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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A hyperactive Mpl-based Cell Growth Switch drives macrophage-associated erythropoiesis through an erythroid-megakaryocytic precursor.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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Several approaches for controlling hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell expansion, lineage commitment and maturation have been investigated for improving clinical interventions. We report here that amino acid substitutions in an Mpl-containing Cell Growth Switch (CGS) extending receptor stability improves the expansion capacity of human cord blood CD34+ cells in the absence of exogenous cytokines. Activation of this CGS with a chemical inducer of dimerization (CID) expands total cells 99-fold, erythrocytes 70-fold, megakaryocytes 0.5-fold, and CD34+ stem/progenitor cells 4.4-fold by 21 days of culture. Analysis of cells in these expanded populations identified a CID-dependent bipotent erythrocyte-megakaryocyte precursor (PEM) population, and a CID-independent macrophage population. The CD235a+/CD41a+ PEM population constitutes up to 13% of the expansion cultures, can differentiate into erythrocytes or megakaryocytes, exhibits very little expansion capacity, and exists at very low levels in unexpanded cord blood. The CD206+ macrophage population constitutes up to 15% of the expansion cultures, exhibits high expansion capacity, and is physically associated with differentiating erythroblasts. Taken together, these studies describe a fundamental enhancement of the CGS expansion platform, identify a novel precursor population in the erythroid/megakaryocytic differentiation pathway of humans, and implicate an Epo-independent, macrophage associated pathway supporting terminal erythropoiesis in this expansion system.
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Inferring clonal composition from multiple sections of a breast cancer.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Cancers arise from successive rounds of mutation and selection, generating clonal populations that vary in size, mutational content and drug responsiveness. Ascertaining the clonal composition of a tumor is therefore important both for prognosis and therapy. Mutation counts and frequencies resulting from next-generation sequencing (NGS) potentially reflect a tumor's clonal composition; however, deconvolving NGS data to infer a tumor's clonal structure presents a major challenge. We propose a generative model for NGS data derived from multiple subsections of a single tumor, and we describe an expectation-maximization procedure for estimating the clonal genotypes and relative frequencies using this model. We demonstrate, via simulation, the validity of the approach, and then use our algorithm to assess the clonal composition of a primary breast cancer and associated metastatic lymph node. After dividing the tumor into subsections, we perform exome sequencing for each subsection to assess mutational content, followed by deep sequencing to precisely count normal and variant alleles within each subsection. By quantifying the frequencies of 17 somatic variants, we demonstrate that our algorithm predicts clonal relationships that are both phylogenetically and spatially plausible. Applying this method to larger numbers of tumors should cast light on the clonal evolution of cancers in space and time.
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Derivation of naive human embryonic stem cells.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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The naïve pluripotent state has been shown in mice to lead to broad and more robust developmental potential relative to primed mouse epiblast cells. The human naïve ES cell state has eluded derivation without the use of transgenes, and forced expression of OCT4, KLF4, and KLF2 allows maintenance of human cells in a naïve state [Hanna J, et al. (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(20):9222-9227]. We describe two routes to generate nontransgenic naïve human ES cells (hESCs). The first is by reverse toggling of preexisting primed hESC lines by preculture in the histone deacetylase inhibitors butyrate and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, followed by culture in MEK/ERK and GSK3 inhibitors (2i) with FGF2. The second route is by direct derivation from a human embryo in 2i with FGF2. We show that human naïve cells meet mouse criteria for the naïve state by growth characteristics, antibody labeling profile, gene expression, X-inactivation profile, mitochondrial morphology, microRNA profile and development in the context of teratomas. hESCs can exist in a naïve state without the need for transgenes. Direct derivation is an elusive, but attainable, process, leading to cells at the earliest stage of in vitro pluripotency described for humans. Reverse toggling of primed cells to naïve is efficient and reproducible.
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JAK2 expression is associated with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and improved breast cancer outcomes: implications for evaluating JAK2 inhibitors.
Cancer Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Janus kinase-2 (JAK2) supports breast cancer growth, and clinical trials testing JAK2 inhibitors are under way. In addition to the tumor epithelium, JAK2 is also expressed in other tissues including immune cells; whether the JAK2 mRNA levels in breast tumors correlate with outcomes has not been evaluated. Using a case-control design, JAK2 mRNA was measured in 223 archived breast tumors and associations with distant recurrence were evaluated by logistic regression. The frequency of correct pairwise comparisons of patient rankings based on JAK2 levels versus survival outcomes, the concordance index (CI), was evaluated using data from 2,460 patients in three cohorts. In the case-control study, increased JAK2 was associated with a decreasing risk of recurrence (multivariate P = 0.003, n = 223). Similarly, JAK2 was associated with a protective CI (<0.5) in the public cohorts: NETHERLANDS CI = 0.376, n = 295; METABRIC CI = 0.462, n = 1,981; OSLOVAL CI = 0.452, n = 184. Furthermore, JAK2 was strongly correlated with the favorable prognosis LYM metagene signature for infiltrating T cells (r = 0.5; P < 2 × 10(-16); n = 1,981) and with severe lymphocyte infiltration (P = 0.00003, n = 156). Moreover, the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib potently inhibited the anti-CD3-dependent production of IFN-?, a marker of the differentiation of Th cells along the tumor-inhibitory Th1 pathway. The potential for JAK2 inhibitors to interfere with the antitumor capacities of T cells should be evaluated.
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HIF induces human embryonic stem cell markers in cancer cells.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
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Low oxygen levels have been shown to promote self-renewal in many stem cells. In tumors, hypoxia is associated with aggressive disease course and poor clinical outcomes. Furthermore, many aggressive tumors have been shown to display gene expression signatures characteristic of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). We now tested whether hypoxia might be responsible for the hESC signature observed in aggressive tumors. We show that hypoxia, through hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), can induce an hESC-like transcriptional program, including the induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) inducers, OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, and microRNA-302 in 11 cancer cell lines (from prostate, brain, kidney, cervix, lung, colon, liver, and breast tumors). Furthermore, nondegradable forms of HIF?, combined with the traditional iPSC inducers, are highly efficient in generating A549 iPSC-like colonies that have high tumorigenic capacity. To test potential correlation between iPSC inducers and HIF expression in primary tumors, we analyzed primary prostate tumors and found a significant correlation between NANOG-, OCT4-, and HIF1?-positive regions. Furthermore, NANOG and OCT4 expressions positively correlated with increased prostate tumor Gleason score. In primary glioma-derived CD133 negative cells, hypoxia was able to induce neurospheres and hESC markers. Together, these findings suggest that HIF targets may act as key inducers of a dynamic state of stemness in pathologic conditions.
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Quantitative comparison of erythropoietin receptor levels in the epithelial versus endothelial fractions of primary breast tumors.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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Erythropoietin (EPO) was shown to reduce tumor survival in recent trials, however, its mechanisms of action are unclear. Efforts to measure tumor EPO receptor (EPOR) are limited by the promiscuity of EPOR antibodies, and concerns as to whether EPOR mRNA measurements are confounded by heterogeneity of tumor vasculature, a known EPOR source.
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Long-term regulation of genetically modified primary hematopoietic cells in dogs.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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We report long-term results from a large animal model of in vivo selection. Nine years ago, we transplanted two dogs (E900 and E958) with autologous marrow CD34(+) cells that had been transduced with a gammaretrovirus vector encoding a conditionally activatable derivative of the thrombopoietin receptor. Receptor activation through administration of a chemical inducer of dimerization (CID) (AP20187 or AP1903) confers a growth advantage. We previously reported responses to two 30-day intravenous (i.v.) courses of AP20187 administered within the first 8 months post-transplantation. We now report responses to 5-day subcutaneous (s.c.) courses of AP20187 or AP1903 at months 14, 90, and 93 (E900), or month 18 (E958), after transplantation. Long-term monitoring showed no rise in transduced cells in the absence of drug. Retroviral insertion site analysis showed that 4 of 6 (E958) and 5 of 12 (E900) transduced hematopoietic cell clones persisted lifelong. Both dogs were euthanized for reasons unrelated to the gene therapy treatment at 8 years 11 months (E958) and 11 years 1 month (E900) of age. Three clones from E900 remained detectable in each of two secondary recipients, one of which was treated with, and responded to, AP1903. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of safely regulating genetically engineered hematopoietic cells over many years.
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Limitations of a murine transgenic breast cancer model for studies of erythropoietin-induced tumor progression.
Transl Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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Adverse effects of erythropoietin (EPO) on tumor progression and survival were observed in recent phase 3 oncology trials. However, mechanisms remain poorly understood. We tested the effects of exogenous EPO on murine B16F10 melanoma growth in a subcutaneous tumor transplant model, and for the first time, in a model of spontaneous tumor formation within autochthonous epithelial tissues using murine mammary tumor virus promoter polyoma virus middle T antigen (MMTV-PyMT) transgenic mice. EPO receptor (EPOR) messenger RNA (mRNA) was detectable in both B16F10 tumors and mammary tumors from MMTV-PyMT mice but was 0.12 +/- 0.02% and 1.3 +/- 0.91% of the EPOR mRNA level in murine erythroid HCD-57 cells, respectively. B16F10 tumor growth rates in mice treated for 3 weeks with 30 microg/kg per week of darbepoetin alpha, 0.41 inverse days (range, 0.05-0.69 inverse days; n = 16), were similar to tumor growth rates observed in mice treated with PBS, 0.42 inverse days (range, 0.10-0.69 inverse days; n = 17). In contrast, darbepoetin alpha raised hematocrit levels to 0.593 (maximum, 0.729) compared with 0.448 (maximum, 0.532) in PBS-treated mice (P = .0004). In MMTV-PyMT mice, the weights of tumor-bearing mammary glands in mice treated for 6 weeks with 30 microg/kg per week of darbepoetin alpha, 3.37 g (range, 1.94-5.81 g; n = 27), did not significantly differ from the weights in PBS-treated mice, 3.76 g (range, 2.30-6.33 g; n = 26). In contrast, darbepoetin alpha raised hematocrit levels to 0.441 (maximum, 0.606) compared with 0.405 (maximum, 0.492) in PBS-treated mice (P = .05). Thus, effects of exogenous EPO on tumor growth were not recapitulated in these murine tumor models.
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A three-dimensional model of the yeast genome.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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Layered on top of information conveyed by DNA sequence and chromatin are higher order structures that encompass portions of chromosomes, entire chromosomes, and even whole genomes. Interphase chromosomes are not positioned randomly within the nucleus, but instead adopt preferred conformations. Disparate DNA elements co-localize into functionally defined aggregates or factories for transcription and DNA replication. In budding yeast, Drosophila and many other eukaryotes, chromosomes adopt a Rabl configuration, with arms extending from centromeres adjacent to the spindle pole body to telomeres that abut the nuclear envelope. Nonetheless, the topologies and spatial relationships of chromosomes remain poorly understood. Here we developed a method to globally capture intra- and inter-chromosomal interactions, and applied it to generate a map at kilobase resolution of the haploid genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The map recapitulates known features of genome organization, thereby validating the method, and identifies new features. Extensive regional and higher order folding of individual chromosomes is observed. Chromosome XII exhibits a striking conformation that implicates the nucleolus as a formidable barrier to interaction between DNA sequences at either end. Inter-chromosomal contacts are anchored by centromeres and include interactions among transfer RNA genes, among origins of early DNA replication and among sites where chromosomal breakpoints occur. Finally, we constructed a three-dimensional model of the yeast genome. Our findings provide a glimpse of the interface between the form and function of a eukaryotic genome.
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Characterization of microRNAs involved in embryonic stem cell states.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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Studies of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) reveal that these cell lines can be derived from differing stages of embryonic development. We analyzed common changes in the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) and mRNAs in 9 different human ESC (hESC) lines during early commitment and further examined the expression of key ESCenriched miRNAs in earlier developmental states in several species. We show that several previously defined hESC-enriched miRNA groups (the miR-302, -17, and -515 families, and the miR-371-373 cluster) and several other hESC-enriched miRNAs are down-regulated rapidly in response to differentiation. We further found that mRNAs up-regulated upon differentiation are enriched in potential target sites for these hESC-enriched miRNAs. Interestingly, we also observed that the expression of ESC-enriched miRNAs bearing identical seed sequences changed dynamically while the cells transitioned through early embryonic states. In human and monkey ESCs, as well as human-induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), the miR-371-373 cluster was consistently up-regulated, while the miR-302 family was mildly down-regulated when the cells were chemically treated to regress to an earlier developmental state. Similarly, miR-302b, but not mmu-miR-295, was expressed at higher levels in murine epiblast stem cells (mEpiSC) as compared with an earlier developmental state, mouse ESCs. These results raise the possibility that the relative expression of related miRNAs might serve as diagnostic indicators in defining the developmental state of embryonic cells and other stem cell lines, such as iPSCs. These data also raise the possibility that miRNAs bearing identical seed sequences could have specific functions during separable stages of early embryonic development.
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Evaluating erythropoietin-associated tumor progression using archival tissues from a phase III clinical trial.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2009
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Despite the prevalence of anemia in cancer, recombinant erythropoietin (Epo) has declined in use because of recent Phase III trials showing more rapid cancer progression and reduced survival in subjects randomized to Epo. Since Epo receptor (EpoR), Jak2, and Hsp70 are well-characterized mediators of Epo signaling in erythroid cells, we hypothesized that Epo might be especially harmful in patients whose tumors express high levels of these effectors. Because of the insensitivity of immunohistochemistry for detecting low level EpoR protein, we developed assays to measure levels of EpoR, Jak2 and Hsp70 mRNA in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumors. We tested 23 archival breast tumors as well as 136 archival head and neck cancers from ENHANCE, a Phase III trial of 351 patients randomized to Epo versus placebo concomitant with radiotherapy following complete resection, partial resection, or no resection of tumor. EpoR, Jak2, and Hsp70 mRNA levels varied >30-fold, >12-fold, and >13-fold across the breast cancers, and >30-fold, >40-fold, and >30-fold across the head and neck cancers, respectively. Locoregional progression-free survival (LPFS) did not differ among patients whose head and neck cancers expressed above- versus below-median levels of EpoR, Jak2 or Hsp70, except in the subgroup of patients with unresected tumors (n = 28), where above-median EpoR, above-median Jak2, and below-median Hsp70 mRNA levels were all associated with significantly poorer LPFS. Our results provide a framework for exploring the relationship between Epo, cancer progression, and survival using archival tumors from other Phase III clinical trials.
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Histone deacetylase inhibition elicits an evolutionarily conserved self-renewal program in embryonic stem cells.
Cell Stem Cell
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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Recent evidence indicates that mouse and human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are fixed at different developmental stages, with the former positioned earlier. We show that a narrow concentration of the naturally occurring short-chain fatty acid, sodium butyrate, supports the extensive self-renewal of mouse and human ESCs, while promoting their convergence toward an intermediate stem cell state. In response to butyrate, human ESCs regress to an earlier developmental stage characterized by a gene expression profile resembling that of mouse ESCs, preventing precocious Xist expression while retaining the ability to form complex teratomas in vivo. Other histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) also support human ESC self-renewal. Our results indicate that HDACi can promote ESC self-renewal across species, and demonstrate that ESCs can toggle between alternative states in response to environmental factors.
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Can we deconstruct cancer, one patient at a time?
Trends Genet.
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Patients with cancer face an ever-widening gap between the exponential rate at which technology improves and the linear rate at which these advances are translated into clinical practice. Closing this gap will require the establishment of learning loops that intimately link lab and clinic and enable the immediate transfer of knowledge, thereby engaging highly motivated patients with cancer as true partners in research. Here, we discuss the goal of creating a distributed network that aims to place world-class resources at the disposal of select patients with cancer and their oncologists, and then use these intensively monitored individual patient experiences to improve collective understanding of how cancer works.
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The genome in space and time: does form always follow function? How does the spatial and temporal organization of a eukaryotic genome reflect and influence its functions?
Bioessays
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Recent systematic studies using newly developed genomic approaches have revealed common mechanisms and principles that underpin the spatial organization of eukaryotic genomes and allow them to respond and adapt to diverse functional demands. Genomes harbor, interpret, and propagate genetic and epigenetic information, and the three-dimensional (3D) organization of genomes in the nucleus should be intrinsically linked to their biological functions. However, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying both the topological organization of genomes and the various nuclear processes is still largely incomplete. In this essay, we focus on the functional relevance as well as the biophysical properties of common organizational themes in genomes (e.g. looping, clustering, compartmentalization, and dynamics), and examine the interconnection between genome structure and function from this angle. Present evidence supports the idea that, in general, genome architecture reflects and influences genome function, and is relatively stable. However, the answer as to whether genome architecture is a hallmark of cell identity remains elusive.
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A genome-wide 3C-method for characterizing the three-dimensional architectures of genomes.
Methods
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Accumulating evidence demonstrates that the three-dimensional (3D) organization of chromosomes within the eukaryotic nucleus reflects and influences genomic activities, including transcription, DNA replication, recombination and DNA repair. In order to uncover structure-function relationships, it is necessary first to understand the principles underlying the folding and the 3D arrangement of chromosomes. Chromosome conformation capture (3C) provides a powerful tool for detecting interactions within and between chromosomes. A high throughput derivative of 3C, chromosome conformation capture on chip (4C), executes a genome-wide interrogation of interaction partners for a given locus. We recently developed a new method, a derivative of 3C and 4C, which, similar to Hi-C, is capable of comprehensively identifying long-range chromosome interactions throughout a genome in an unbiased fashion. Hence, our method can be applied to decipher the 3D architectures of genomes. Here, we provide a detailed protocol for this method.
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HIF1? induced switch from bivalent to exclusively glycolytic metabolism during ESC-to-EpiSC/hESC transition.
EMBO J.
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The function of metabolic state in stemness is poorly understood. Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and epiblast stem cells (EpiSC) are at distinct pluripotent states representing the inner cell mass (ICM) and epiblast embryos. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are similar to EpiSC stage. We now show a dramatic metabolic difference between these two stages. EpiSC/hESC are highly glycolytic, while ESC are bivalent in their energy production, dynamically switching from glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration on demand. Despite having a more developed and expanding mitochondrial content, EpiSC/hESC have low mitochondrial respiratory capacity due to low cytochrome c oxidase (COX) expression. Similarly, in vivo epiblasts suppress COX levels. These data reveal EpiSC/hESC functional similarity to the glycolytic phenotype in cancer (Warburg effect). We further show that hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?) is sufficient to drive ESC to a glycolytic Activin/Nodal-dependent EpiSC-like stage. This metabolic switch during early stem-cell development may be deterministic.
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Combination of Sleeping Beauty transposition and chemically induced dimerization selection for robust production of engineered cells.
Nucleic Acids Res.
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The main methods for producing genetically engineered cells use viral vectors for which safety issues and manufacturing costs remain a concern. In addition, selection of desired cells typically relies on the use of cytotoxic drugs with long culture times. Here, we introduce an efficient non-viral approach combining the Sleeping Beauty (SB) Transposon System with selective proliferation of engineered cells by chemically induced dimerization (CID) of growth factor receptors. Minicircles carrying a SB transposon cassette containing a reporter transgene and a gene for the F36VFGFR1 fusion protein were delivered to the hematopoietic cell line Ba/F3. Stably-transduced Ba/F3 cell populations with >98% purity were obtained within 1 week using this positive selection strategy. Copy number analysis by quantitative PCR (qPCR) revealed that CID-selected cells contain on average higher copy numbers of transgenes than flow cytometry-selected cells, demonstrating selective advantage for cells with multiple transposon insertions. A diverse population of cells is present both before and after culture in CID media, although site-specific qPCR of transposon junctions show that population diversity is significantly reduced after selection due to preferential expansion of clones with multiple integration events. This non-viral, positive selection approach is an attractive alternative for producing engineered cells.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.