JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Surgical treatment of 4 horses for cryptorchidism caused by failure of regression of the cranial suspensory ligament of the testis.
Vet Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report surgical management of 4 horses with cryptorchidism caused by failure of regression of the cranial suspensory ligament (CSL).
Related JoVE Video
Restoration of testis function in hypogonadotropic hypogonadal mice harboring a misfolded GnRHR mutant by pharmacoperone drug therapy.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations in receptors, ion channels, and enzymes are frequently recognized by the cellular quality control system as misfolded and retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or otherwise misrouted. Retention results in loss of function at the normal site of biological activity and disease. Pharmacoperones are target-specific small molecules that diffuse into cells and serve as folding templates that enable mutant proteins to pass the criteria of the quality control system and route to their physiologic site of action. Pharmacoperones of the gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor (GnRHR) have efficacy in cell culture systems, and their cellular and biochemical mechanisms of action are known. Here, we show the efficacy of a pharmacoperone drug in a small animal model, a knock-in mouse, expressing a mutant GnRHR. This recessive mutation (GnRHR E(90)K) causes hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (failed puberty associated with low or apulsatile luteinizing hormone) in both humans and in the mouse model described. We find that pulsatile pharmacoperone therapy restores E(90)K from ER retention to the plasma membrane, concurrently with responsiveness to the endogenous natural ligand, gonadotropin releasing hormone, and an agonist that is specific for the mutant. Spermatogenesis, proteins associated with steroid transport and steroidogenesis, and androgen levels were restored in mutant male mice following pharmacoperone therapy. These results show the efficacy of pharmacoperone therapy in vivo by using physiological, molecular, genetic, endocrine and biochemical markers and optimization of pulsatile administration. We expect that this newly appreciated approach of protein rescue will benefit other disorders sharing pathologies based on misrouting of misfolded protein mutants.
Related JoVE Video
CTNNB1 in mesenchyme regulates epithelial cell differentiation during Müllerian duct and postnatal uterine development.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Müllerian duct differentiation and development into the female reproductive tract is essential for fertility, but mechanisms regulating these processes are poorly understood. WNT signaling is critical for proper development of the female reproductive tract as evident by the phenotypes of Wnt4, Wnt5a, Wnt7a, and ?-catenin (Ctnnb1) mutant mice. Here we extend these findings by determining the effects of constitutive CTNNB1 activation within the mesenchyme of the developing Müllerian duct and its differentiated derivatives. This was accomplished by crossing Amhr2-Cre knock-in mice with Ctnnb1 exon (ex) 3(f/f) mice. Amhr2-Cre(?/+); Ctnnb1 ex3(f/+) females did not form an oviduct, had smaller uteri, endometrial gland defects, and were infertile. At the cellular level, stabilization of CTNNB1 in the mesenchyme caused alterations within the epithelium, including less proliferation, delayed uterine gland formation, and induction of an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) event. This EMT event is observed before birth and is complete within 5 days after birth. Misexpression of estrogen receptor ? in the epithelia correlated with the EMT before birth, but not after. These studies indicate that regulated CTNNB1 in mesenchyme is important for epithelial cell differentiation during female reproductive tract development.
Related JoVE Video
Validation of a low-dose adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation test in healthy neonatal foals.
J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the lowest ACTH dose that would induce a significant increase in serum cortisol concentration and identify the time to peak cortisol concentration in healthy neonatal foals.
Related JoVE Video
Imaging horse tendons using multimodal 2-photon microscopy.
Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Injuries and damage to tendons plague both human and equine athletes. At the site of injuries, various cells congregate to repair and re-structure the collagen. Treatments for collagen injury range from simple procedures such as icing and pharmaceutical treatments to more complex surgeries and the implantation of stem cells. Regardless of the treatment, the level of mechanical stimulation incurred by the recovering tendon is crucial. However, for a given tendon injury, it is not known precisely how much of a load should be applied for an effective recovery. Both too much and too little loading of the tendon could be detrimental during recovery. A mapping of the complex local environment imparted to any cell present at the site of a tendon injury may however, convey fundamental insights related to their decision making as a function of applied load. Therefore, fundamentally knowing how cells translate mechanical cues from their external environment into signals regulating their functions during repair is crucial to more effectively treat these types of injuries. In this paper, we studied systems of tendons with a variety of 2-photon-based imaging techniques to examine the local mechanical environment of cells in both normal and injured tendons. These tendons were chemically treated to instigate various extents of injury and in some cases, were injected with stem cells. The results related by each imaging technique distinguish with high contrast and resolution multiple morphologies of the cells nuclei and the alignment of the collagen during injury. The incorporation of 2-photon FLIM into this study probed new features in the local environment of the nuclei that were not apparent with steady-state imaging. Overall, this paper focuses on horse tendon injury pattern and analysis with different 2-photon confocal modalities useful for wide variety of application in damaged tissues.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of serum and autologous conditioned serum on equine articular chondrocytes treated with interleukin-1?.
Am. J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the effects of autologous equine serum (AES) and autologous conditioned serum (ACS) on equine articular chondrocyte metabolism when stimulated with recombinant human (rh) interleukin (IL)-1?.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of micromonolactam, a new polyene macrocyclic lactam from two marine Micromonospora strains using chemical and molecular methods: clarification of the biosynthetic pathway from a glutamate starter unit.
J. Antibiot.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Through a combination of chemical and molecular analysis, a new polyene macrolactam named micromonolactam was obtained from two marine-derived Micromonospora species. This new polyene metabolite is a constitutional isomer of salinilactam A but contains a different polyene pattern and one cis double bond, in contrast to the all trans structure reported for salinilactam A. The molecular analysis data also established that micromonolactam is a hybrid polyketide derived from 11 polyketide units and a modified glutamate starter unit.
Related JoVE Video
Biodiversity of actinomycetes associated with Caribbean sponges and their potential for natural product discovery.
Mar. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Marine actinomycetes provide a rich source of structurally unique and bioactive secondary metabolites. Numerous genera of marine actinomycetes have been isolated from marine sediments as well as several sponge species. In this study, 16 different species of Caribbean sponges were collected from four different locations in the coastal waters off Puerto Rico in order to examine diversity and bioactive metabolite production of marine actinomycetes in Caribbean sponges. Sediments were also collected from each location, in order to compare actinomycete communities between these two types of samples. A total of 180 actinomycetes were isolated and identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of at least 14 new phylotypes belonging to the genera Micromonospora, Verruscosispora, Streptomyces, Salinospora, Solwaraspora, Microbacterium and Cellulosimicrobium. Seventy-eight of the isolates (19 from sediments and 59 from sponges) shared 100 % sequence identity with Micromonospora sp. R1. Despite having identical 16S rRNA sequences, the bioactivity of extracts and subsequent fractions generated from the fermentation of both sponge- and sediment-derived isolates identical to Micromonospora sp. R1 varied greatly, with a marked increase in antibiotic metabolite production in those isolates derived from sponges. These results indicate that the chemical profiles of isolates with high 16S rRNA sequence homology to known strains can be diverse and dependent on the source of isolation. In addition, seven previously reported dihydroquinones produced by five different Streptomyces strains have been purified and characterized from one Streptomyces sp. strain isolated in this study from the Caribbean sponge Agelas sceptrum.
Related JoVE Video
Soft tissue releases affect the femoral component rotation necessary to create a balanced flexion gap during total knee arthroplasty.
J Arthroplasty
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The structures that were released to balance the extension gap were recorded during 1500 consecutive TKA procedures, and the amount of femoral component external rotation (ER) necessary to balance the flexion gap was measured with a tensiometer. The amount of ER necessary to balance the flexion gap significantly decreased as more medial structures were released (1 structure=4.7°, 2=4.1°, 3=2.8°, 4 or more=1.1°, P<0.012), whereas significantly greater ER was necessary when three or more lateral structures were released (1 structure=5.3°, 2=5.5°, 3 or more=8.6°, P<0.03). Soft tissue releases affected the amount of femoral component ER necessary to balance the flexion gap, bringing into question the ability of techniques utilizing bony landmarks to properly align the femoral component in rotation.
Related JoVE Video
Purchase examinations and importation requirements for European performance horses and their semen entering the United States.
Compend Contin Educ Vet
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A comprehensive purchase examination is expected by American clients intent on importing a horse from a foreign country. American veterinarians may be involved in performing purchase examinations in foreign countries or, more often, interpreting findings from foreign veterinarians for their American clients. Exportation and importation requirements for horses and semen vary from country to country. Detailed knowledge of the requirements by all involved veterinarians is essential for efficient and successful international equine travel.
Related JoVE Video
Validation of a low-dose ACTH stimulation test in healthy adult horses.
J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the lowest ACTH dose that would induce a maximum increase in serum cortisol concentration in healthy adult horses and identify the time to peak cortisol concentration.
Related JoVE Video
Cell-based therapies for tendon and ligament injuries.
Vet. Clin. North Am. Equine Pract.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tendon and ligament injuries have proved difficult to treat effectively. Cell-based therapies offer the potential to harness the complex protein synthetic machinery of the cell to induce a regenerative response rather than fibrous scarring. This article reviews the current state of play with respect to the clinically used cell preparations for the treatment of tendon and ligaments overstrain injuries.
Related JoVE Video
Mesenchymal stem cells: characteristics, sources, and mechanisms of action.
Vet. Clin. North Am. Equine Pract.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article provides an overview of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) biology. In the first section, the characteristics that are routinely used to define MSCs-adherence, proliferation, multi-lineage potential, and "cluster of differentiation" marker profiles-are discussed. In the second section, the major tissues and body fluids that are used as sources for equine MSCs are presented, along with the comparative biologic activities of MSCs from specific locations. Finally, the current understanding of the mechanisms by which MSCs influence repair and regeneration are discussed, with an emphasis on the clinical importance of MSC trophic activities.
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacokinetics of tramadol and metabolites O-desmethyltramadol and N-desmethyltramadol in adult horses.
Am. J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and its metabolites O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) and N-desmethyltramadol (NDT) in adult horses.
Related JoVE Video
Uterine gland formation in mice is a continuous process, requiring the ovary after puberty, but not after parturition.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Uterine gland formation occurs postnatally in an ovary- and steroid-independent manner in many species, including humans. Uterine glands secrete substances that are essential for embryo survival. Disruption of gland development during the postnatal period prevents gland formation, resulting in infertility. Interestingly, stabilization of beta-catenin (CTNNB1) in the uterine stroma causes a delay in gland formation rather than a complete absence of uterine glands. Thus, to determine if a critical postnatal window for gland development exists in mice, we tested the effects of extending the endocrine environment of pregnancy on uterine gland formation by treating neonatal mice with estradiol, progesterone, or oil for 5 days. One uterine horn was removed before puberty, and the other was collected at maturity. Some mice were also ovariectomized before puberty. The hormone-treated mice exhibited a delay in uterine gland formation. Hormone-treatment increased the abundance of uterine CTNNB1 and estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) before puberty, indicating possible mechanisms for delayed gland formation. Despite having fewer glands, progesterone-treated mice were fertile, suggesting that a threshold number of glands is required for pregnancy. Mice that were ovariectomized before puberty did not undergo further uterine growth or gland development. Finally, to establish the role of the ovary in postpartum uterine gland regeneration, mice were either ovariectomized or given a sham surgery after parturition, and uteri were evaluated 1 wk later. We found that the ovary is not required for uterine growth or gland development following parturition. Thus, uterine gland development occurs continuously in mice and requires the ovary after puberty, but not after parturition.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of experimentally induced injury to the superficial digital flexor tendon in horses by use of low-field magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography.
Am. J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate tendon injuries in horses over a 16-week period by use of ultrasonography and low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Related JoVE Video
?-Catenin is essential for Müllerian duct regression during male sexual differentiation.
Development
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During male sexual differentiation, the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling molecule anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH; also known as Müllerian inhibiting substance, MIS) is secreted by the fetal testes and induces regression of the Müllerian ducts, the primordia of the female reproductive tract organs. Currently, the molecular identity of downstream events regulated by the AMH signaling pathway remains unclear. We found that male-specific Wnt4 expression in mouse Müllerian duct mesenchyme depends upon AMH signaling, implicating the WNT pathway as a downstream mediator of Müllerian duct regression. Inactivation of ?-catenin, a mediator of the canonical WNT pathway, did not affect AMH signaling activation in the Müllerian duct mesenchyme, but did block Müllerian duct regression. These data suggest that ?-catenin mediates AMH signaling for Müllerian duct regression during male sexual differentiation.
Related JoVE Video
Magnesium disorders in horses.
Vet. Clin. North Am. Equine Pract.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Magnesium (Mg) is an essential macroelement that is required for cellular energy-dependent reactions involving adenosine triphosphate and for the regulation of calcium channel function. Subclinical hypomagnesemia is common in critically ill humans and animals and increases the severity of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome; worsens the systemic response to endotoxins; and can lead to ileus, cardiac arrhythmias, refractory hypokalemia, and hypocalcemia. This article discusses the clinical signs, consequences, and treatment of hypomagnesemia in horses and describes the association of Mg and endotoxemia, insulin resistance, and brain injury.
Related JoVE Video
Quantitative analysis of collagen fiber organization in injured tendons using Fourier transform-second harmonic generation imaging.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fourier transform-second harmonic generation (FT-SHG) imaging is used as a technique for evaluating collagenase-induced injury in horse tendons. The differences in collagen fiber organization between normal and injured tendon are quantified. Results indicate that the organization of collagen fibers is regularly oriented in normal tendons and randomly organized in injured tendons. This is further supported through the use of additional metrics, in particular, the number of dark (no/minimal signal) and isotropic (no preferred fiber orientation) regions in the images, and the ratio of forward-to-backward second-harmonic intensity. FT-SHG microscopy is also compared with the conventional polarized light microscopy and is shown to be more sensitive to assessing injured tendons than the latter. Moreover, sample preparation artifacts that affect the quantitative evaluation of collagen fiber organization can be circumvented by using FT-SHG microscopy. The technique has potential as an assessment tool for evaluating the impact of various injuries that affect collagen fiber organization.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand and osteoprotegerin in cultured equine articular cells.
Am. J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine concentrations of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) in equine chondrocytes and synoviocytes and to quantify changes in the OPG:RANKL ratio in response to exogenous factors.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemiology of spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsial infection in the Amazon basin of Peru.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A seroprevalence study for IgG antibodies against spotted fever group (SFGR) and typhus group (TGR) Rickettsia among humans and domestic pets was conducted in the city of Iquitos, located in the Amazon basin of Peru. Of 1,195 human sera analyzed, 521 (43.6%) and 123 (10.3%) were positive for SFGR and TGR antibodies, respectively. District of residence and participant age were associated with antibody positivity for both groups, whereas rodent sightings in the home were associated with TGR antibody positivity. Of the 71 canines tested, 42 (59.2%) were positive for SFGR antibodies, and two (2.8%) were positive for TGR antibodies; one active SFGR infection was detected by polymerase chain reaction. An uncharacterized SFGR species was detected in 95.9% (71/74) of Ctenocephalides felis pools collected from domestic pets. These data suggest that rickettsial transmission is widespread in Iquitos. Rickettsia species should be further explored as potential causes of acute febrile illnesses in the region.
Related JoVE Video
Modified tenoscopic method for carpal flexor retinaculum release in a horse.
Vet Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report the use of a proximolateral endoscopic portal with a distolateral instrument portal for carpal retinaculum release in a horse clinically affected with carpal canal syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of sodium hyaluronate and triamcinolone acetonide on glucosaminoglycan metabolism in equine articular chondrocytes treated with interleukin-1.
Am. J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
OBJECTIVE-To determine whether the effects of a high-molecular-weight sodium hyaluronate alone or in combination with triamcinolone acetonide can mitigate chondrocyte glyocosaminoglycan (GAG) catabolism caused by interleukin (IL)-1 administration. SAMPLE POPULATION-Chondrocytes collected from metacarpophalangeal joints of 10 horses euthanized for reasons unrelated to joint disease. PROCEDURES-Chondrocyte pellets were treated with medium (negative control), medium containing IL-1 only (positive control), or medium containing IL-1 with hyaluronic acid only (0.5 or 2.0 mg/mL), triamcinolone acetonide only (0.06 or 0.6 mg/mL), or hyaluronic acid (0.5 or 2.0 mg/mL) and triamcinolone acetonide (0.06 or 0.6 mg/mL) in combination. Chondrocyte pellets were assayed for newly synthesized GAG, total GAG content, total DNA content, and mRNA for collagen type II, aggrecan, and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. RESULTS-High-concentration hyaluronic acid increased GAG synthesis, whereas high-concentration triamcinolone acetonide decreased loss of GAG into the medium. High concentrations of hyaluronic acid and triamcinolone acetonide increased total GAG content. There was no change in DNA content with either treatment. Triamcinolone acetonide reduced COX-2 mRNA as well as aggrecan and collagen type II expression. Treatment with hyaluronic acid had no effect on mRNA for COX-2, aggrecan, or collagen type II. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Results indicated that high concentrations of hyaluronic acid or triamcinolone acetonide alone or in combination mitigated effects of IL-1 administration on GAG catabolism of equine chondrocytes.
Related JoVE Video
Multimodal treatment of recurrent sinonasal cryptococcal granulomas in a horse.
J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 7-year-old 509-kg (1,120-lb) Tennessee Walking Horse mare was evaluated because of bilateral mucosanguinous nasal discharge, intermittent right-sided epistaxis, and worsening dyspnea of 9 months duration.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of equine tendon-, muscle-, and bone marrow-derived cells cultured on tendon matrix.
Am. J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare viability and biosynthetic capacities of cells isolated from equine tendon, muscle, and bone marrow grown on autogenous tendon matrix.
Related JoVE Video
Adrenocorticotropic hormone stimulation tests in healthy foals from birth to 12 weeks of age.
Can. J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate total baseline plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations, and ACTH-stimulated cortisol concentrations in foals from birth to 12 wk of age. Plasma (baseline) cortisol and ACTH concentrations were measured in 13 healthy foals at birth and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 84 d of age. Each foal received cosyntropin (0.1 microg/kg) intravenously. Plasma cortisol concentrations were measured before (baseline), and 30, and 60 min after cosyntropin administration at birth and at 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, and 84 d of age. Compared with baseline, cortisol concentration increased significantly 30 min after administration of cosyntropin on all days. Cortisol concentration was highest at birth, measured at 30 and 60 min after cosyntropin administration, compared with all other days. With the exception of birth measurements, cortisol concentration was significantly higher on day 84, measured at 30 and 60 min after cosyntropin administration, when compared with all other days. Baseline plasma ACTH was lowest at birth when compared with concentrations on days 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 10, 14, 42, 56, and 84. Administration of 0.1 microg/kg of cosyntropin, IV, reliably induces cortisol secretion in healthy foals. Differences in the magnitude of response to cosyntropin are observed depending on the age of the foal. These data should serve as a reference for the ACTH stimulation test in foals and should be useful in subsequent studies to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in healthy and critically ill foals.
Related JoVE Video
Indices of inflammation in the lung and liver in the early stages of the black walnut extract model of equine laminitis.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The liver and lung are not only described as "target organs" in sepsis in most species, but are purported to be sources of circulating inflammatory mediators central to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). As we have recently reported an inflammatory response in the laminar tissue in laminitis similar to that described in "target organs" in human sepsis, we investigated the inflammatory response of the lung and liver in the black walnut extract (BWE) model of equine laminitis to determine (1) if a similar systemic inflammatory response occurs in this laminitis model as described for these organs in human sepsis, and (2) if these organs may be an important source of the inflammatory mediators leading to laminar inflammation. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was used to measure hepatic and pulmonary mRNA concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-alpha, COX-1 and COX-2. Hepatic samples were assessed from two time points in the developmental/prodromal period: (1) 1.5h post-BWE administration (BWE-1.5H, n = 5), and (2) the "developmental time point" (onset of leukopenia, approximately 3h post-BWE administration, BWE-DEV, n = 5). Pulmonary samples were only assessed for the BWE-DEV group. One control group (CON-3H, n = 5) was used for both the 1.5H and DEV groups. Finally, CD13 immunohistochemistry was performed to assess leukocyte emigration into hepatic and pulmonary parenchyma. Hepatic and pulmonary mRNA concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-alpha were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in BWE-1.5H and BWE-DEV groups compared to the control group; IL-1beta mRNA concentrations were only increased in the lung. The "anti-inflammatory" cytokines, IL-10 and IL-4, underwent transient decreases at different time points. Significant increases in parenchymal leukocyte numbers occurred in both the lung and liver at the BWE-DEV time point. Hepatic and pulmonary proinflammatory cytokine expression differ from that previously reported for the laminae in that TNF-alpha was increased in the hepatic and pulmonary tissues, the increases in expression of IL-6 and IL-8 are dramatically smaller for the liver and lung compared to those reported for the laminae, and the peak changes appear to occur later in the disease process in the liver than in the laminae (BWE-DEV in liver vs. 1.5H in the laminae).
Related JoVE Video
Mice harboring Gnrhr E90K, a mutation that causes protein misfolding and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans, exhibit testis size reduction and ovulation failure.
Mol. Endocrinol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
GnRH, produced in the hypothalamus, acts on pituitary gonadotropes to stimulate release of the gonadotropins LH and FSH. Reduced responsiveness of gonadotropes to GnRH is a primary cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH), a disease characterized by gonadal dysfunction and low blood levels of gonadotropins. Loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding the receptor for GnRH (GNRHR) are a common cause of HH. Sequencing of the GNRHR gene in patients with HH revealed mainly point mutations producing single amino acid substitutions that cause misfolding and misrouting of this G protein-coupled receptor. To generate a mouse model that mimics the human disease, we introduced a single amino acid substitution (E90K) into the mouse Gnrhr gene, which is identical to a known human recessive mutation. In humans, E90K causes severe HH by preventing formation of the E90-K121 salt bridge, which is essential for correct folding. In cell cultures, E90K causes misfolding that leads to almost complete retention by the protein quality control system and subsequent degradation. Here we report that the primary phenotype of mice homozygous for E90K is female infertility due to ovulation failure. Mutant males are fertile despite reduced gonadotropin levels and smaller testes. These results suggest decreased GnRH receptor signaling in the mutant animal, compared with wild type. Our findings suggest that a threshold level of GnRH receptor activity is required for ovulation.
Related JoVE Video
Mouse oviduct development.
Results Probl Cell Differ
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The oviduct, or Fallopian tube in humans, transports oocytes and sperm, serves as the site of fertilization, and supports early embryonic development. The oviduct is essential for fertility. In the mouse, the oviduct is a coiled, complex structure that develops from the simple embryonic Müllerian duct. The oviduct consists of four segments, including the infundibulum, ampulla, isthmus, and uterotubal junction. Additionally, the mouse oviduct forms coils, develops longitudinal folds, and undergoes both mesenchymal and epithelial differentiation. Oviduct development and differentiation occurs perinatally. Several signaling pathways have been found to be involved in oviduct formation, such as Wnt, Tgf?, microRNA processing, as well as others. Overall, the process of oviduct development is poorly understood and can be utilized to further knowledge of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions, regulation of coiling, characteristics of pseudostratified epithelia, and smooth muscle differentiation.
Related JoVE Video
Seasonal variation in results of diagnostic tests for pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction in older, clinically normal geldings.
J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine whether seasonal variations exist in endogenous plasma ACTH, plasma ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH), serum cortisol, and serum insulin concentrations and in the results of a dexamethasone suppression test for older, clinically normal geldings in Alabama.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.