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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cigarette smoking and variations in systemic immune and inflammation markers.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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A comprehensive characterization of the effects of cigarette smoke on systemic soluble immune/inflammatory markers may provide insight into the mechanisms through which smoking causes disease.
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Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, and Serum Markers of Inflammation, Immunity, and Insulin Resistance.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Epidemiologic studies examining circulating levels of inflammatory markers in relation to obesity and physical inactivity may aid in our understanding of the role of inflammation in obesity-related cancers. However, previous studies on this topic have focused on a limited set of markers.
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A Prospective Study of Height and Body Mass Index in Childhood, Birth Weight, and Risk of Adult Glioma Over 40 Years of Follow-up.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Greater attained height and greater body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) in young adulthood have been associated with glioma risk, but few studies have investigated the association with body size at birth or during childhood, when the brain undergoes rapid cell growth and differentiation. The Copenhagen School Health Records Register includes data on 320,425 Danish schoolchildren born between 1930 and 1989, with height and weight measurements from ages 7-13 years and parentally recorded birth weights. We prospectively evaluated associations between childhood height and BMI, birth weight, and adult glioma risk. During follow-up (1968-2010), 355 men and 253 women aged ?18 years were diagnosed with glioma. In boys, height at each age between 7 and 13 years was positively associated with glioma risk; hazard ratios per standard-deviation score at ages 7 (approximately 5.1 cm) and 13 (approximately 7.6 cm) years were 1.17 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05, 1.30) and 1.21 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.35), respectively. No associations were observed for childhood height in girls or for BMI. Birth weight was positively associated with risk (per 0.5 kg: hazard ratio = 1.13, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.24). These results suggest that exposures associated with higher birth weight and, in boys, greater height during childhood may contribute to the etiology of adult glioma.
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Randomization to screening for prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large cancer screening trials.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Thyroid cancer incidence has increased significantly over the past three decades due, in part, to incidental detection. We examined the association between randomization to screening for lung, prostate, colorectal and/or ovarian cancers and thyroid cancer incidence in two large prospective randomized screening trials.
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Lack of association between fingernail selenium and thyroid cancer risk: a case-control study in French Polynesia.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Numerous studies have suggested that selenium deficiency may be associated with an increased risk for several types of cancer, but few have focused on thyroid cancer.
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Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33.
Zhaoming Wang, Bin Zhu, Mingfeng Zhang, Hemang Parikh, Jinping Jia, Charles C Chung, Joshua N Sampson, Jason W Hoskins, Amy Hutchinson, Laurie Burdette, Abdisamad Ibrahim, Christopher Hautman, Preethi S Raj, Christian C Abnet, Andrew A Adjei, Anders Ahlbom, Demetrius Albanes, Naomi E Allen, Christine B Ambrosone, Melinda Aldrich, Pilar Amiano, Christopher Amos, Ulrika Andersson, Gerald Andriole, Irene L Andrulis, Cecilia Arici, Alan A Arslan, Melissa A Austin, Dalsu Baris, Donald A Barkauskas, Bryan A Bassig, Laura E Beane Freeman, Christine D Berg, Sonja I Berndt, Pier Alberto Bertazzi, Richard B Biritwum, Amanda Black, William Blot, Heiner Boeing, Paolo Boffetta, Kelly Bolton, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Paige M Bracci, Paul Brennan, Louise A Brinton, Michelle Brotzman, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Julie E Buring, Mary Ann Butler, Qiuyin Cai, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Federico Canzian, Guangwen Cao, Neil E Caporaso, Alfredo Carrato, Tania Carreon, Angela Carta, Gee-Chen Chang, I-Shou Chang, Jenny Chang-Claude, Xu Che, Chien-Jen Chen, Chih-Yi Chen, Chung-Hsing Chen, Constance Chen, Kuan-Yu Chen, Yuh-Min Chen, Anand P Chokkalingam, Lisa W Chu, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Graham A Colditz, Joanne S Colt, David Conti, Michael B Cook, Victoria K Cortessis, E David Crawford, Olivier Cussenot, Faith G Davis, Immaculata De Vivo, Xiang Deng, Ti Ding, Colin P Dinney, Anna Luisa Di Stefano, W Ryan Diver, Eric J Duell, Joanne W Elena, Jin-Hu Fan, Heather Spencer Feigelson, Maria Feychting, Jonine D Figueroa, Adrienne M Flanagan, Joseph F Fraumeni, Neal D Freedman, Brooke L Fridley, Charles S Fuchs, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Steven Gallinger, Yu-Tang Gao, Susan M Gapstur, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Reina Garcia-Closas, Julie M Gastier-Foster, J Michael Gaziano, Daniela S Gerhard, Carol A Giffen, Graham G Giles, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Edward L Giovannucci, Michael Goggins, Nalan Gokgoz, Alisa M Goldstein, Carlos González, Richard Gorlick, Mark H Greene, Myron Gross, H Barton Grossman, Robert Grubb, Jian Gu, Peng Guan, Christopher A Haiman, Göran Hallmans, Susan E Hankinson, Curtis C Harris, Patricia Hartge, Claudia Hattinger, Richard B Hayes, Qincheng He, Lee Helman, Brian E Henderson, Roger Henriksson, Judith Hoffman-Bolton, Chancellor Hohensee, Elizabeth A Holly, Yun-Chul Hong, Robert N Hoover, H Dean Hosgood, Chin-Fu Hsiao, Ann W Hsing, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Nan Hu, Wei Hu, Zhibin Hu, Ming-Shyan Huang, David J Hunter, Peter D Inskip, Hidemi Ito, Eric J Jacobs, Kevin B Jacobs, Mazda Jenab, Bu-Tian Ji, Christoffer Johansen, Mattias Johansson, Alison Johnson, Rudolf Kaaks, Ashish M Kamat, Aruna Kamineni, Margaret Karagas, Chand Khanna, Kay-Tee Khaw, Christopher Kim, In-Sam Kim, Jin Hee Kim, Yeul Hong Kim, Young-Chul Kim, Young Tae Kim, Chang Hyun Kang, Yoo Jin Jung, Cari M Kitahara, Alison P Klein, Robert Klein, Manolis Kogevinas, Woon-Puay Koh, Takashi Kohno, Laurence N Kolonel, Charles Kooperberg, Christian P Kratz, Vittorio Krogh, Hideo Kunitoh, Robert C Kurtz, Nilgun Kurucu, Qing Lan, Mark Lathrop, Ching C Lau, Fernando Lecanda, Kyoung-Mu Lee, Maxwell P Lee, Loic Le Marchand, Seth P Lerner, Donghui Li, Linda M Liao, Wei-Yen Lim, Dongxin Lin, Jie Lin, Sara Lindstrom, Martha S Linet, Jolanta Lissowska, Jianjun Liu, Börje Ljungberg, Josep Lloreta, Daru Lu, Jing Ma, Nuria Malats, Satu Mannisto, Neyssa Marina, Giuseppe Mastrangelo, Keitaro Matsuo, Katherine A McGlynn, Roberta Mckean-Cowdin, Lorna H McNeill, Robert R McWilliams, Beatrice S Melin, Paul S Meltzer, James E Mensah, Xiaoping Miao, Dominique S Michaud, Alison M Mondul, Lee E Moore, Kenneth Muir, Shelley Niwa, Sara H Olson, Nick Orr, Salvatore Panico, Jae Yong Park, Alpa V Patel, Ana Patiño-García, Sofia Pavanello, Petra H M Peeters, Beata Peplonska, Ulrike Peters, Gloria M Petersen, Piero Picci, Malcolm C Pike, Stefano Porru, Jennifer Prescott, Xia Pu, Mark P Purdue, You-Lin Qiao, Preetha Rajaraman, Elio Riboli, Harvey A Risch, Rebecca J Rodabough, Nathaniel Rothman, Avima M Ruder, Jeong-Seon Ryu, Marc Sanson, Alan Schned, Fredrick R Schumacher, Ann G Schwartz, Kendra L Schwartz, Molly Schwenn, Katia Scotlandi, Adeline Seow, Consol Serra, Massimo Serra, Howard D Sesso, Gianluca Severi, Hongbing Shen, Min Shen, Sanjay Shete, Kouya Shiraishi, Xiao-Ou Shu, Afshan Siddiq, Luis Sierrasesúmaga, Sabina Sierri, Alan Dart Loon Sihoe, Debra T Silverman, Matthias Simon, Melissa C Southey, Logan Spector, Margaret Spitz, Meir Stampfer, Pär Stattin, Mariana C Stern, Victoria L Stevens, Rachael Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, Daniel O Stram, Sara S Strom, Wu-Chou Su, Malin Sund, Sook Whan Sung, Anthony Swerdlow, Wen Tan, Hideo Tanaka, Wei Tang, Ze-Zhang Tang, Adonina Tardón, Evelyn Tay, Philip R Taylor, Yao Tettey, David M Thomas, Roberto Tirabosco, Anne Tjonneland, Geoffrey S Tobias, Jorge R Toro, Ruth C Travis, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Rebecca Troisi, Ann Truelove, Ying-Huang Tsai, Margaret A Tucker, Rosario Tumino, David Van Den Berg, Stephen K Van Den Eeden, Roel Vermeulen, Paolo Vineis, Kala Visvanathan, Ulla Vogel, Chaoyu Wang, Chengfeng Wang, Junwen Wang, Sophia S Wang, Elisabete Weiderpass, Stephanie J Weinstein, Nicolas Wentzensen, William Wheeler, Emily White, John K Wiencke, Alicja Wolk, Brian M Wolpin, Maria Pik Wong, Margaret Wrensch, Chen Wu, Tangchun Wu, Xifeng Wu, Yi-Long Wu, Jay S Wunder, Yong-Bing Xiang, Jun Xu, Hannah P Yang, Pan-Chyr Yang, Yasushi Yatabe, Yuanqing Ye, Edward D Yeboah, Zhihua Yin, Chen Ying, Chong-Jen Yu, Kai Yu, Jian-Min Yuan, Krista A Zanetti, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Wei Zheng, Baosen Zhou, Lisa Mirabello, Sharon A Savage, Peter Kraft, Stephen J Chanock, Meredith Yeager, Maria Terese Landi, Jianxin Shi, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Laufey T Amundadottir.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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A pooled analysis of body mass index and pancreatic cancer mortality in african americans.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States and both incidence and mortality are highest in African Americans. Obesity is also disproportionately high in African Americans, but limited data are available on the relation of obesity to pancreatic cancer in this population.
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Association between class III obesity (BMI of 40-59 kg/m2) and mortality: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The prevalence of class III obesity (body mass index [BMI]?40 kg/m2) has increased dramatically in several countries and currently affects 6% of adults in the US, with uncertain impact on the risks of illness and death. Using data from a large pooled study, we evaluated the risk of death, overall and due to a wide range of causes, and years of life expectancy lost associated with class III obesity.
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Work history and mortality risks in 90?268 US radiological technologists.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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There have been few studies of work history and mortality risks in medical radiation workers. We expanded by 11?years and more outcomes our previous study of mortality risks and work history, a proxy for radiation exposure.
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Body size and multiple myeloma mortality: a pooled analysis of 20 prospective studies.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare but highly fatal malignancy. High body weight is associated with this cancer, but several questions remain regarding the aetiological relevance of timing and location of body weight. To address these questions, we conducted a pooled analysis of MM mortality using 1·5 million participants (including 1388 MM deaths) from 20 prospective cohorts in the National Cancer Institute Cohort Consortium. Proportional hazards regression was used to calculate pooled multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Associations with elevated MM mortality were observed for higher early-adult body mass index (BMI; HR = 1·22, 95% CI: 1·09-1·35 per 5 kg/m(2) ) and for higher cohort-entry BMI (HR 1·09, 95% CI: 1·03-1·16 per 5 kg/m(2) ) and waist circumference (HR = 1·06, 95% CI: 1·02-1·10 per 5 cm). Women who were the heaviest, both in early adulthood (BMI 25+) and at cohort entry (BMI 30+) were at greater risk compared to those with BMI 18·5 ? 25 at both time points (HR = 1·95, 95% CI: 1·33-2·86). Waist-to-hip ratio and height were not associated with MM mortality. These observations suggest that overall, and possibly also central, obesity influence myeloma mortality, and women have the highest risk of death from this cancer if they remain heavy throughout adulthood.
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Dietary flavonoid intake and thyroid cancer risk in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Experimental studies suggested that flavonoids may influence thyroid carcinogenesis, but epidemiologic evidence is sparse. No study has examined different classes of flavonoids in relation to thyroid cancer risk. Using data from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, which enrolled 491,840 U.S. men and women, ages 50 to 71 years at baseline, we prospectively examined the risk of thyroid cancer in relation to dietary intakes of catechins, flavanones, flavonols, anthocyanidins, flavones, isoflavones, and total flavonoids. Dietary intakes were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Cancer cases were ascertained by linkage to state cancer registries. Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). During follow up (mean = 9 years), we identified 586 thyroid cancer cases. Thyroid cancer risk was inversely associated with dietary flavan-3-ols [HRQ5 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 0.70 (0.55, 0.91), PTrend = 0.03], but positively associated with flavanones [HRQ5 vs. Q1 (95% CI): 1.50 (1.14, 1.96), PTrend = 0.004]. Other classes of flavonoids and total flavonoids were not associated with thyroid cancer risk. Similar associations were found for papillary thyroid cancer. Our findings suggest that dietary intake of different classes of dietary flavonoids may have divergent effects on thyroid cancer risk. More studies are needed to clarify a role of flavonoids in thyroid cancer development. Results from our study suggest a potential nutritional etiology of thyroid cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(6); 1102-8. ©2014 AACR.
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In utero exposure to iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout and anthropometric characteristics in adolescence.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Prenatal exposure to external radiation has been linked to growth retardation among atomic bomb survivors in adolescence. It is unclear from previous studies whether in utero exposure to internal radiation such as iodine-131 (I-131), which concentrates in the thyroid gland, has an effect on physical growth. We examined the associations between estimated thyroid gland dose from prenatal exposure to I-131 and self-reported height and weight in a cohort of 2,460 individuals exposed to radioactive fallout from the 1986 Chernobyl nuclear accident [mean I-131 dose = 72 (mGy)] and screened for thyroid diseases in adolescence. Using multivariable linear regression models, we estimated the mean differences in height, weight and body mass index (BMI) per unit increase in dose (100 mGy) in models adjusted for gender, age at examination, type of residence (rural/urban) and presence of thyroid disease diagnosed at screening. All of the adjustment factors as well as the trimester of exposure were evaluated as potential modifiers of the dose response. Overall, no significant dose response was found for height (P = 0.29), weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.16). We found significant modification of the dose response for weight and BMI by presence/absence of thyroid disease (P = 0.02 and P = 0.03, respectively), but not for other factors. In individuals without thyroid disease (n = 1,856), there was a weak, significant association between I-131 thyroid dose and higher weight (210 g per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) or BMI (70 g/m² per 100 mGy, P = 0.02) that depended on individuals (n = 52) exposed to ?500 mGy. In individuals with thyroid disease (n = 579, 67.4% with simple diffuse goiter) no significant association with I-131 for weight (P = 0.14) or BMI (P = 0.14) was found. These results do not support the hypothesis that in utero exposure to I-131 at levels experienced by a majority of study subjects may be associated with meaningful differences in adolescent anthropometry. However, additional studies are needed to clarify whether in utero exposure to I-131 at levels > = 500 mGy may be associated with increases in weight/BMI and to evaluate the confounding or modifying role of thyroid disease, past iodine deficiency, maternal and prenatal/postnatal factors.
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A pooled analysis of waist circumference and mortality in 650,000 adults.
Mayo Clin. Proc.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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To assess the independent effect of waist circumference on mortality across the entire body mass index (BMI) range and to estimate the loss in life expectancy related to a higher waist circumference.
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Benign breast and gynecologic conditions, reproductive and hormonal factors, and risk of thyroid cancer.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The higher incidence of thyroid cancer in women compared with men suggests an influence of sex steroid hormones in the etiology of this malignancy. We investigated a comprehensive set of potential indicators of lifetime sex steroid hormone exposure in relation to thyroid cancer risk. Using data from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, which enrolled 70,047 women, 50 to 78 years old, we prospectively examined associations of self-reported history of benign breast and gynecologic conditions, reproductive factors, and exogenous sex hormone use with thyroid cancer risk. Multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in models using age as the time metric. During follow-up (median, 11 years), 127 women were diagnosed with first primary thyroid cancer. Older age at natural menopause (?55 vs. <50 years; HR, 2.24; 95% CI, 1.20-4.18), greater estimated lifetime number of ovulatory cycles (?490 vs. <415 cycles; HR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.33-4.30), greater number of live births (?5 vs. 1-2; HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.05-2.82), and history of uterine fibroids (HR, 1.72; 95% CI, 1.18-2.50) were associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer. Earlier age at menarche, greater number of reproductive years, history of a tubal ligation, and history of ovarian cysts were nonsignificantly associated with increased thyroid cancer risk. No associations were observed for oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy, or history of benign breast disease or endometriosis. In general, we found that factors reflecting a greater length of exposure to endogenous hormones, particularly during the reproductive years, were associated with risk of postmenopausal thyroid cancer.
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A Pooled Analysis of Body Mass Index and Mortality among African Americans.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Pooled analyses among whites and East Asians have demonstrated positive associations between all-cause mortality and body mass index (BMI), but studies of African Americans have yielded less consistent results. We examined the association between BMI and all-cause mortality in a sample of African Americans pooled from seven prospective cohort studies: NIH-AARP, 1995-2009; Adventist Health Study 2, 2002-2008; Black Women's Health Study, 1995-2009; Cancer Prevention Study II, 1982-2008; Multiethnic Cohort Study, 1993-2007; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Screening Trial, 1993-2009; Southern Community Cohort Study, 2002-2009. 239,526 African Americans (including 100,175 never smokers without baseline heart disease, stroke, or cancer), age 30-104 (mean 52) and 71% female, were followed up to 26.5 years (mean 11.7). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mortality were derived from multivariate Cox proportional hazards models. Among healthy, never smokers (11,386 deaths), HRs (CI) for BMI 25-27.4, 27.5-29.9, 30-34.9, 35-39.9, 40-49.9, and 50-60 kg/m2 were 1.02 (0.92-1.12), 1.06 (0.95-1.18), 1.32 (1.18-1.47), 1.54 (1.29-1.83), 1.93 (1.46-2.56), and 1.93 (0.80-4.69), respectively among men and 1.06 (0.99-1.15), 1.15 (1.06-1.25), 1.24 (1.15-1.34), 1.58 (1.43-1.74), 1.80 (1.60-2.02), and 2.31 (1.74-3.07) respectively among women (reference category 22.5-24.9). HRs were highest among those with the highest educational attainment, longest follow-up, and for cardiovascular disease mortality. Obesity was associated with a higher risk of mortality in African Americans, similar to that observed in pooled analyses of whites and East Asians. This study provides compelling evidence to support public health efforts to prevent excess weight gain and obesity in African Americans.
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The Association between Selenium and Other Micronutrients and Thyroid Cancer Incidence in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Selenium is an essential trace element that is important for thyroid hormone metabolism and has antioxidant properties which protect the thyroid gland from oxidative stress. The association of selenium, as well as intake of other micronutrients, with thyroid cancer is unclear.
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Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2013
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Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7 to 13 years with risk of thyroid cancer in later life. The study population included 321,085 children from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born between 1930 and 1989 in Copenhagen, Denmark, with measurements of height and weight from 7 to 13 years of age. These data were linked with the Danish Cancer Registry to identify incident thyroid cancer cases (1968-2010). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for age- and sex-specific height and BMI SD scores (SDS) using proportional hazards models stratified by birth cohort and sex. During follow-up (median = 38.6 years), 171 women and 64 men were diagnosed with thyroid cancer. Both height and BMI were positively associated with thyroid cancer risk, and these associations were similar by age at measurement. Using age 10 as an example, HRs per 1 unit increase in SDS for height (?6-7 cm) and BMI (? 1.5-2 kg/m(2)) were 1.22 (95% CI, 1.07-1.40) and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.00-1.34), respectively. These results, together with the relatively young ages at which thyroid cancers are diagnosed compared with other malignancies, suggest a potential link between early-life factors related to growth and body weight and thyroid carcinogenesis. Cancer Res; 74(1); 1-8. ©2013 AACR.
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Personal History of Diabetes, Genetic Susceptibility to Diabetes, and Risk of Brain Glioma: A Pooled Analysis of Observational Studies.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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Brain glioma is a relatively rare and fatal malignancy in adulthood with few known risk factors. Some observational studies have reported inverse associations between diabetes and subsequent glioma risk, but possible mechanisms are unclear.
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Dietary carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, and glycemic load and endometrial cancer risk: a prospective cohort study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2013
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Endometrial cancer risk has been directly associated with glycemic load. However, few studies have investigated this link, and the etiological role of specific dietary carbohydrate components remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate associations of carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, and glycemic load with endometrial cancer risk in the US Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. Recruitment took place in 1993-2001. Over a median of 9.0 years of follow-up through 2009, 386 women developed endometrial cancer among 36,115 considered in the analysis. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 124-item diet history questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Significant inverse associations were detected between endometrial cancer risk and total available carbohydrate intake (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.49, 0.90), total sugars intake (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.96), and glycemic load (HR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.46, 0.84) when women in the highest quartile of intake were compared with those in the lowest. These inverse associations were strongest among overweight and obese women. No associations with endometrial cancer risk were observed for glycemic index or dietary fiber. Our findings contrast with previous evidence and suggest that high carbohydrate intakes and glycemic loads are protective against endometrial cancer development. Further clarification of these associations is warranted.
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Undertaking cancer research in international settings: report from the american society for preventive oncology special interest group on international issues in cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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The mission of the American Society for Preventive Oncology Special Interest Group in International Issues in Cancer is to serve as a worldwide cancer prevention resource. At the 2013 annual meeting, we presented three early career investigators who conducted research with international collaborators as part of postdoctoral studies. We present a synopsis of each of the scientific presentations. The investigators also highlight useful strategies to encourage a more successful international collaboration, including seeking out existing collaborations between colleagues and international researchers, maintaining awareness and sensitivity of cultural norms, establishing clear communication about investigator roles and expectations, and persevering in the face of potential challenges due to the nature of these collaborations. Incorporation of these key elements could prove useful for researchers interested in pursuing cross-country projects.
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Prospective investigation of body mass index, colorectal adenoma, and colorectal cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Obesity has consistently been linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer, particularly among men. Whether body mass index (BMI) differentially influences the risk across the stages of colorectal cancer development remains unclear. We evaluated the associations of BMI with colorectal adenoma incidence, adenoma recurrence, and cancer in the context of a large screening trial, in which cases and controls had an equal chance for disease detection.
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Body mass index and mortality among blacks and whites Adults in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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In a large prospective cohort, we examined the relationship of body mass index (BMI) with mortality among blacks and compared the results to those among whites in this population.
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Folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer: pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2011
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Epidemiological studies evaluating the association between folate intake and risk of pancreatic cancer have produced inconsistent results. The statistical power to examine this association has been limited in previous studies partly because of small sample size and limited range of folate intake in some studies.
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Dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) cohort.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2011
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To evaluate the associations between dietary carbohydrate, glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and incident prostate cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) cohort.
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Total cholesterol and cancer risk in a large prospective study in Korea.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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To further clarify the relationship between total cholesterol and cancer, which remains unclear.
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Obesity and thyroid cancer risk among U.S. men and women: a pooled analysis of five prospective studies.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Thyroid cancer incidence has risen dramatically in the United States since the early 1980s. Although the prevalence of obesity has doubled during this time period, the relationship between obesity and thyroid cancer is uncertain.
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Body fat distribution, weight change during adulthood, and thyroid cancer risk in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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Body mass index (BMI) has been positively associated with thyroid cancer risk in several studies, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined the associations for waist and hip circumference and weight change during adulthood with thyroid cancer risk among 125,347 men and 72,363 women in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study who completed a second mailed questionnaire in 1996-1997. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated separately by sex and adjusted for race/ethnicity, education and smoking status. During follow-up (median = 10.1 years), 106 men and 105 women were diagnosed with a first primary thyroid cancer, as identified through linkage to state cancer registries. Having a large waist circumference (above the clinical cutpoint for normal: > 102 cm in men and > 88 cm in women) was associated with increased risk in both men (HR = 1.79, 95% CI: 1.21-2.63) and women (HR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.05-2.26). Having both a large waist and BMI in the obese range (? 30 kg/m2) approximately doubled the risk of thyroid cancer (HR in men = 2.13, 95% CI: 1.18-3.85; HR in women = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.31-3.25) compared to having a normal waist circumference/normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m2). We also observed positive association for weight gain between ages 18-35 in men (gained ? 10.0 kg vs. lost/gained < 5 kg, HR = 1.49, 95% CI: 0.93-2.39, p-trend = 0.03), but the association was less pronounced in women. No clear association for weight gain in later life was observed. These results support a potential role for hormonal and metabolic parameters common to central adiposity in thyroid carcinogenesis.
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Body mass index and mortality in non-Hispanic black adults in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study.
PLoS ONE
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Although the prevalence of obesity (body mass index, kg/m(2), BMI ?30) is higher in non-Hispanic blacks than in non-Hispanic whites, the relation of BMI to total mortality in non-Hispanic blacks is not well defined.
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Known glioma risk loci are associated with glioma with a family history of brain tumours -- a case-control gene association study.
Int. J. Cancer
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Familial cancer can be used to leverage genetic association studies. Recent genome-wide association studies have reported independent associations between seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and risk of glioma. The aim of this study was to investigate whether glioma cases with a positive family history of brain tumours, defined as having at least one first- or second-degree relative with a history of brain tumour, are associated with known glioma risk loci. One thousand four hundred and thirty-one glioma cases and 2,868 cancer-free controls were identified from four case-control studies and two prospective cohorts from USA, Sweden and Denmark and genotyped for seven SNPs previously reported to be associated with glioma risk in case-control designed studies. Odds ratios were calculated by unconditional logistic regression. In analyses including glioma cases with a family history of brain tumours (n = 104) and control subjects free of glioma at baseline, three of seven SNPs were associated with glioma risk: rs2736100 (5p15.33, TERT), rs4977756 (9p21.3, CDKN2A-CDKN2B) and rs6010620 (20q13.33, RTEL1). After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, only one marker was statistically significantly associated with glioma risk, rs6010620 (ORtrend for the minor (A) allele, 0.39; 95% CI: 0.25-0.61; Bonferroni adjusted ptrend , 1.7 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, as previously shown for glioma regardless of family history of brain tumours, rs6010620 (RTEL1) was associated with an increased risk of glioma when restricting to cases with family history of brain tumours. These findings require confirmation in further studies with a larger number of glioma cases with a family history of brain tumours.
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Common obesity-related genetic variants and papillary thyroid cancer risk.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
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Epidemiologic studies have shown consistent associations between obesity and increased thyroid cancer risk, but, to date, no studies have investigated the relationship between thyroid cancer risk and obesity-related single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP).
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Ionizing radiation and the risk of brain and central nervous system tumors: a systematic review.
Neuro-oncology
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Although exposure to moderate-to-high doses of ionizing radiation is the only established environmental risk factor for brain and CNS tumors, it is not clear whether this relationship differs across tumor subtypes, by sex or age at exposure, or at the low-to-moderate range of exposure. This systematic review summarizes the epidemiologic evidence on the association between ionizing radiation exposure and risk of brain/CNS tumors. Articles included in this review estimated radiation exposure doses to the brain and reported excess relative risk (ERR) estimates for brain/CNS tumors. Eight cohorts were eligible for inclusion in the analysis. Average age at exposure ranged from 8 months to 26 years. Mean dose to the brain ranged from 0.07 to 10 Gy. Elevated risks for brain/CNS tumors were consistently observed in relation to ionizing radiation exposure, but the strength of this association varied across cohorts. Generally, ionizing radiation was more strongly associated with risk for meningioma compared with glioma. The positive association between ionizing radiation exposure and risk for glioma was stronger for younger vs older ages at exposure. We did not observe an effect modification on the risk for meningioma by sex, age at exposure, time since exposure, or attained age. The etiologic role of ionizing radiation in the development of brain/CNS tumors needs to be clarified further through additional studies that quantify the association between ionizing radiation and risk for brain/CNS tumors at low-to-moderate doses, examine risks across tumor subtypes, and account for potential effect modifiers.
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Genome-wide association study of glioma and meta-analysis.
Hum. Genet.
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Gliomas account for approximately 80 % of all primary malignant brain tumors and, despite improvements in clinical care over the last 20 years, remain among the most lethal tumors, underscoring the need for gaining new insights that could translate into clinical advances. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified seven new susceptibility regions. We conducted a new independent GWAS of glioma using 1,856 cases and 4,955 controls (from 14 cohort studies, 3 case-control studies, and 1 population-based case-only study) and found evidence of strong replication for three of the seven previously reported associations at 20q13.33 (RTEL), 5p15.33 (TERT), and 9p21.3 (CDKN2BAS), and consistent association signals for the remaining four at 7p11.2 (EGFR both loci), 8q24.21 (CCDC26) and 11q23.3 (PHLDB1). The direction and magnitude of the signal were consistent for samples from cohort and case-control studies, but the strength of the association was more pronounced for loci rs6010620 (20q,13.33; RTEL) and rs2736100 (5p15.33, TERT) in cohort studies despite the smaller number of cases in this group, likely due to relatively more higher grade tumors being captured in the cohort studies. We further examined the 85 most promising single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers identified in our study in three replication sets (5,015 cases and 11,601 controls), but no new markers reached genome-wide significance. Our findings suggest that larger studies focusing on novel approaches as well as specific tumor subtypes or subgroups will be required to identify additional common susceptibility loci for glioma risk.
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Cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and thyroid cancer risk: a pooled analysis of five prospective studies in the United States.
Cancer Causes Control
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We examined the associations between cigarette smoking, alcohol intake, and thyroid cancer risk in a pooled analysis of five prospective studies.
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Body fatness and markers of thyroid function among U.S. men and women.
PLoS ONE
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We evaluated the association of central versus overall adiposity on levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT(3)), and free thyroxine (fT(4)) among euthyroid subjects taken from a cross-sectional, representative sample of the adult non-institutionalized U.S. population.
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Physical activity, diabetes, and thyroid cancer risk: a pooled analysis of five prospective studies.
Cancer Causes Control
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PURPOSE: Although many studies have linked obesity with increased risk of thyroid cancer, few have investigated the role of obesity-related lifestyle characteristics and medical conditions in the etiology of this disease. We examined the associations of self-reported physical activity and diabetes history with thyroid cancer risk in a large pooled analysis of prospective cohort studies. METHODS: Data from five prospective studies in the U.S. (n = 362,342 men, 312,149 women) were coded using standardized exposure, covariate, and outcome definitions. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for thyroid cancer were estimated using age as the time metric and adjusting for sex, education, race, marital status, cigarette smoking, body mass index, alcohol intake, and cohort. Effect modification by other risk factors (e.g., age, sex, and body mass index) and differences by cancer subtype (e.g., papillary, follicular) were also examined. RESULTS: Over follow-up (median = 10.5 years), 308 men and 510 women were diagnosed with a first primary thyroid cancer. Overall, subjects reporting the greatest amount of physical activity had an increased risk of the disease (HR = 1.18, 95% CI:1.00-1.39); however, this association was restricted to participants who were overweight/obese (?25 kg/m(2); HR = 1.34, 95% CI:1.09-1.64) as opposed to normal-weight (<25 kg/m(2); HR = 0.92, 95% CI:0.69-1.22; P-interaction = 0.03). We found no overall association between self-reported history of diabetes and thyroid cancer risk (HR = 1.08, 95% CI:0.83-1.40). CONCLUSION: Neither physical inactivity nor diabetes history was associated with increased risk of thyroid cancer. While it may have been a chance finding, the possible increased risk associated with greater physical activity warrants further investigation.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.