2), and protease inhibitor mutations (n=1). Dual or triple class resistance was not observed. HIV-1 subtype B(PR)/B(RT) represented 78.8%, 5.8% were subtype C(PR)/C(RT), and 1.9% were subtype F1(PR)/F1(RT). Recombinant viruses represented 13.5% (07/52): B(PR)/F1(RT) (n=1), B(PR)/BF1(RT) (n=4), and C(PR)/CF1(RT) (n=2). This study about the AIDS epidemic in the recently founded city of Palmas/Tocantins in inland Northern Brazil shows moderate levels of transmitted drug resistance and the circulation of diverse recombinant viruses. This pattern is similar to what has been described in major metropolitan cities, suggesting the influence of imported cases from the south/southeast. Moreover these results indicate that patients from this setting should be monitored regarding transmitted drug resistance mutations.
Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are responsible for most of the global burden of malaria. Although the accentuated pathogenicity of P. falciparum occurs because of sequestration of the mature erythrocytic forms in the microvasculature, this phenomenon has not yet been noted in P. vivax. The increasing number of severe manifestations of P. vivax infections, similar to those observed for severe falciparum malaria, suggests that key pathogenic mechanisms (eg, cytoadherence) might be shared by the 2 parasites.
The Plasmodium falciparum var gene family encodes large variant antigens, which are important virulence factors, and also targets of the humoral host response. The frequently observed mild outcomes of falciparum malaria in many places of the Amazon area prompted us to ask whether a globally restricted variant (var) gene repertoire is present in currently circulating and older isolates of this area. By exhaustive analysis of var gene tags from 89 isolates and clones taken during many years from all over the Brazilian Amazon, we estimate that there are probably no more than 350-430 distinct sequence types, less than for any similar sized area studied so far. Detailed analysis of the var tags from genetically distinct clones obtained from single isolates revealed restricted and redundant repertoires suggesting either a low incidence of infective bites or restricted variant gene diversity in inoculated parasites. Additionally, we found a structuring of var gene repertoires observed as a higher pairwise typing sharing in isolates from the same microregion compared to isolates from different regions. Fine analysis of translated var tags revealed that certain Distinct Sequence Identifiers (DSIDs) were differently represented in Brazilian/South American isolates when compared to datasets from other continents. By global alignment of worldwide var DBLalpha sequences and sorting in groups with more than 76% identity, 125 clusters were formed and more than half of all genes were found in nine clusters with 50 or more sequences. While Brazilian/South American sequences were represented only in 64 groups, African sequences were found in the majority of clusters. DSID type 1 related sequences accumulated almost completely in one single cluster, indicating that limited recombination occurs in these specific var gene types. These data demonstrate the so far highest pairwise type sharing values for the var gene family in isolates from all over an entire subcontinent. The apparent lack of specific sequences types suggests that the P. falciparum transmission dynamics in the whole Amazon are probably different from any other endemic region studied and possibly interfere with the parasites ability to efficiently diversify its variant gene repertoires.
This experience report aimed at discussing and reflecting about undergraduate classes, literature and discussions conducted in seminaries with nursing students, the conquests and the gaps that are reflected in the visibility of the nursing profession. The Job market in Nursing and new modalities of rendering services. The students see the Nurse as a professional focused on care. The categories that emerged from the data referring to the nursing students view just before graduating are: advances and conquests, professional satisfaction and gaps in the profession. It is important to develop the political competence with a broadened view of the nursing profession as a social compromise of citizenship in the conquest of living more healthy.
Drug-induced gingival overgrowth (DIGO) is a significant problem for periodontologists and this side effect is frequently associated with three particular drugs: phenytoin, cyclosporin A and nifedipine. A case report of gingival overgrowth induced by nifedipine in an elderly patient treated with non-surgical periodontal therapy is described. A 75-year-old male with generalised gingival overgrowth reported the problem of oral malodour and significant gingival bleeding. The medical history revealed a controlled hypertensive state and Cerebral Vascular Accident (CVA) 3 years prior to consultation. The diagnosis was gingival overgrowth associated with nifedipine, no other risk factors being identified. The patient had been taking nifedipine for 18 months, but after the consultation with the patients doctor, nifedipine was suspended, as the hypertension was controlled. Treatment consisted of meticulous oral hygiene instruction, scaling, root surface instrumentation and prophylaxis. Six months after the first intervention, clinical parameters revealed a significant improvement with a considerable reduction in gingival overgrowth, demonstrating the effect of non-surgical periodontal therapy in severe cases of gingival overgrowth. Non-surgical treatment of DIGO is a far less invasive technique than surgical approaches and has demonstrated an impressively positive treatment response. It should therefore be considered as a first treatment option for DIGO.
In Brazil, sickle cell anemia (SCA) is one of the most common genetic disorders. The levels of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) may be influenced by the presence of genetic modifiers; among these are the ?(S)-globin haplotypes, associated with the clinical heterogeneity presented by the disease. Patients with SCA have an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species and antioxidant capacity, generating oxidative stress. Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator and may be involved in the mechanism of HbF induction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ?(S)-globin haplotypes in oxidative stress in patients with SCA.
Pericarp Color1 (P1) encodes an R2R3-MYB transcription factor responsible for the accumulation of insecticidal flavones in maize (Zea mays) silks and red phlobaphene pigments in pericarps and other floral tissues, which makes P1 an important visual marker. Using genome-wide expression analyses (RNA sequencing) in pericarps and silks of plants with contrasting P1 alleles combined with chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with high-throughput sequencing, we show here that the regulatory functions of P1 are much broader than the activation of genes corresponding to enzymes in a branch of flavonoid biosynthesis. P1 modulates the expression of several thousand genes, and ?1500 of them were identified as putative direct targets of P1. Among them, we identified F2H1, corresponding to a P450 enzyme that converts naringenin into 2-hydroxynaringenin, a key branch point in the P1-controlled pathway and the first step in the formation of insecticidal C-glycosyl flavones. Unexpectedly, the binding of P1 to gene regulatory regions can result in both gene activation and repression. Our results indicate that P1 is the major regulator for a set of genes involved in flavonoid biosynthesis and a minor modulator of the expression of a much larger gene set that includes genes involved in primary metabolism and production of other specialized compounds.
Neuroblastoma is one of the most common solid tumors in the pediatric population and the adrenal gland is the main abdominal site of this tumor. The laparoscopic approach has become the standard of care for most benign adrenal tumors in adults, but the role of laparoscopic adrenalectomy in children for malignant tumor is still a point of controversy. However, there is a growing experience with laparoscopic neuroblastoma resection of small lesions and the use of minimally invasive techniques for the initial management of infiltrative neuroblastoma in the last years. The aim of this study is to describe our initial experience with laparoscopic adrenalectomy for neuroblastoma in children, based on surgical outcomes.
Snakebites are a frequently neglected public health issue in tropical and subtropical countries. According to the World Health Organization, 5 million people are bitten annually including up to 2.5 million envenomations. Treatment with antivenom serum remains the only specific therapy for snakebite envenomation. However, it is heterologous and therefore liable to cause adverse reactions, such as early anaphylactic, pyrogenic and delayed reactions. In order to develop alternatives to the current therapy, researchers have been looking for natural products and plant extracts with anti-myotoxic, anti-hemorrhagic and anti-inflammatory properties. Especially due to the role the physiopathological processes triggered by snake toxins, play in paralysis, bleeding disorders, kidney failure and tissue damage. Considering the fact that studies involving snake toxins and specific inhibitors, particularly on a molecular level, are the main key to understand neutralization mechanisms and to propose models or prototypes for an alternative therapy, this article presents efforts made by the scientific community in order to produce validated data regarding 87 compounds and plant extracts obtained from 79 species. These plants, which belong to 63 genera and 40 families, have been used by traditional medicine as alternatives or complements to the current serum therapy.
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