JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rifaximin has a Marginal Impact on Microbial Translocation, T-cell Activation and Inflammation in HIV-Positive Immune Non-responders to Antiretroviral Therapy - ACTG A5286.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?Rifaximin, a nonabsorbable antibiotic that decreases lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in cirrhotics, may decrease the elevated levels of microbial translocation, T-cell activation and inflammation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive immune nonresponders to antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Related JoVE Video
Sevelamer Does Not Decrease Lipopolysaccharide or Soluble CD14 Levels But Decreases Soluble Tissue Factor, Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Cholesterol, and Oxidized LDL Cholesterol Levels in Individuals With Untreated HIV Infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abnormal levels of inflammation are associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. Microbial translocation, which may cause inflammation, is decreased by sevelamer in patients undergoing hemodialysis. In this single-arm study, we evaluated the effects of 8 weeks of sevelamer therapy on 36 HIV-infected subjects who were not receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sevelamer did not significantly change markers of microbial translocation, inflammation, or T-cell activation. During sevelamer treatment, however, levels of soluble tissue factor, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and oxidized LDL cholesterol decreased significantly, whereas D-dimer levels increased. Thus, in this study population, sevelamer did not reduce microbial translocation but may have yielded cardiovascular benefits.
Related JoVE Video
Soluble markers of inflammation and coagulation but not T-cell activation predict non-AIDS-defining morbid events during suppressive antiretroviral treatment.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Defining the association of non-AIDS-defining events with inflammation and immune activation among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons with antiretroviral therapy (ART)-associated virological suppression is critical to identifying interventions to decrease the occurrence of these events.
Related JoVE Video
Ten Ways Remote Sensing Can Contribute to Conservation.
Conserv. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In an effort to increase conservation effectiveness through the use of Earth observation technologies, a group of remote sensing scientists affiliated with government and academic institutions and conservation organizations identified 10 questions in conservation for which the potential to be answered would be greatly increased by use of remotely sensed data and analyses of those data. Our goals were to increase conservation practitioners' use of remote sensing to support their work, increase collaboration between the conservation science and remote sensing communities, identify and develop new and innovative uses of remote sensing for advancing conservation science, provide guidance to space agencies on how future satellite missions can support conservation science, and generate support from the public and private sector in the use of remote sensing data to address the 10 conservation questions. We identified a broad initial list of questions on the basis of an email chain-referral survey. We then used a workshop-based iterative and collaborative approach to whittle the list down to these final questions (which represent 10 major themes in conservation): How can global Earth observation data be used to model species distributions and abundances? How can remote sensing improve the understanding of animal movements? How can remotely sensed ecosystem variables be used to understand, monitor, and predict ecosystem response and resilience to multiple stressors? How can remote sensing be used to monitor the effects of climate on ecosystems? How can near real-time ecosystem monitoring catalyze threat reduction, governance and regulation compliance, and resource management decisions? How can remote sensing inform configuration of protected area networks at spatial extents relevant to populations of target species and ecosystem services? How can remote sensing-derived products be used to value and monitor changes in ecosystem services? How can remote sensing be used to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of conservation efforts? How does the expansion and intensification of agriculture and aquaculture alter ecosystems and the services they provide? How can remote sensing be used to determine the degree to which ecosystems are being disturbed or degraded and the effects of these changes on species and ecosystem functions?
Related JoVE Video
Microbial exposure alters HIV-1-induced mucosal CD4+ T cell death pathways Ex vivo.
Retrovirology
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early HIV-1 infection causes massive CD4+ T cell death in the gut and translocation of bacteria into the circulation. However, the programmed cell death (PCD) pathways used by HIV-1 to kill CD4+ T cells in the gut, and the impact of microbial exposure on T cell loss, remain unclear. Understanding mucosal HIV-1 triggered PCD could be advanced by an ex vivo system involving lamina propria mononuclear cells (LPMCs). We therefore modeled the interactions of gut LPMCs, CCR5-tropic HIV-1 and a commensal gut bacterial species, Escherichia coli. In this Lamina Propria Aggregate Culture (LPAC) model, LPMCs were infected with HIV-1BaL by spinoculation and cultured in the presence or absence of heat killed E.coli. CD4+ T cell numbers derived from flow cytometry and viable cell counts were reported relative to mock infection. Viable cells were identified by viability dye exclusion (AqVi), and intracellular HIV-1 Gag p24 protein was used to identify infected cells. Annexin V and AqVi were used to identify apoptotic versus necrotic cells. Caspase-1 and Caspase-3 activities were blocked using specific inhibitors YVAD and DEVD, respectively.
Related JoVE Video
Early microbial translocation blockade reduces SIV-mediated inflammation and viral replication.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Damage to the intestinal mucosa results in the translocation of microbes from the intestinal lumen into the circulation. Microbial translocation has been proposed to trigger immune activation, inflammation, and coagulopathy, all of which are key factors that drive HIV disease progression and non-HIV comorbidities; however, direct proof of a causal link is still lacking. Here, we have demonstrated that treatment of acutely SIV-infected pigtailed macaques with the drug sevelamer, which binds microbial lipopolysaccharide in the gut, dramatically reduces immune activation and inflammation and slightly reduces viral replication. Furthermore, sevelamer administration reduced coagulation biomarkers, confirming the contribution of microbial translocation in the development of cardiovascular comorbidities in SIV-infected nonhuman primates. Together, our data suggest that early control of microbial translocation may improve the outcome of HIV infection and limit noninfectious comorbidities associated with AIDS.
Related JoVE Video
Contribution of intestinal barrier damage, microbial translocation and HIV-1 infection status to an inflammaging signature.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Systemic inflammation is a characteristic of both HIV-1 infection and aging ("inflammaging"). Intestinal epithelial barrier damage (IEBD) and microbial translocation (MT) contribute to HIV-associated inflammation, but their impact on inflammaging remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
A comparison of the Pac-X trans-Pacific Wave Glider data and satellite data (MODIS, Aquarius, TRMM and VIIRS).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Four wave-propelled autonomous vehicles (Wave Gliders) instrumented with a variety of oceanographic and meteorological sensors were launched from San Francisco, CA in November 2011 for a trans-Pacific (Pac-X) voyage to test platform endurance. Two arrived in Australia, one in Dec 2012 and one in February 2013, while the two destined for Japan both ran into technical difficulties and did not arrive at their destination. The gliders were all equipped with sensors to measure temperature, salinity, turbidity, oxygen, and both chlorophyll and oil fluorescence. Here we conduct an initial assessment of the data set, noting necessary quality control steps and instrument utility. We conduct a validation of the Pac-X dataset by comparing the glider data to equivalent, or near-equivalent, satellite measurements. Sea surface temperature and salinity compared well to satellite measurements. Chl fluorescence from the gliders was more poorly correlated, with substantial between glider variability. Both turbidity and oil CDOM sensors were compromised to some degree by interfering processes. The well-known diel cycle in chlorophyll fluorescence was observed suggesting that mapping physiological data over large scales is possible. The gliders captured the Pacific Ocean's major oceanographic features including the increased chlorophyll biomass of the California Current and equatorial upwelling. A comparison of satellite sea surface salinity (Aquarius) and glider-measured salinity revealed thin low salinity lenses in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. One glider survived a direct passage through a tropical cyclone. Two gliders traversed an open ocean phytoplankton bloom; extensive spiking in the chlorophyll fluorescence data is consistent with aggregation and highlights another potential future use for the gliders. On long missions, redundant instrumentation would aid in interpreting unusual data streams, as well as a means to periodically image the sensor heads. Instrument placement is critical to minimize bubble-related problems in the data.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of illumina and 454 deep sequencing in participants failing raltegravir-based antiretroviral therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The impact of raltegravir-resistant HIV-1 minority variants (MVs) on raltegravir treatment failure is unknown. Illumina sequencing offers greater throughput than 454, but sequence analysis tools for viral sequencing are needed. We evaluated Illumina and 454 for the detection of HIV-1 raltegravir-resistant MVs.
Related JoVE Video
Toll-like receptor 3 signalling up-regulates expression of the HIV co-receptor G-protein coupled receptor 15 on human CD4+ T cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Many HIV-2 and SIV isolates, as well as some HIV-1 strains, can use the orphan 7-transmembrane receptor GPR15 as co-receptor for efficient entry into host cells. GPR15 is expressed on central memory and effector memory CD4(+) T cells in healthy individuals and a subset of these cells is susceptible to HIV-1 and SIV infection. However, it has not been determined whether GPR15 expression is altered in the context of HIV-1 infection.
Related JoVE Video
Increased Escherichia coli-Induced Interleukin-23 Production by CD16+ Monocytes Correlates with Systemic Immune Activation in Untreated HIV-1-Infected Individuals.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The level of microbial translocation from the intestine is increased in HIV-1 infection. Proinflammatory cytokine production by peripheral antigen-presenting cells in response to translocated microbes or microbial products may contribute to systemic immune activation, a hallmark of HIV-1 infection. We investigated the cytokine responses of peripheral blood myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) and monocytes to in vitro stimulation with commensal enteric Escherichia coli in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from untreated HIV-1-infected subjects and from uninfected controls. Levels of interleukin 23 (IL-23) produced by PBMC from HIV-1-infected subjects in response to E. coli stimulation were significantly higher than those produced by PBMC from uninfected subjects. IL-23 was produced primarily by CD16(+) monocytes. This subset of monocytes was increased in frequency and expressed higher levels of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in HIV-1-infected individuals than in controls. Blocking TLR4 on total CD14(+) monocytes reduced IL-23 production in response to E. coli stimulation. Levels of soluble CD27, an indicator of systemic immune activation, were elevated in HIV-1-infected subjects and were associated with the percentage of CD16(+) monocytes and the induction of IL-23 by E. coli, providing a link between these parameters and systemic inflammation. Taken together, these results suggest that IL-23 produced by CD16(+) monocytes in response to microbial stimulation may contribute to systemic immune activation in HIV-1-infected individuals.
Related JoVE Video
Associations of T cell activation and inflammatory biomarkers with virological response to darunavir/ritonavir plus raltegravir therapy.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
One of the goals of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is to attenuate HIV-induced systemic immune activation and inflammation. We determined the dynamics of biomarkers of immune activation, microbial translocation and inflammation during initial ART with a nucleos(t)ide-sparing regimen of darunavir/ritonavir plus raltegravir. We also evaluated associations between these biomarkers and the virological response to the regimen.
Related JoVE Video
Association of functional impairment with inflammation and immune activation in HIV type 1-infected adults receiving effective antiretroviral therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The relationships of inflammation, immune activation, and immunosenescence markers with functional impairment in aging human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected persons are unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
DC maturation and function are not altered by melanoma-derived immunosuppressive soluble factors.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although melanoma can elicit robust tumor antigen-specific immune responses, advanced melanoma is associated with immune tolerance. We have previously described several mechanisms of melanoma-induced immunosuppression, including the skewing of the immune response towards a Th2 cytokine profile and the induction of regulatory T cells. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are potentially important players that can direct other cells of the immune system towards a cytotoxic, humoral, or regulatory phenotype, we hypothesized that melanoma-produced factors directly affect the maturation and function of DCs, influencing the nature and magnitude of the resulting immune response.
Related JoVE Video
Blood myeloid dendritic cells from HIV-1-infected individuals display a proapoptotic profile characterized by decreased Bcl-2 levels and by caspase-3+ frequencies that are associated with levels of plasma viremia and T cell activation in an exploratory st
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reduced frequencies of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cell (DC) subsets (mDCs and pDCs, respectively) have been observed in the peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected individuals throughout the course of disease. Accumulation of DCs in lymph nodes (LNs) may partly account for the decreased numbers observed in blood, but increased DC death may also be a contributing factor. We used multiparameter flow cytometry to evaluate pro- and antiapoptotic markers in blood mDCs and pDCs from untreated HIV-1-infected donors, from a subset of infected donors before and after receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), and from uninfected control donors. Blood mDCs, but not pDCs, from untreated HIV-1-infected donors expressed lower levels of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 than DCs from uninfected donors. A subset of HIV-1-infected donors had elevated frequencies of proapoptotic caspase-3(+) blood mDCs, and positive correlations were observed between caspase-3(+) mDC frequencies and plasma viral load and CD8(+) T-cell activation levels. Caspase-3(+) mDC frequencies, but not mDC Bcl-2 expression, were reduced with viral suppression on ART. Apoptosis markers on DCs in blood and LN samples from a cohort of untreated, HIV-1-infected donors with chronic disease were also evaluated. LN mDCs displayed higher levels of Bcl-2 and lower caspase-3(+) frequencies than did matched blood mDCs. Conversely, LN pDCs expressed lower Bcl-2 levels than their blood counterparts. In summary, blood mDCs from untreated HIV-1-infected subjects displayed a proapoptotic profile that was partially reversed with viral suppression, suggesting that DC death may be a factor contributing to blood DC depletion in the setting of chronic, untreated HIV disease.
Related JoVE Video
Regulation of virus-specific CD4+ T cell function by multiple costimulatory receptors during chronic HIV infection.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Elevated expression of inhibitory receptors on virus-specific T cells has been implicated as a mechanism by which viruses evade host immune surveillance. Blockade of these pathways during chronic infection leads to increased T cell function and improved immune control of viral replication. To explore the association between costimulatory receptors and HIV replication, we examined the expression of programmed death 1 (PD-1), CTLA-4, T cell Ig domain and mucin domain 3 (TIM-3), and CD28 on HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells from HIV-infected subjects. Greater than 30% of HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells from untreated subjects coexpressed PD-1, CTLA-4, and TIM-3, whereas <2% of CMV- or varicella-zoster virus-specific CD4(+) T cells expressed all three receptors. Coexpression of all three inhibitory receptors on HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells was more strongly correlated with viral load compared with the expression of each receptor individually. Suppression of HIV replication with antiretroviral therapy was associated with decreased expression of all three inhibitory receptors on HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells. Surprisingly, a high percentage of HIV-specific CD4(+) T cells that expressed inhibitory receptors also coexpressed CD28. In vitro blockade of PD-1 binding concurrent with stimulation through CD28 synergistically increased HIV-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation to a greater extent than did either alone. These findings indicate that HIV-specific CD4(+) T cell responses during chronic infection are regulated by complex patterns of coexpressed inhibitory receptors and that the synergistic effect of inhibitory receptor blockade and stimulation of costimulatory receptors could be used for therapeutic augmentation of HIV-specific CD4(+) T cell function.
Related JoVE Video
Human intestinal lamina propria CD1c+ dendritic cells display an activated phenotype at steady state and produce IL-23 in response to TLR7/8 stimulation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) play key roles in mediating tolerance to commensal flora and inflammatory responses against mucosal pathogens. The mechanisms by which intestinal "conditioning" influences human DC responses to microbial stimuli remain poorly understood. Infections with viruses, such as HIV-1, that target mucosal tissue result in intestinal epithelial barrier breakdown and increased translocation of commensal bacteria into the lamina propria (LP). It is unclear whether innate LP DC responses to concurrent viral and bacterial stimuli influence mucosal HIV-1 pathogenesis. In this study, direct ex vivo phenotype and in vitro constitutive cytokine production of CD1c+ DCs in human intestinal LP were compared with those in peripheral blood (PB). To evaluate innate responses to viral and bacterial stimuli, intracellular cytokine production by LP and PB DCs following stimulation with ligands for TLRs 2, 4, 5, and 7/8 was evaluated. At steady state, LP CD1c+ DCs expressed higher levels of activation markers (CD40, CD83, CD86, HLA-DR, and CCR7) than did PB CD1c+ DCs, and higher frequencies of LP CD1c+ DCs constitutively produced IL-6 and -10 and TNF-alpha. LP DCs had blunted cytokine responses to TLR4 ligand and TLR5 ligand stimulation relative to PB DCs, yet similarly produced IL-10 in response to TLR2 ligand. Only synthetic TLR7/8 ligand, a mimic of viral ssRNA, induced IL-23 production by LP CD1c+ DCs, and this proinflammatory cytokine response was synergistically enhanced following combined TLR7/8 and TLR4 stimulation. These findings highlight a potential mechanism by which viruses like HIV-1 may subvert homeostatic mechanisms and induce inflammation in the intestinal mucosa.
Related JoVE Video
Increased survival from stage IV melanoma associated with fewer regulatory T Cells.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Melanoma often elicits a profound immune response, and this response has been exploited by various immune therapies. These immunotherapies ultimately fail, however, and advanced melanoma is uniformly fatal, suggesting the development of an immune escape mechanism. In this study, markers of immune escape including regulatory T cells (T(regs)), dendritic cells (DCs), and TGF-beta were evaluated in 14 Stage IV melanoma patients and correlated with survival.
Related JoVE Video
Phenotypic and functional characterization of HIV-1-specific CD4+CD8+ double-positive T cells in early and chronic HIV-1 infection.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) T cells represent a poorly characterized population of effector T cells found at low frequencies in the peripheral blood. Virus-specific DP T cells have been identified in HIV-1-infected patients but their origin, relationship to conventional CD4+ and CD8+ single-positive (SP) T cells, and role in disease pathogenesis are unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Evidence for dendritic cell-dependent CD4(+) T helper-1 type responses to commensal bacteria in normal human intestinal lamina propria.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reactivity of lamina propria (LP) T cells to commensal bacteria has been demonstrated in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in humans with IBD, but few studies have evaluated the function of such cells in normal individuals. LP mononuclear cells (LPMC) were disaggregated from healthy human intestinal tissue and cultured with heat-killed commensal and pathogenic bacteria. CD3(+)CD4(+) IFN-gamma-producing (Th1) cells reactive to commensal bacteria were demonstrated at frequencies ranging from 0.05 to 2.28% in LPMC. Bacteria-specific Th1 responses were inhibited by anti-HLA-DR antibodies and chloroquine exposure, were enriched in LP relative to peripheral blood, and expressed effector memory cell markers. Bacteria-specific CD4(+) T cell proliferation in vitro was dependent on the presence of LP dendritic cells (DCs), which produced pro-inflammatory cytokines upon bacterial exposure. These results suggest that bacteria-reactive DCs and CD4(+) T cells in normal LP have substantial pro-inflammatory potential that is revealed upon disaggregation in vitro.
Related JoVE Video
Differential interleukin-10 (IL-10) and IL-23 production by human blood monocytes and dendritic cells in response to commensal enteric bacteria.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human peripheral blood contains antigen-presenting cells (APC), including dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes, that may encounter microbes that have translocated from the intestine to the periphery in disease states like HIV-1 infection and inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated the response of DC and monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to a panel of representative commensal enteric bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp., and Bacteroides fragilis. All three bacteria induced significant upregulation of the maturation and activation markers CD40 and CD83 on myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). However, only mDC produced cytokines, including interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12p40/70, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), in response to bacterial stimulation. Cytokine profiles in whole PBMC differed depending on the stimulating bacterial species: B. fragilis induced production of IL-23, IL-12p70, and IL-10, whereas E. coli and Enterococcus induced an IL-10-predominant response. mDC and monocyte depletion experiments indicated that these cell types differentially produced IL-10 and IL-23 in response to E. coli and B. fragilis. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron did not induce levels of IL-23 similar to those of B. fragilis, suggesting that B. fragilis may have unique proinflammatory properties among Bacteroides species. The addition of recombinant human IL-10 to PBMC cultures stimulated with commensal bacteria abrogated the IL-23 response, whereas blocking IL-10 significantly enhanced IL-23 production, suggesting that IL-10 controls the levels of IL-23 produced. These results indicate that blood mDC and monocytes respond differentially to innate stimulation with whole commensal bacteria and that IL-10 may play a role in controlling the proinflammatory response to translocated microbes.
Related JoVE Video
HIV-1 infection of human intestinal lamina propria CD4+ T cells in vitro is enhanced by exposure to commensal Escherichia coli.
J. Immunol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microbial translocation has been linked to systemic immune activation in HIV-1 disease, yet mechanisms by which microbes may contribute to HIV-associated intestinal pathogenesis are poorly understood. Importantly, our understanding of the impact of translocating commensal intestinal bacteria on mucosal-associated T cell responses in the context of ongoing viral replication that occurs early in HIV-1 infection is limited. We previously identified commensal Escherichia coli-reactive Th1 and Th17 cells in normal human intestinal lamina propria (LP). In this article, we established an ex vivo assay to investigate the interactions between Th cell subsets in primary human LP mononuclear cells (LPMCs), commensal E. coli, and CCR5-tropic HIV-1(Bal). Addition of heat-killed E. coli to HIV-1-exposed LPMCs resulted in increases in HIV-1 replication, CD4 T cell activation and infection, and IL-17 and IFN-? production. Conversely, purified LPS derived from commensal E. coli did not enhance CD4 T cell infection. E. coli exposure induced greater proliferation of LPMC Th17 than Th1 cells. Th17 cells were more permissive to infection than Th1 cells in HIV-1-exposed LPMC cultures, and Th17 cell infection frequencies significantly increased in the presence of E. coli. The E. coli-associated enhancement of infection was dependent on the presence of CD11c(+) LP dendritic cells and, in part, on MHC class II-restricted Ag presentation. These results highlight a potential role for translocating microbes in impacting mucosal HIV-1 pathogenesis during early infection by increasing HIV-1 replication and infection of intestinal Th1 and Th17 cells.
Related JoVE Video
Coagulation biomarkers predict disease progression in SIV-infected nonhuman primates.
Blood
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HIV infection is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular complications, the underlying mechanism of which remains unclear. Plasma levels of the coagulation biomarker D-dimer (DD) correlate with increased mortality and cardiovascular events in HIV-infected patients. We compared the incidence of cardiovascular lesions and the levels of the coagulation markers DD and thrombin antithrombin in pathogenic SIV infections of rhesus and pigtailed macaques (PTMs) and in nonpathogenic SIV infection of African green monkeys (AGMs) and sooty mangabeys. Hypercoagulability and cardiovascular pathology were only observed in pathogenic SIV infections. In PTMs infected with SIV from AGMs (SIVagm), DD levels were highly indicative of AIDS progression and increased mortality and were associated with cardiovascular lesions, pointing to SIVagm-infected PTMs as an ideal animal model for the study of HIV-associated cardiovascular disease. In pathogenic SIV infection, DD increased early after infection, was strongly correlated with markers of immune activation/inflammation and microbial translocation (MT), and was only peripherally associated with viral loads. Endotoxin administration to SIVagm-infected AGMs (which lack chronic SIV-induced MT and immune activation) resulted in significant increases of DD. Our results demonstrate that hypercoagulation and cardiovascular pathology are at least in part a consequence of excessive immune activation and MT in SIV infection.
Related JoVE Video
Summer diatom blooms in the North Pacific subtropical gyre: 2008-2009.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The summertime North Pacific subtropical gyre has widespread phytoplankton blooms between Hawaii and the subtropical front (?30°N) that appear as chlorophyll (chl) increases in satellite ocean color data. Nitrogen-fixing diatom symbioses (diatom-diazotroph associations: DDAs) often increase 10(2)-10(3) fold in these blooms and contribute to elevated export flux. In 2008 and 2009, two cruises targeted satellite chlorophyll blooms to examine DDA species abundance, chlorophyll concentration, biogenic silica concentration, and hydrography. Generalized observations that DDA blooms occur when the mixed layer depth is < 70 m are supported, but there is no consistent relationship between mixed layer depth, bloom intensity, or composition; regional blooms between 22-34°N occur within a broader temperature range (21-26°C) than previously reported. In both years, the Hemiaulus-Richelia and Rhizosolenia-Richelia DDAs increased 10(2)-10(3) over background concentrations within satellite-defined bloom features. The two years share a common trend of Hemiaulus dominance of the DDAs and substantial increases in the >10 µm chl a fraction (?40-90+% of total chl a). Integrated diatom abundance varied 10-fold over <10 km. Biogenic silica concentration tracked diatom abundance, was dominated by the >10 µm size fraction, and increased up to 5-fold in the blooms. The two years differed in the magnitude of the surface chl a increase (2009>2008), the abundance of pennate diatoms within the bloom (2009>2008), and the substantially greater mixed layer depth in 2009. Only the 2009 bloom had sufficient chl a in the >10 µm fraction to produce the observed ocean color chl increase. Blooms had high spatial variability; ocean color images likely average over numerous small events over time and space scales that exceed the individual event scale. Summertime DDA export flux noted at the Hawaii time-series Sta. ALOHA is probably a generalized feature of the eastern N. Pacific north to the subtropical front.
Related JoVE Video
CD28-negative CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in antiretroviral therapy-naive HIV-infected adults enrolled in adult clinical trials group studies.
J. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) have higher risk than HIV-negative individuals for diseases associated with aging. T-cell senescence, characterized by expansion of cells lacking the costimulatory molecule CD28, has been hypothesized to mediate these risks.
Related JoVE Video
The Natural Killer Cell Interferon-gamma Response to Bacteria is Diminished in Untreated HIV-1 Infection and Defects Persist Despite Viral Suppression.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Natural Killer (NK) cells are important in innate immune responses to bacterial as well as viral pathogens. HIV-1 infection is associated with opportunistic bacterial infections and with microbial translocation, but the nature of the NK cell response to bacteria during HIV infection has not been studied extensively. The objective of this study was to compare NK cell responses to bacteria in HIV-infected versus uninfected individuals.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.