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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Multiprotocol-induced plasticity in artificial synapses.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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We suggest a 'universal' electrical circuit for the realization of an artificial synapse that exhibits long-term plasticity induced by different protocols. The long-term plasticity of the artificial synapse is basically attributed to the nonvolatile resistance change of the bipolar resistive switch in the circuit. The synaptic behaviour realized by the circuit is termed 'universal' inasmuch as (i) the shape of the action potential is not required to vary so as to implement different plasticity-induction behaviours, activity-dependent plasticity (ADP) and spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), (ii) the behaviours satisfy several essential features of a biological chemical synapse including firing-rate and spike-timing encoding and unidirectional synaptic transmission, and (iii) both excitatory and inhibitory synapses can be realized using the same circuit but different diode polarity in the circuit. The feasibility of the suggested circuit as an artificial synapse is demonstrated by conducting circuit calculations and the calculation results are introduced in comparison with biological chemical synapses.
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2014 KLCSG-NCC Korea Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: HCC Diagnostic Algorithm.
Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most commonly occurring cancer in Korea and typically has a poor prognosis with a 5-year survival rate of only 28.6%. Therefore, it is of paramount importance to achieve the earliest possible diagnosis of HCC and to recommend the most up-to-date optimal treatment strategy in order to increase the survival rate of patients who develop this disease. After the establishment of the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group (KLCSG) and the National Cancer Center (NCC), Korea jointly produced for the first time the Clinical Practice Guidelines for HCC in 2003, revised them in 2009, and published the newest revision of the guidelines in 2014, including changes in the diagnostic criteria of HCC and incorporating the most recent medical advances over the past 5 years. In this review, we will address the noninvasive diagnostic criteria and diagnostic algorithm of HCC included in the newly established KLCSG-NCC guidelines in 2014, and review the differences in the criteria for a diagnosis of HCC between the KLCSG-NCC guidelines and the most recent imaging guidelines endorsed by the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS), the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) system, the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver (APASL) and the Japan Society of Hepatology (JSH). © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Non-Hypervascular Hypointense Nodules ?1 cm on the Hepatobiliary Phase of Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Cirrhotic Livers.
Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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To determine the pathologic nature of non-hypervascular hypointense nodules (?1 cm) on the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and to describe the chronological changes of their imaging features on follow-up MR imaging.
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Comparison of Iterative Model-Based Reconstruction Versus Conventional Filtered Back Projection and Hybrid Iterative Reconstruction Techniques: Lesion Conspicuity and Influence of Body Size in Anthropomorphic Liver Phantoms.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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This study aimed to determine whether an iterative model-based reconstruction (IMR) can improve lesion conspicuity and depiction on computed tomography (CT) compared with filtered back projection (FBP) and hybrid iterative reconstruction (iDose) using anthropomorphic phantoms.
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Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms of the Pancreas: Evaluation of Malignant Potential and Surgical Resectability by Using MR Imaging with MR Cholangiography.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with MR cholangiopancreatography ( MRCP MR cholangiopancreatography ) in determining the malignant potential and surgical resectability of pancreas intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms ( IPMN intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm s). Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Ninety-eight patients with pathologically proved pancreas IPMN intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm s who underwent MR imaging with MRCP MR cholangiopancreatography comprised the study population. MR images were analyzed for findings suggestive of high-risk stigmata or worrisome features, as proposed by the international consensus guidelines 2012. Interobserver agreement between two experienced observers (observers 1 and 2) and one inexperienced observer (observer 3) was assessed. Diagnostic performance of MR imaging in the evaluation of the malignant potential and surgical resectability of IPMN intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm s was analyzed in these three observers by using receiver operating curve analysis. Results MR imaging with MRCP MR cholangiopancreatography showed sensitivity of 83% (35/42), 79% (33/42), and 90% (38/42); specificity of 80% (41/51), 51% (26/51), and 24% (12/51); and accuracy of 82% (76/93), 63% (59/93), and 54% (50/93) for observers 1, 2, and 3, respectively, in the evaluation of the malignant potential of pancreas IPMN intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm s when at least one worrisome feature was present. Interobserver agreement in the detection of intramural nodules (? = 0.349-0.574), enhanced solid components (? = 0.318-0.574), and measurement of main pancreatic duct diameter (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.9477) was fair to high. The respective sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in determination of surgical resectability were 95% (81/85), 99% (84/85), and 88% (75/85); 69% (9/13), 69% (9/13), and 54% (7/13); and 92% (90/98), 95% (93/98), and 84% (82/98) for observers 1, 2, and 3. Conclusion MR imaging with MRCP MR cholangiopancreatography is a useful modality in the evaluation of the malignant potential and resectability of IPMN intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm s, with high sensitivity and moderate specificity in the experienced radiologists but relatively low specificity in the inexperienced radiology trainee. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
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Renal Vein Extension During Living-Donor Kidney Transplantation in the Era of Hand-Assisted Laparoscopic Living-Donor Nephrectomy.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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To evaluate retrospectively the clinical outcomes of living-donor kidney transplantations (LDKTs) using renal vein extension (RVE) for donor kidneys with short renal veins.
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Prediction of microvascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma using gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR and (18)F-FDG PET/CT.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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To identify the gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR and the (18)F-fludeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT findings associated with microvascular invasion (MVI) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients who are undergoing liver transplantation (LT).
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Differentiation of lipid poor angiomyolipoma from hepatocellular carcinoma on gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MR imaging.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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To investigate magnetic resonance (MR) findings of angiomyolipoma (AML) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging, and to identify features that differentiate AML from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with a low risk of HCC development.
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Diagnostic Performance of Gadoxetic Acid-enhanced Liver MR Imaging in the Detection of HCCs and Allocation of Transplant Recipients on the Basis of the Milan Criteria and UNOS Guidelines: Correlation with Histopathologic Findings.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Purpose To determine whether hepatobiliary phase (HBP) imaging can improve the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the detection of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and to investigate the accuracy of gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging in the allocation of transplant recipients on the basis of the Milan criteria and United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) guidelines. Materials and Methods This retrospective study had institutional review board approval; the requirement for informed consent was waived. Between June 2008 and June 2011, 63 patients who underwent liver transplantation (LT) were included. All patients underwent a gadoxetic acid-enhanced 3.0-T MR imaging examination of the liver that included HBP images obtained 20 minutes after contrast material administration. Two abdominal radiologists independently assessed two MR imaging data sets to detect HCCs: Set 1 included unenhanced and gadoxetic acid-enhanced dynamic images, and set 2 also included HBP images. Patients were allocated into three groups: Those who did not meet the Milan criteria, those who did meet the Milan criteria with additional priority according to UNOS guidelines, and those who did meet the Milan criteria without additional priority. Diagnostic performance of each data set in depicting HCCs was compared by using jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristics (JAFROCs). Sensitivity and accuracy of patient allocation were compared by using generalized estimating equations. Results Sixty-three HCCs were found in 36 of 63 patients. Eight patients were classified as not meeting Milan criteria, 12 as meeting Milan criteria with additional priority, and 43 as meeting Milan criteria without additional priority. For the detection of HCCs, reader-averaged figures of merit estimated with JAFROCs were 0.761 for set 1 and 0.791 for set 2 (P < .001). Addition of HBP images significantly improved sensitivity for the detection of HCCs, particularly 1-2-cm HCCs (six [20.7%] vs 13 [44.8%] of 29 [P = .008] for reader 1 and eight [27.6%] vs 12 [41.4%] of 29 [P = .041] for reader 2). Accuracy of patient allocation was 88.9% for set 1 and 92.1% for set 2 (P = .151). Conclusion Addition of HBP images can significantly improve the diagnostic performance of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver MR imaging in the detection of 1-2-cm HCCs in liver transplantation candidates. In addition, gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging showed 92.1% accuracy in patient allocation on the basis of the Milan criteria and UNOS guidelines. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
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Feasibility of three-dimensional virtual surgical planning in living liver donors.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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The aim of the study was to determine the accuracy, reproducibility, and improvement in the clinical workflow of a semiautomatic computed tomography (CT) virtual surgical planning program in estimating graft volume using actual graft weight as a standard of reference in living liver donors.
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Hybrid iterative reconstruction technique for liver CT scans for image noise reduction and image quality improvement: evaluation of the optimal iterative reconstruction strengths.
Radiol Med
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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This study sought to investigate the effect of the hybrid iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithm (iDose, Philips Healthcare) on the improvement of image quality of computed tomography (CT) scans of the liver and determine the appropriate level of IR strength for clinical use.
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Quantification of the Fat Fraction in the Liver Using Dual-Energy Computed Tomography and Multimaterial Decomposition.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of postcontrast, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) using multimaterial decomposition (MMD) for quantification of the hepatic fat fraction (HFF).
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Navigated three-dimensional T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence for gadoxetic acid liver magnetic resonance imaging in patients with limited breath-holding capacity.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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To determine whether a navigator-gated three-dimensional T1-weighted gradient-echo sequence (T1W-GRE, navigated LAVA) can improve diagnostic performance for the detection of focal liver lesions (FLLs) compared to standard breath-hold (BH) T1W-GRE breath-hold LAVA (BH-LAVA) during the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with limited breath-holding capacity.
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Resolving voltage-time dilemma using an atomic-scale lever of subpicosecond electron-phonon interaction.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Nanoelectronic memory based on trapped charge need to be small and fast, but fundamentally it faces a voltage-time dilemma because the requirement of a high-energy barrier for data retention under zero/low electrical stimuli is incompatible with the demand of a low-energy barrier for fast switching under a modest programming voltage. One solution is to embed an atomic-level lever of localized electron-phonon interaction to autonomously reconfigure trap-site's barrier in accordance to the electron-occupancy of the site. Here we demonstrate an atomically levered resistance-switching memory built on locally flexible amorphous nanometallic thin films: charge detrapping can be triggered by a mechanical force, the fastest one being a plasmonic Lorentz force induced by a nearby electron or positron bunch passing in 10(-13) s. The observation provided the first real-time evidence of an electron-phonon interaction in action, which enables nanometallic memory to turn on at a subpicosecond speed yet retain long-term memory, thus suitable for universal memory and other nanoelectron applications.
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Regulation of ERBB3/HER3 signaling in cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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ERBB3/HER3 is emerging as a molecular target for various cancers. HER3 is overexpressed and activated in a number of cancer types under the conditions of acquired resistance to other HER family therapeutic interventions such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and antibody therapies. Regulation of the HER3 expression and signaling involves numerous HER3 interacting proteins. These proteins include PI3K, Shc, and E3 ubiquitin ligases NEDD4 and Nrdp1. Furthermore, recent identification of a number of HER3 oncogenic mutations in colon and gastric cancers elucidate the role of HER3 in cancer development. Despite the strong evidence regarding the role of HER3 in cancer, the current understanding of the regulation of HER3 expression and activation requires additional research. Moreover, the lack of biomarkers for HER3-driven cancer poses a big challenge for the clinical development of HER3 targeting antibodies. Therefore, a better understanding of HER3 regulation should improve the strategies to therapeutically target HER3 for cancer therapy.
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Maximizing recombinant human serum albumin production in a Mut(s) Pichia pastoris strain.
Biotechnol. Prog.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Human serum albumin (HSA) is a cysteine rich molecule that is most abundant in human blood plasma. To remain viable in the market due to lower marketing costs for HSA, it is important to produce a large quantity in an economical manner by recombinant technology. The objective of this study was to maximize recombinant HSA (rHSA) production using a Mut(s) Pichia pastoris strain by fermentation process optimization. We evaluated the impact of process parameters on the production of rHSA, including induction cell density (wet cell weight, g/L) and the control of specific growth rate at induction. In this study, we demonstrated that induction cell density is a critical factor for high level production of rHSA under controlled specific growth rate. We observed higher specific productivities at higher induction cell densities (285 g/L) and at lower specific growth rates (0.0022-0.0024/h) during methanol induction phase, and achieved the broth titer of rHSA up to 10 g/L. The temperature shift from 24 to 28(o) C was effective to control the specific growth rate at low level (?0.0024/h) during methanol induction phase while maintaining high specific productivity [0.0908 mgrHSA /(gwcw h)]. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2014.
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Ultra-low Peak Voltage CT Colonography: Effect of Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms on Performance of Radiologists Who Use Anthropomorphic Colonic Phantoms.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Purpose To analyze the effect of a decrease in computed tomographic (CT) colonographic voltage, from 100 and 120 kVp to 80 kVp and reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), on radiation dose, image noise, and diagnostic performance in anthropomorphic phantoms and to assess the effect of iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms on radiologists' performance for 80-kVp CT colonography. Materials and Methods Seven colon phantoms with 68 simulated polyps (?6 mm) were scanned at three peak voltage settings (80, 100, 120 kVp) and 10 mAs. Images were reconstructed by using FBP, hybrid statistic-based IR, and knowledge-based IR algorithms. Effective radiation dose, image noise, and per-polyp sensitivity were recorded and compared by two reviewers with Friedman test, repeated measures analysis of variance, and McNemar test. Results Median size-specific dose estimate and effective radiation dose of 80-kVp CT colonography was 0.231 mGy and 0.167 mSv, respectively, which was lower than with 100- and 120-kVp CT colonography, with significant difference between 80 and 120 kVp (P = .0005). Image noise (202.0 HU) at 80-kVp FBP CT colonography was significantly higher than at 100-kVp FBP (139.1 HU) and 120-kVp FBP (120.4 HU) (P < .0001). Per-polyp sensitivity (reviewer 1, 14.7% [10 of 68]; reviewer 2, 7.4% [five of 68]) at 80-kVp FBP was significantly lower than at 100-kVp FBP (reviewer 1, 57.4% [39 of 68]; reviewer 2, 39.7% [27 of 68]) and 120-kVp FBP (reviewer 1, 85.3% [58 of 68]; reviewer 2, 83.8% [57 of 68]) (P < .0001). With statistic-based IR, image noise at 80 kVp decreased significantly (52.8% [106.7 HU of 202.0 HU]) compared with that at 80-kVp FBP (P < .0001), but per-polyp sensitivity (reviewer 1, 79.4% [54 of 68]; reviewer 2, 66.2% [45 of 68]) at 80-kVp statistic-based IR remained significantly lower than at 100-kVp statistic-based IR (reviewer 1, 95.6% [65 of 68]; reviewer 2, 86.8% [59 of 68]) (P = .001) and 120-kVp statistic-based IR (reviewer 1, 98.5% [67 of 68]; reviewer 2, 89.7% [61 of 68]) (P < .001). For knowledge-based IR, per-polyp sensitivity at 80 kVp was improved to 98.5% (67 of 68) and 94.1% (64 of 68), not significantly different from that at 100 kVp (reviewer 1, 100% [68 of 68]; reviewer 2, 95.6% [65 of 68]) and 120 kVp (reviewer 1, 100% [68 of 68]; reviewer 2, 95.6% [65 of 68]) (P > .999). Conclusion A decrease in tube voltage to 80 kVp caused reduction in radiation dose (0.166 mSv) with deterioration in image noise and per-polyp sensitivity. By using a knowledge-based IR algorithm, radiologists' performance of 80-kVp CT colonography was acceptable and on par with that at 100- or 120-kVp CT colonography. © RSNA, 2014.
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Long-term impact of human leukocyte antigen mismatches combined with expanded criteria donor on allograft outcomes in deceased donor kidney transplantation.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The long-term impact of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatches combined with expanded criteria donors (ECD) on clinical outcomes has not been fully evaluated in recipients of deceased donor (DD) kidney transplantations. Of 595 DD renal transplant recipients in our center between 1991 and 2011, 210 recipients (36%) had 0-3 HLA mismatches/standard criteria donor (SCD), 353 (59%) had 4-6 HLA mismatches/SCD or 0-3 HLA mismatches/ECD, and 32 (5%) had 4-6 HLA mismatches/ECD. The mortality rate was significantly highest in the patients with 4-6 HLA mismatches/ECD (p = 0.040). The most common cause of death in this group was infection (50%). There were no significant differences in overall graft survival and death-censored graft survival. The biopsy-proven acute rejection rate was significantly higher in the 4-6 HLA mismatches/ECD group (p = 0.011). Cox-regression multivariate analyses showed that 4-6 HLA mismatches plus ECD (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR], 3.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17 - 10.56) and diabetes (AHR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.50 - 12.28) were significant predictors of recipient mortality. In conclusion, ? 4 HLA mismatches plus ECD were associated with significantly higher rates of biopsy-proven acute rejection and mortality compared with other groups undergoing DD kidney transplantation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Hepatic Fibrosis: Prospective Comparison of MR Elastography and US Shear Wave Elastography for Evaluation.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Purpose To compare magnetic resonance (MR) elastography and ultrasonographic shear wave elastography (SWE) for the staging of hepatic fibrosis (HF) in the same individuals. Materials and Methods This prospective study was approved by the institutional review board, and informed consent was obtained from all patients. The technical success of and reliable liver stiffness (LS) measurement rates at MR elastography and SWE were compared in 129 patients who underwent both examinations. For mutual validation, LS values measured at both examinations were correlated by using Pearson correlation. The diagnostic performance of the two techniques for the assessment of substantial HF (stage ? F2) was compared by using nonparametric receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results The technical success rates of MR elastography and SWE were 95.35% (123 of 129) and 97.67% (126 of 129), respectively (P = .51). MR elastography provided significantly more reliable LS measurements than did SWE (95.35% [123 of 129] vs 75.2% [97 of 129], P < .001). The two examinations showed moderate correlation (r = 0.724). In patients with HF stages of F3 or lower, the two examinations showed moderate-to-strong correlation (r = 0.683 in normal livers, 0.754 in livers with stage F0 or F1 HF, and 0.90 in livers with stage F2 or F3 HF; P < .001); however, they did not show significant correlation for stage F4 HF (r = 0.30, P = .31). MR elastography and SWE showed similar diagnostic capability in depicting HF of stage F2 or greater (P = .98) when LS measurements were reliably performed. Conclusion MR elastography and SWE showed moderate correlation and similar diagnostic performance in the diagnosis of HF of stage F2 or greater; however, MR elastography yielded more reliable LS measurements than did SWE. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article.
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Differentiation of poorly differentiated colorectal adenocarcinomas from well- or moderately differentiated colorectal adenocarcinomas at contrast-enhanced multidetector CT.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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The purpose of the study is to describe the CT findings of poorly differentiated (PD) colorectal adenocarcinoma (CRAC) compared with those of well- (WD) or moderately differentiated (MD) CRAC.
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Postablation assessment using follow-up registration of CT images before and after radiofrequency ablation (RFA): prospective evaluation of midterm therapeutic results of RFA for hepatocellular carcinoma.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the diagnostic impact of prototypic software that allows registration of CT images before and after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for safety margin assessment, as well as to determine the therapeutic impact of this software on local tumor progression in comparison with the conventional method of side-by-side CT comparison.
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Early quantification of the therapeutic efficacy of the vascular disrupting agent, CKD-516, using dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in rabbit VX2 liver tumors.
Ultrasonography
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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To evaluate the usefulness of dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (DCE-US) in the early quantification of hemodynamic change following administration of the vascular disrupting agent (VDA) CKD-516 using a rabbit VX2 liver tumor model.
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Image-guided tumor ablation: standardization of terminology and reporting criteria--a 10-year update.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Image-guided tumor ablation has become a well-established hallmark of local cancer therapy. The breadth of options available in this growing field increases the need for standardization of terminology and reporting criteria to facilitate effective communication of ideas and appropriate comparison among treatments that use different technologies, such as chemical (eg, ethanol or acetic acid) ablation, thermal therapies (eg, radiofrequency, laser, microwave, focused ultrasound, and cryoablation) and newer ablative modalities such as irreversible electroporation. This updated consensus document provides a framework that will facilitate the clearest communication among investigators regarding ablative technologies. An appropriate vehicle is proposed for reporting the various aspects of image-guided ablation therapy including classification of therapies, procedure terms, descriptors of imaging guidance, and terminology for imaging and pathologic findings. Methods are addressed for standardizing reporting of technique, follow-up, complications, and clinical results. As noted in the original document from 2003, adherence to the recommendations will improve the precision of communications in this field, leading to more accurate comparison of technologies and results, and ultimately to improved patient outcomes. Online supplemental material is available for this article .
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Pattern of care of anaplastic oligodendroglioma and oligoastrocytoma in a Korean population: the Korean radiation oncology group study 13-12.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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This study investigated the treatment of anaplastic oligodendroglial tumors across nine Korean institutions. We reviewed the medical records from 381 patients with histologically confirmed anaplastic oligodendroglioma or anaplastic oligoastrocytoma (AOA) from 2000 to 2010. Clinical factors and treatment patterns were analyzed for each year. Post-operative therapy was performed in 354 patients (94.1 %), of which 133 received radiotherapy (RT) alone and 189 received both RT and chemotherapy. RT alone was the preferred treatment toward the end of the study period (29.4 % in 2000-2001 vs. 56.3 % in 2010, P = 0.005). The use of procarbazine, lomustine, and vincristine (PCV) decreased (57.6 % in 2000-2001 vs. 28.6 % in 2010, P = 0.001) and the use of temozolomide (TMZ) increased (0 % in 2000-2001 vs. 61.9 % in 2010, P < 0.001) over the study period. A combination of chemotherapy and RT was used more often than RT alone in young patients (P = 0.036) and patients with a good performance status (P = 0.023). The 1p/19q co-deletion status and O-6-methyguanine-DNA methyltransferase methylation were analyzed since 2004 but were not significant factors for determining whether to administer chemotherapy. Among the patients who received chemotherapy, TMZ was used more often in patients with AOA (P = 0.007) and PCV was used more often in patients with either multiple lesions (P = 0.027) or the 1p/19q co-deletion (P = 0.026). Our results demonstrate that the treatment pattern for oligodendroglial tumors changed significantly across the study period. In particular, TMZ has replaced PCV, and the use of molecular markers as well as RT alone has increased, but a unified protocol remains to be established.
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Long-term Effects of Delayed Graft Function on Pancreas Graft Survival After Pancreas Transplantation.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Compared with the impact of delayed graft function (DGF) after renal transplantation, DGF after pancreas transplantation has not been fully evaluated.
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Preoperative differentiation between T1a and ?T1b gallbladder cancer: combined interpretation of high-resolution ultrasound and multidetector-row computed tomography.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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To determine the diagnostic value of combined interpretation of high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) and multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for preoperative differentiation between T1a and ?T1b gallbladder (GB) cancer.
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Significance of an increase in the Child-Pugh score after radiotherapy in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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We attempted to analyze the effects of an increase in the Child-Pugh (CP) score on the overall survival of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after radiotherapy (RT).
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Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging for monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of the vascular disrupting agent CKD-516 in rabbit VX2 liver tumors.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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To evaluate the diagnostic value of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the quantitative assessment of the therapeutic efficacy of a vascular disrupting agent (VDA) (CKD-516) in rabbit VX2 liver tumors.
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Liver computed tomography with low tube voltage and model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm for hepatic vessel evaluation in living liver donor candidates.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The objective of this study was to investigate the image quality and diagnostic performance of model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) for hepatic vessel evaluation on low-tube-voltage (100 kilovolt [peak]) liver computed tomography (CT) for living donors.
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High spatial resolution, respiratory-gated, t1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the liver and the biliary tract during the hepatobiliary phase of gadoxetic Acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to demonstrate the clinical feasibility of a recently developed navigator-gated, 3-dimensional gradient echo (3D-GRE) sequence for high-resolution, T1-weighted imaging (HR-T1WI) during the hepatobiliary phase (HBP) of gadoxetic acid-enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of gastric cancer: Correlation of the perfusion parameters with pathological prognostic factors.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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To investigate the feasibility of dynamic, contrast-enhanced, magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for perfusion quantification of gastric cancers, and to correlate the DCE-MRI parameters with the pathological prognostic factors.
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Magnetic resonance imaging spectrum of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the pancreas.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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To describe the magnetic resonance imaging spectrum of solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs), with an emphasis on solid SPTs.
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Differentiating between adenomyomatosis and gallbladder cancer: revisiting a comparative study of high-resolution ultrasound, multidetector CT, and MR imaging.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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To compare the diagnostic performance of high-resolution ultrasound (HRUS) with contrast-enhanced CT and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) to differentiate between adenomyomatosis (ADM) and gallbladder cancer (GBCA).
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Noninvasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B viral infection using magnetic resonance elastography.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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To evaluate the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) for staging hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.
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Shear wave elastography for liver stiffness measurement in clinical sonographic examinations: evaluation of intraobserver reproducibility, technical failure, and unreliable stiffness measurements.
J Ultrasound Med
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal minimum number of liver stiffness measurements on shear wave elastography (SWE) and to evaluate the frequency of technical failures and unreliable stiffness measurements and the intraobserver reproducibility of SWE.
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High-resolution T1-weighted gradient echo imaging for liver MRI using parallel imaging at high-acceleration factors.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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To determine whether application of a high-acceleration parallel acquisition can provide three-dimensional (3D)-fat-suppressed T1-weighted gradient-recalled-echo (T1W-GRE) imaging at 3T for liver MR imaging.
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Hepatic steatosis in living liver donor candidates: preoperative assessment by using breath-hold triple-echo MR imaging and 1H MR spectroscopy.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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To evaluate the diagnostic performance of both breath-hold T2*-corrected triple-echo spoiled gradient-echo water-fat separation magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (triple-echo imaging) and high-speed T2-corrected multiecho hydrogen 1 ((1)H) MR spectroscopy in the assessment of macrovesicular hepatic steatosis in living liver donor candidates by using histologic assessment as a reference standard.
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Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: prediction of the histologic grade using pure diffusion coefficient and tumor size.
Invest Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The purpose of this study was to assess the value of intravoxel incoherent motion and diffusion-weighted imaging for predicting the histologic grade of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs).
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Radiofrequency ablation of hepatocellular carcinoma as first-line treatment: long-term results and prognostic factors in 162 patients with cirrhosis.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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To evaluate the long-term outcomes of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) as a first-line therapy for early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and determine the prognostic factors for survival.
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Intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MR imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma: correlation with enhancement degree and histologic grade.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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To compare the association of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-derived parameters and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with the histologic grade of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate the relationship between IVIM-derived parameters and arterial enhancement degree.
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Preoperative staging of gallbladder carcinoma using biliary MR imaging.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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To evaluate the performance of biliary MRI, including unenhanced imaging, gadolinium-enhanced (Gd-E) dynamic imaging, and MR cholangiography, for the preoperative staging of gallbladder cancer (GBC).
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Portable high-intensity focused ultrasound system with 3D electronic steering, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms: a preclinical study in pigs.
Ultrasonography
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and accuracy of a new portable ultrasonography-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound (USg-HIFU) system with a 3-dimensional (3D) electronic steering transducer, a simultaneous ablation and imaging module, real-time cavitation monitoring, and 3D image reconstruction algorithms.
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High-dose-rate brachytherapy for the treatment of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia (VAIN), a rare premalignant condition, is difficult to eradicate. We assess the effectiveness of high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICR) in patients with VAIN or carcinoma in situ (CIS) of the vagina after hysterectomy.
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Adaptive iterative dose reduction algorithm in CT: effect on image quality compared with filtered back projection in body phantoms of different sizes.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To evaluate the impact of the adaptive iterative dose reduction (AIDR) three-dimensional (3D) algorithm in CT on noise reduction and the image quality compared to the filtered back projection (FBP) algorithm and to compare the effectiveness of AIDR 3D on noise reduction according to the body habitus using phantoms with different sizes.
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Monopolar radiofrequency ablation using a dual-switching system and a separable clustered electrode: evaluation of the in vivo efficiency.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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To determine the in vivo efficiency of monopolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a dual-switching (DS) system and a separable clustered (SC) electrode to create coagulation in swine liver.
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Prospective comparison of 3T MRI with diffusion-weighted imaging and MDCT for the preoperative TNM staging of gastric cancer.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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To compare the diagnostic performance of 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and multidetector-row computed tomography (MDCT) for the preoperative TNM staging of gastric cancer.
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MRI of breast tumor initiating cells using the extra domain-B of fibronectin targeting nanoparticles.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The identification of breast tumor initiating cells (BTICs) is important for the diagnosis and therapy of breast cancers. This study was undertaken to evaluate whether the extra domain-B of fibronectin (EDB-FN) could be used as a new biomarker for BTICs and whether EDB-FN targeting superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) could be used as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent for BTIC imaging in vitro and in vivo. BTICs (NDY-1) exhibited high EDB-FN expression, whereas non-BTICs (MCF-7, BT-474, SUM-225, MDA-MB-231) did not exhibit EDB-FN expression. Furthermore, Cy3.3-labeled EDB-FN specific peptides (APTEDB) showed preferential binding to the targeted NDY-1 cells. To construct an EDB-FN targeted imaging probe, APTEDB was covalently attached to a thermally cross-linked SPION (TCL-SPION) to yield APTEDB-TCL-SPION. In the in vitro MRI of cell phantoms, selective binding of APTEDB-TCL-SPION to NDY-1 cells was evident, but little binding was observed in MCF-7 cells. After the intravenous injection of APTEDB-TCL-SPION into the NDY-1 mouse tumor xenograft model, a significant decrease in the signal within the tumor was observed in the T2*-weighted images; however, there was only a marginal change in the signal of non-targeting SPIONs such as APTscramble-TCL-SPION or TCL-SPION. Taken together, we report for the first time that EDB-FN was abundantly expressed in BTICs and may therefore be useful as a new biomarker for identifying BTICs. Our study also suggests that APTEDB-TCL-SPION could be used as an MRI contrast agent for BTIC imaging.
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Iterative reconstruction algorithms of computed tomography for the assessment of small pancreatic lesions: phantom study.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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To evaluate the image quality and radiation dose reduction of iterative reconstruction (IR) used for computed tomographic (CT) scanning of small pancreatic lesions.
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Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging-An Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Purpose To evaluate the feasibility of using intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging with multiple b values for the noninvasive diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Twenty-seven 8-week-old rabbits were fed a variety of diets (from a standard diet to a high-fat, high-cholesterol diet) before IVIM diffusion-weighted imaging was performed with seven b values by using a 3-T magnetic resonance (MR) imaging unit. At histologic analysis of the animals, livers were categorized by NAFLD severity as normal, NAFLD, borderline nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), or NASH. The apparent diffusion coefficient and IVIM-derived parameters including true diffusion coefficient, pseudodiffusion coefficient, and perfusion fraction of the liver parenchyma were measured. Each parameter was correlated with NAFLD severity, and optimal cutoff values were determined by means of receiver operating characteristics analysis. Results Perfusion fraction was significantly lower in rabbits with NAFLD than in those with a normal liver, and it decreased further as severity of NAFLD increased, with medians of 22.2%, 14.8%, 11.3%, and 9.5% in the rabbits in the normal, NAFLD, borderline, and NASH groups, respectively (? = -0.83, P < .001). Apparent diffusion coefficient, true diffusion coefficient, and pseudodiffusion coefficient were not significantly different between the NAFLD severity groups. In terms of the diagnostic performance of perfusion fraction, area under the curve values were 0.984 (normal vs NAFLD or more severe disease), 0.959 (NAFLD or less severe vs borderline or more severe disease), and 0.903 (borderline or less severe vs NASH) with optimal cutoff values of 15.2%, 13.2%, and 11.0%, respectively. Conclusion Perfusion fractions extracted from IVIM diffusion-weighted imaging may help in the differentiation of early stage NASH from simple steatosis. © RSNA, 2013.
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Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging for Characterization of Focal Pancreatic Lesions.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
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Purpose:To evaluate the diagnostic potential of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM)-derived parameters for differentiation of common pancreatic tumors, chronic pancreatitis, and normal pancreas and for characterization of the malignancy potential of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs).Materials and Methods:The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and informed consent was waived. Ninety-three consecutive patients with surgically resected and pathologically confirmed pancreatic tumors (39 pancreatic adenocarcinomas [PACs], 17 neuroendocrine tumors [NETs], and 37 IPMNs), seven patients with chronic pancreatitis, and 26 patients with a normal pancreas were included in this study. All patients underwent pancreatic 3.0-T magnetic resonance imaging, including IVIM diffusion-weighted imaging with 10 b values used (from 0 to 1000 sec/mm(2)). The ADC, slow component of diffusion (Dslow), incoherent microcirculation (Dfast), and perfusion fraction (f) were calculated. Steel-Dwass and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for comparison. The diagnostic performance of the parameters was evaluated by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis with Bonferroni correction.Results:Among ADC- and IVIM-derived parameters, Dfast and f values of PACs were significantly lower than those of normal pancreas, chronic pancreatitis, and NETs (all P < .05 in post hoc analyses). For differentiation of PACs from NETs, f and Dfast showed a significant difference (P < .0001 for both) and were more useful parameters than ADC and Dslow in ROC analysis (all P < .05). Malignant IPMNs had significantly lower ADC and Dslow values and higher Dfast and f values when compared with benign IPMNs (all P < .05). In ROC analysis, f showed the highest area under the ROC curve value for distinguishing malignant from benign IPMNs.Conclusion:IVIM-derived perfusion-related parameters could be helpful for the differentiation of common malignant tumors in the pancreas and for distinguishing malignant from benign IPMNs. Dfast and f were more valuable parameters in the differentiation of PACs from NETs than were ADC and Dslow.© RSNA, 2013Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13122712/-/DC1.
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Diagnostic performance of MDCT for predicting important prognostic factors in pancreatic cancer.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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Tumor stage, node metastasis, tumor size, vascular invasion, and perineural invasion are the most important prognostic factors that might be determined by preoperative multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in pancreatic cancer. The purpose of our study is to investigate diagnostic accuracy of MDCT for determining these prognostic factors.
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Lymphoepithelial cyst of the pancreas: comparison of CT findings with other pancreatic cystic lesions.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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To describe the CT findings of lymphoepithelial cysts (LECs) of the pancreas and to investigate the differential findings between LECs and other pancreatic cystic lesions.
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Differentiation of large (?5cm) gastrointestinal stromal tumors from benign subepithelial tumors in the stomach: Radiologists performance using CT.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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To identify significant CT findings for the differentiation of large (?5cm) gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) from benign subepithelial tumors and to assess whether radiologists performance in differentiation is improved with knowledge of significant CT criteria.
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Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms with associated invasive carcinoma of the pancreas: imaging findings and diagnostic performance of MDCT for prediction of prognostic factors.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of MDCT for determining the prognostic factors, including the T category, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and perineural invasion, in surgically proven intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) with an associated invasive carcinoma (IPMC) and to investigate the imaging findings.
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Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI to evaluate the therapeutic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy in locally advanced rectal cancer.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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To evaluate the usefulness of perfusion parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging (DCE-MRI) for assessing the therapeutic response to neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy (CRT) for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC).
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Electrical Performance and Scalability of Pt Dispersed SiO2 Nanometallic Resistance Switch.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Highly reproducible bipolar resistance switching was recently demonstrated in a composite material of Pt nanoparticles dispersed in silicon dioxide. Here, we examine the electrical performance and scalability of this system and demonstrate devices with ultrafast (<100 ps) switching, long state retention (no measurable relaxation after 6 months), and high endurance (>3 × 10(7) cycles). A possible switching mechanism based on ion motion in the film is discussed based on these observations.
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Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography for focal hepatic tumors: usefulness for differentiating hemangiomas from malignant tumors.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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The purpose of this study is to investigate whether acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography with ARFI quantification and ARFI 2-dimensional (2D) imaging is useful for differentiating hepatic hemangiomas from malignant hepatic tumors.
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Staging accuracy of MR for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor and imaging findings according to the tumor grade.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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To investigate staging accuracy of MR for pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (PNETs) and imaging findings according to the tumor grade.
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Evaluation of ultrasound synthetic aperture imaging using bidirectional pixel-based focusing: preliminary phantom and in vivo breast study.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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In medical ultrasound imaging, lateral resolution is limited when using a fixed transmit focusing. Various synthetic aperture (SA) techniques, in which two-way dynamic focusing is enabled by utilizing prebeamformed radio-frequency (RF) data have been proposed for improving the spatial resolution. However, SA methods were not extensively evaluated in terms of their clinical performance. In this paper, a phantom and an in vivo evaluation of the SA method with bidirectional pixel-based focusing (BiPBF) is presented in comparison with the conventional beamforming. The performance of the proposed SA-BiPBF was assessed with a blind study and the established breast imaging-reporting and data system (BI-RADS), in addition to measuring contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Prebeamformed RF data were acquired from a tissue mimicking phantom (Model 040, CIRS Inc., Norfolk, VA, USA) and from patients with breast lesions by using a commercial ultrasound scanning system with a linear array transducer equipped with a research package and parallel data acquisition system (SonixTouch, SonixDAQ, and L14-5/38, Ultrasonix Corp., Canada). In phantom and in vivo experiments, a default setting of a breast preset was applied (e.g., the center frequency of 10 MHz and acoustic output of MI = 0.66). In phantom experiment, the SA-BiPBF method showed higher CNR and SNR values compared to the conventional method (3.4 and 23.9 dB versus 3.1 and 15.8 dB, respectively). In addition, the lateral resolution and penetration depth were increased by 95.4% and 40.3%, respectively. Consistent with the phantom experiment, in the in vivo experiment with ten patients, the CNR value for the SA method was 3.3 ± 0.5 compared to 2.8 ± 0.8 for the conventional method. Similarly, the SNR values with the SA-BiPBF and conventional methods were 34.0 ± 3.6 and 27.2 ± 3.4 dB, respectively. From the experiments, it was shown in side-by-side comparisons that the image quality of the SA-BiPBF method was considerably improved in both phantom and in vivo breast images. However, the SA-BiPBF image showed different features compared to the conventional one in the in vivo experiments. These features are resulting from the increased image quality of the SA-BiPBF method but are not always perceived as improvements by the radiologists.
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Pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound enhances apoptosis of pancreatic cancer xenograft with gemcitabine.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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We sought to investigate whether concurrent exposure to pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) and the chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine would enhance apoptosis in pancreatic cancer. A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and human pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1). In the first study, mice were randomly allocated into one of four groups: control (n = 4), HIFU alone (n = 4), gemcitabine (GEM) alone (n = 28) and concurrent treatment with HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM) (n = 28). The GEM and HIGEM groups were subdivided into four subgroups (16 mice) according to the drug dose injected (50-200 mg/kg) and another four subgroups (16 mice) according to the time interval between drug injection and HIFU treatment (each subgroup, n = 4). Apoptosis rates were evaluated using the TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling) assay and percentage of necrosis, as evaluated with Harris hematoxylin solution and eosin Y stain, 3 d after treatment. The second study was performed to evaluate tumor growth rates of the four groups. Each group was treated weekly for 3 wk, and tumor size was periodically measured for up to 4 wk from the beginning of treatment. In the first study, overall rates of apoptosis were significantly higher in the HIGEM group than in the GEM group (p = 0.02). In a subgroup analysis, HIGEM was superior to GEM in enhancing apoptosis at gemcitabine dosages of 150-200 mg/kg gemcitabine and intervals between gemcitabine and HIFU less than 2 h (p = 0.01). In the second study, HIGEM treatment resulted in the slowest tumor growth. However, despite a visible distinction, none of the differences found between the HIGEM and GEM groups were statistically significant (p > 0.05). Treatment with both HIFU and gemcitabine might enhance cell apoptosis and reduce tumor growth in pancreatic carcinoma. For this concurrent treatment, a high dosage of gemcitabine and a short-term delay before HIFU are recommended to maximize the therapeutic effect.
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Dual switching monopolar radiofrequency ablation using a separable clustered electrode: comparison with consecutive and switching monopolar modes in ex vivo bovine livers.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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To compare the in-vitro efficiency of dual-switching monopolar (DSM) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a separable clustered electrode (Octopus® electrodes) with consecutive monopolar (CM) and switching monopolar (SM) RFA techniques to create an ablative zone in the explanted bovine liver.
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Radiofrequency Ablation for Intrahepatic Recurrent Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Long-Term Results and Prognostic Factors in 168 Patients with Cirrhosis.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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To analyze the clinical outcome of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for recurrent intrahepatic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after variable first-line treatment.
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High-dose radiotherapy using helical tomotherapy for vertebral metastasis: early clinical outcomes and cord dose specification.
Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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For several decades, radiotherapy has been widely used to treat metastatic vertebral tumors. This study was designed to assess the feasibility and early clinical outcomes of high-dose radiotherapy to treat such tumors, using helical tomotherapy.
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Comparison of magnetic resonance elastography and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of hepatic fibrosis.
Invest Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2013
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The objective of this study was to compare the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) and gadoxetate disodium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the staging of hepatic fibrosis (HF) in patients with liver diseases.
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Usefulness of MR elastography for predicting esophageal varices in cirrhotic patients.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) as a noninvasive tool for predicting esophageal varices and identifying high-risk varices.
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Assessment of a model-based, iterative reconstruction algorithm (MBIR) regarding image quality and dose reduction in liver computed tomography.
Invest Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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The purpose of this study was to assess the image quality of half-dose (HD) liver computed tomography (CT) using a model-based iterative reconstruction algorithm (MBIR) compared with reference dose (RD) using filtered back projection (FBP) and the HD CT images using FBP and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR).
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Small- and medium-sized hepatocellular carcinomas: monopolar radiofrequency ablation with a multiple-electrode switching system-mid-term results.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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To prospectively assess the safety and mid-term therapeutic effectiveness of monopolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation with a multiple-electrode switching system for treating small- and medium-sized (? 5 cm) hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs).
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Regulation of alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter and peroxisome biogenesis in different fermentation processes in Pichia pastoris.
J. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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Production of recombinant proteins is affected by process conditions, where transcriptional regulation of Pichia pastoris alcohol oxidase 1 (PpAOX1) promoter has been a key factor to influence expression levels of proteins of interest. Here, we demonstrate that the AOX1 promoter and peroxisome biogenesis are regulated based on different process conditions. Two types of GFP-fusion proteins, Ub-R-GFP (short-lived GFP in the cytosol) and GFP-SKL (peroxisomal targeting GFP), were successfully used to characterize the time-course of the AOX1 promoter and peroxisome biogenesis, respectively. The activity of the AOX1 promoter and peroxisome biogenesis was highly subjected to different fermentation process conditions - methanol-limited condition at normoxy (ML), switched feeding of carbon sources (e.g., glucose and methanol) under carbon-limited condition at normoxy (SML), and oxygen-limited (OL) condition. The AOX1 promoter was most active under the ML, but less active under the OL. Peroxisome biogenesis showed a high dependency on methanol consumption. In addition, the proliferation of peroxisomes was inhibited in a medium containing glucose and stimulated in the methanol phase under a carbon-limited fed-batch culture condition. The specific productivity of a monoclonal antibody (qp) under the AOX1 promoter was higher at 86h of induction in the ML than in the OL (0.026 vs 0.020mgg(-1)h(-1)). However, the oxygen-limited condition was a robust process suitable for longer induction (180h) due to high cell fitness. Our study suggests that the maximal production of a recombinant protein is highly dependent on methanol consumption rate that is affected by the availability of methanol and oxygen molecules.
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Determination of the ?/? ratio for the normal liver on the basis of radiation-induced hepatic toxicities in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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The purpose of this study was to determine the ?/? ratio for normal liver with hepatitis by analyzing the toxicity data from patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma treated with helical tomotherapy.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.