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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Ecological aspects of the Phlebotominae fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve, Brazil.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Sand fly collections were performed to study ecological aspects of the Phlebotominae fauna of the Xakriabá Indigenous Reserve, an area with endemic cutaneous leishmaniasis, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
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Gene expression profile of cytokines and chemokines in skin lesions from Brazilian Indians with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by dermotropic Leishmania species belonging to the Viannia subgenera, with Leishmania (V.) braziliensis considered the main agent in Brazil. After infection, a local inflammatory process is initiated, inducing the expression of several cytokine/chemokine genes. We evaluated the immunity to CL of patients living in the indigenous community Xakriabá, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, by performing detailed analyses of the mRNA expression of different cytokines and chemokines in CL lesions, considering the time evolution (recent or late). We also studied the profile of the inflammatory infiltrate by histopathological analysis. The histopathological features of recent CL lesions showed an intense inflammatory reaction, characterized by the presence of both mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cells, whereas late CL lesions exhibited a predominance of mononuclear leukocytes. The gene expression of cytokines/chemokines in skin biopsies from the CL group showed higher transcript levels of modulatory (IL10 and TGFB1), anti-inflammatory (IL4), and pro-inflammatory (TNF, IFNG, IL12B, CCL2, CCL3, CCL5, CXCL10) biomarkers in recent lesions than in late lesions. Our findings suggest that differential gene expression of cytokines and chemokines found in skin lesions from CL patients is associated with time evolution of lesions.
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Anomalies in the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Brazil.
J. Am. Mosq. Control Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Lutzomyia longipalpis is the main species involved in the epidemiological cycle of visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil. This species shows a wide geographic distribution and belongs to a group that has 2 setae in the paramere with the curved tips towards the apex of this structure among other characteristics. Morphological characters in the genitalia of phlebotomines are essential for correct identification of species. The aim of this study was to report the finding of unilateral and bilateral anomalies in the paramere of L. longipalpis males collected in Várzea da Palma municipality, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Twelve collections were made during the period April 2009 to March 2010, using Centers for Disease Control and Prevention light traps, HP model. Of the 8,832 male L. longipalpis collected, we found 6 types of unilateral anomalies and 2 types of bilateral anomalies in 0.5% of the insects collected. The anomalies were described according to number, position, and size of the setae of paramere. This information will be useful in the validation of new species.
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Canine visceral leishmaniasis in the Krenak indigenous community, Resplendor, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, 2007.
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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The authors conducted a cross-sectional study of the local canine population in the Krenak indigenous community to detect parasites of the genus Leishmania and identify the circulating species and the proportion of asymptomatic dogs, while investigating associations between canine infection and the dogs sex, age, and hair length. A seroepidemiological survey was performed, including 63 dogs. All the animals underwent clinical examination to verify the presence of characteristic signs, and serum samples were taken for serological tests (ELISA, IIF). Infected dogs culled by the health service were necropsied and the material was analyzed using molecular diagnostic techniques. The cross-sectional study detected a 46% prevalence rate, and the circulating species was Leishmania (L.) chagasi. The statistical analysis showed no association between infection and the independent variables. The study generated data on the epidemiological situation with canine infection in the area, which was previously unknown.
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Relationship of Leishmania-specific IgG levels and IgG avidity with parasite density and clinical signs in canine leishmaniasis.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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The clinical status and tissue parasite burden of the skin and spleen of 40 dogs naturally infected with Leishmania chagasi (syn. Leishmania infantum), together with 5 uninfected control dogs, were assessed. On the basis of the clinical evaluation, infected dogs were classified as asymptomatic (AD) or symptomatic (SD). Infected animals were also grouped according to their parasite load as exhibiting low (LP), medium (MP) and high (HP) parasitism. The results indicated a high parasite load in the skin samples of SD animals in relation to the AD group. The serum immunoglobin isotype profiles of the studied animals revealed increased levels of IgG(1) in the AD and LP dogs, whereas high levels of IgG(2) were correlated with SD and HP dogs. The avidity index (AI) of IgG(total) in the SD group was high in comparison of that of the AD group. Moreover, animals with a larger parasite burden either in the spleen or skin showed higher AI values than animals with lower parasitism. Based on these findings, it is suggested that CVL commences with an asymptomatic clinical form with low parasitism, high production of IgG(1) and low affinity of IgG(total) molecules, and evolves into a symptomatic clinical form with higher parasitism intensity, higher IgG(2) levels, and high affinity of IgG(total).
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Advances in flow cytometric serology for canine visceral leishmaniasis: diagnostic applications when distinct clinical forms, vaccination and other canine pathogens become a challenge.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2009
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We have previously reported the applicability of flow cytometry anti-fixed Leishmania infantum chagasi promastigotes IgG (FC-AFPA-IgG) as a novel serological device for laboratorial diagnosis of CVL. Herein, we validate throughout a blind study applied into a broader range of coded sera samples that FC-AFPA-IgG at serum dilution 1:8192 have an outstanding performance to discriminate the serological reactivity of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL, n=64) and Leishmune vaccines (VAC, n=62) and non-infected controls (NI, n=25). Moreover, we have evaluated the performance of indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) and the crude-antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in parallel with FC-AFPA-IgG, to discriminate the seroreactivity of NI, CVL and VAC. Our data demonstrated that both ELISA and FC-AFPA-IgG showed similar performance to detect the seronegativity in 100% of NI, whereas FC-AFPA-IgG displayed better performance to exclude seropositivity in 100% of VAC. The high kappa agreement indexes observed suggested similar performance between these two serological testes when distinct clinical forms of CVL become a challenge. Furthermore, the FC-AFPA-IgG applied at sera dilution 1:8192 showed a remarkable performance to discriminate CVL from other co-endemic canine infections with high co-negativity in dogs infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania braziliensis (86% and 84%, respectively). In conclusion, the data presented here re-emphasize the applicability of FC-AFPA-IgG as an innovative methodology able to discriminate post-infection imunomediated seroreactivity from that triggered by prophylactic immunization with minor cross-reactivity with other relevant canine pathogens, which may contribute as a supplementary assay for the CVL immunodiagnosis.
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Molecular diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis: identification of Leishmania species by PCR-RFLP and quantification of parasite DNA by real-time PCR.
Acta Trop.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2009
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The efficacies of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL), and of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis for the identification of Leishmania species, have been assessed. Quantitative real-time PCR employing a SYBR Green dye-based system was standardised for the quantification of Leishmania kDNA minicircles. Skin, peripheral blood and bone marrow samples collected from 217 dogs, asymptomatic or symptomatic for CVL, were analysed. The PCR method, which was based on the amplification of a 120 bp kDNA fragment conserved across Leishmania species, was able to detect the presence in clinical samples of protozoan parasite DNA in amounts as low as 0.1 fg. Bone marrow and skin samples proved to be more suitable than peripheral blood for the detection of Leishmania by PCR and presented positive indices of 84.9% and 80.2%, respectively. PCR-RFLP analysis indicated that 192 of the PCR-positive dogs were infected with Leishmania infantum chagasi, whilst L. braziliensis was identified in two other animals. Quantitative PCR revealed that bone marrow samples from dogs presenting positive conventional tests contained a higher number of copies of Leishmania kDNA than peripheral blood, although no significant differences were detected between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs in terms of parasite load. This study demonstrates that PCR can be used for the detection of Leishmania in clinical samples derived from naturally infected dogs, and that PCR-RFLP represents a rapid and sensitive tool for the identification of Leishmania species. Additionally, qPCR is effective in quantifying Leishmania DNA load in clinical samples.
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Study of sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis areas in the central-western state of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Acta Trop.
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The transmission of Leishmania involves several species of sand flies that are closely associated with various parasites and reservoirs, with differing transmission cycles in Brazil. A study on the phlebotomine species composition has been conducted in the municipality of Divinópolis, Minas Gerais, Brazil, an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), which has intense occurrence of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases. In order to study the sand flies populations and their seasonality, CDC light traps (HP model) were distributed in 15 houses which presented at least one case of CL or VL and in five urban parks (green areas). Collections were carried out three nights monthly from September 2010 to August 2011. A total of 1064 phlebotomine specimens were collected belonging to two genera and seventeen species: Brumptomyia brumpti, Lutzomyia bacula, Lutzomyia cortelezzii, Lutzomyia lenti, Lutzomyia sallesi, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lutzomyia migonei, Lutzomyia intermedia, Lutzomyia neivai, Lutzomyia whitmani, Lutzomyia christenseni, Lutzomyia monticola, Lutzomyia pessoai, Lutzomyia aragaoi, Lutzomyia brasiliensis, Lutzomyia lutziana, and Lutzomyia sordellii. L. longipalpis, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in Brazil, was the most frequent species, accounting for 76.9% of the total, followed by L. lenti with 8.3%, this species is not a proven vector. Green and urban areas had different sand flies species composition, whereas the high abundance of L. longipalpis in urban areas and the presence of various vector species in both green and urban areas were also observed. Our data point out to the requirement of control measures against phlebotomine sand flies in the municipality of Divinópolis and adoption of strategies aiming entomological surveillance.
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KDNA genetic signatures obtained by LSSP-PCR analysis of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum isolated from the new and the old world.
PLoS ONE
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Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) caused by species from the Leishmania donovani complex is the most severe form of the disease, lethal if untreated. VL caused by Leishmania infantum is a zoonosis with an increasing number of human cases and millions of dogs infected in the Old and the New World. In this study, L. infantum (syn. L.chagasi) strains were isolated from human and canine VL cases. The strains were obtained from endemic areas from Brazil and Portugal and their genetic polymorphism was ascertained using the LSSP-PCR (Low-Stringency Single Specific Primer PCR) technique for analyzing the kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) minicircles hypervariable region.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.