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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evaluating the effect of energy-dense foods consumption on preschool children's body mass index: a prospective analysis from 2 to 4 years of age.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to study the association between the consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years and body mass index (BMI) at 4 years, using a cross-lagged panel design.
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OFD1 and flotillins are integral components of a ciliary signaling protein complex organized by polycystins in renal epithelia and odontoblasts.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Mutation of the X-linked oral-facial-digital syndrome type 1 (OFD1) gene is embryonic lethal in males and results in craniofacial malformations and adult onset polycystic kidney disease in females. While the OFD1 protein localizes to centriolar satellites, centrosomes and basal bodies, its cellular function and how it relates to cystic kidney disease is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that OFD1 is assembled into a protein complex that is localized to the primary cilium and contains the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and domain organizing flotillin proteins. This protein complex, which has similarity to a basolateral adhesion domain formed during cell polarization, also contains the polycystin proteins that when mutant cause autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). Importantly, in human ADPKD cells where mutant polycystin-1 fails to localize to cilia, there is a concomitant loss of localization of polycystin-2, OFD1, EGFR and flotillin-1 to cilia. Together, these data suggest that polycystins are necessary for assembly of a novel flotillin-containing ciliary signaling complex and provide a molecular rationale for the common renal pathologies caused by OFD1 and PKD mutations.
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Replication levels, false presences and the estimation of the presence/absence from eDNA metabarcoding data.
Mol Ecol Resour
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding is increasingly used to study the present and past biodiversity. eDNA analyses often rely on amplification of very small quantities or degraded DNA. To avoid missing detection of taxa that are actually present (false negatives), multiple extractions and amplifications of the same samples are often performed. However, the level of replication needed for reliable estimates of the presence/absence patterns remains an unaddressed topic. Furthermore, degraded DNA and PCR/sequencing errors might produce false positives. We used simulations and empirical data to evaluate the level of replication required for accurate detection of targeted taxa in different contexts and to assess the performance of methods used to reduce the risk of false detections. Furthermore, we evaluated whether statistical approaches developed to estimate occupancy in the presence of observational errors can successfully estimate true prevalence, detection probability and false-positive rates. Replications reduced the rate of false negatives; the optimal level of replication was strongly dependent on the detection probability of taxa. Occupancy models successfully estimated true prevalence, detection probability and false-positive rates, but their performance increased with the number of replicates. At least eight PCR replicates should be performed if detection probability is not high, such as in ancient DNA studies. Multiple DNA extractions from the same sample yielded consistent results; in some cases, collecting multiple samples from the same locality allowed detecting more species. The optimal level of replication for accurate species detection strongly varies among studies and could be explicitly estimated to improve the reliability of results.
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The oral-facial-digital syndrome gene C2CD3 encodes a positive regulator of centriole elongation.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Centrioles are microtubule-based, barrel-shaped structures that initiate the assembly of centrosomes and cilia. How centriole length is precisely set remains elusive. The microcephaly protein CPAP (also known as MCPH6) promotes procentriole growth, whereas the oral-facial-digital (OFD) syndrome protein OFD1 represses centriole elongation. Here we uncover a new subtype of OFD with severe microcephaly and cerebral malformations and identify distinct mutations in two affected families in the evolutionarily conserved C2CD3 gene. Concordant with the clinical overlap, C2CD3 colocalizes with OFD1 at the distal end of centrioles, and C2CD3 physically associates with OFD1. However, whereas OFD1 deletion leads to centriole hyperelongation, loss of C2CD3 results in short centrioles without subdistal and distal appendages. Because C2CD3 overexpression triggers centriole hyperelongation and OFD1 antagonizes this activity, we propose that C2CD3 directly promotes centriole elongation and that OFD1 acts as a negative regulator of C2CD3. Our results identify regulation of centriole length as an emerging pathogenic mechanism in ciliopathies.
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A conserved transcriptional network regulates lamina development in the Drosophila visual system.
Development
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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The visual system of insects is a multilayered structure composed externally by the compound eye and internally by the three ganglia of the optic lobe: lamina, medulla and the lobula complex. The differentiation of lamina neurons depends heavily on Hedgehog (Hh) signaling, which is delivered by the incoming photoreceptor axons, and occurs in a wave-like fashion. Despite the primary role of lamina neurons in visual perception, it is still unclear how these neurons are specified from neuroepithelial (NE) progenitors. Here we show that a homothorax (hth)-eyes absent (eya)-sine oculis (so)-dachshund (dac) gene regulatory cassette is involved in this specification. Lamina neurons differentiate from NE progenitors that express hth, eya and so. One of the first events in the differentiation of lamina neurons is the upregulation of dac expression in response to Hh signaling. We show that this dac upregulation, which marks the transition from NE progenitors into lamina precursors, also requires Eya/So, the expression of which is locked in by mutual feedback. dac expression is crucial for lamina differentiation because it ensures repression of hth, a negative regulator of single-minded, and thus dac allows further lamina neuron differentiation. Therefore, the specification of lamina neurons is controlled by coupling the cell-autonomous hth-eya-so-dac regulatory cassette to Hh signaling.
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Longitudinal changes in adiposity during adolescence: a population-based cohort.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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We aimed to assess the trends in body mass index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) from the age of 13 to 17?years and to evaluate how sociodemographic and behavioural characteristics at the age of 13? impact changes in BMI and BF%.
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In vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity of H2bdtc-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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The parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, which remains a serious public health concern and continues to victimize thousands of people, primarily in the poorest regions of Latin America. In the search for new therapeutic drugs against T. cruzi, here we have evaluated both the in vitro and the in vivo activity of 5-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-phenyl-pyrazoline-1-(S-benzyl dithiocarbazate) (H2bdtc) as a free compound or encapsulated into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN); we compared the results with those achieved by using the currently employed drug, benznidazole. H2bdtc encapsulated into solid lipid nanoparticles (a) effectively reduced parasitemia in mice at concentrations 100 times lower than that normally employed for benznidazole (clinically applied at a concentration of 400 µmol kg(-1) day(-1)); (b) diminished inflammation and lesions of the liver and heart; and (c) resulted in 100% survival of mice infected with T. cruzi. Therefore, H2bdtc is a potent trypanocidal agent.
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Associations between a posteriori defined dietary patterns and bone mineral density in adolescents.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Dietary pattern analysis may uncover the joint effects of multiple dietary components on bone health, but such research is scarce and targets mostly adults.
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Genetic diversity evaluation on Portuguese Leishmania infantum strains by multilocus microsatellite typing.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Leishmania infantum is the main etiological agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean region, including Portugal, but, given its low isoenzyme diversity in this country, the population structure is poorly known. A set of 14 polymorphic microsatellite markers was studied on 136 Portuguese Leishmania strains isolated from different hosts, geographic regions and different clinical forms. A total of 108 different genotypes were found, which is a degree of genetic diversity comparable to other regions, even within zymodeme MON-1. A single most common genotype was detected in 1:5 of all strains, which, with a greater number of multi-strain genotypes found in the Lisbon Metropolitan Region, particularly for human strains, was suggestive of the occurrence of clonal transmission. In addition, a high re-infection rate was found among HIV+ patients. Model based analysis by STRUCTURE uncovered two main populations (populations A and B, composed of MON-1 and non-MON-1 strains, respectively), with great genetic diversity between them, and two MON-1 sub-populations (A1 and A2). High inbreeding coefficients were found in these populations, although strains with mixed ancestry were identified, suggesting that recombination also plays a role in the epidemiology of this species in Portugal. Some but limited geographical differentiation was observed, with groups of strains from the same regions clustering together, particularly those from canine origin. Our results show that L. infantum isolates from Portugal present microsatellite diversity comparable to other regions and that different transmission models play a role in its epidemiology, from clonal transmission to recombination. In addition, although Portugal is a small country, mobility of people and animals is high and Leishmania can be probably easily disseminated between infected hosts throughout the country, two instances of seemingly local restricted transmission were identified.
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Social and health behavioural determinants of maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children.
Matern Child Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Parental child-feeding attitudes and practices may compromise the development of healthy eating habits and adequate weight status in children. This study aimed to identify maternal child-feeding patterns in preschool-aged children and to evaluate their association with maternal social and health behavioural characteristics. Trained interviewers evaluated 4724 dyads of mothers and their 4-5-year-old child from the Generation XXI cohort. Maternal child-feeding attitudes and practices were assessed through the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the Overt/Covert Control scale. Associations were estimated using linear regression [adjusted for maternal education, body mass index (BMI), fruit and vegetables (F&V) intake and child's BMI?z-score]. Principal component analysis defined a three-factor structure explaining 58% of the total variance of maternal child-feeding patterns: perceived monitoring - representing mothers with higher levels of monitoring, perceived responsibility and overt control; restriction - characterizing mothers with higher covert control, restriction and concerns about child's weight; pressure to eat - identifying mothers with higher levels of pressure to eat and overt control. Lower socioeconomic status, better health perception, higher F&V intake and offspring cohabitation were associated with more 'perceived monitoring' mothers. Higher maternal F&V intake and depression were associated with more 'restrictive' mothers. Younger mothers, less educated, with poorer health perception and offspring cohabiting, were associated with higher use of 'pressure to eat'. Maternal socioeconomic indicators and family environment were more associated with perceived monitoring and pressure to eat, whereas maternal health behavioural characteristics were mainly associated with restriction. These findings will be helpful in future research and public health programmes on child-feeding patterns.
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Multivariate analysis of lifestyle, constitutive and body composition factors influencing bone health in community-dwelling older adults from Madeira, Portugal.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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This study describes the association between habitual physical activity (PA), other lifestyle/constitutive factors, body composition, and bone health/strength in a large sample of older adults from Madeira, Portugal. This cross-sectional study included 401 males and 401 females aged 60-79 years old. Femoral strength index (FSI) and bone mineral density (BMD) of the whole body, lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), and total lean tissue mass (TLTM) and total fat mass (TFM) were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-DXA. PA was assessed during face-to-face interviews using the Baecke questionnaire and for a sub-sample by Tritrac accelerometer. Demographic and health history information were obtained by telephone interview through questionnaire. The relationship between habitual PA variables and bone health/strength indicators (whole body BMD, FNBMD, LSBMD, and FSI) investigated using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient was similar for females (0.098?r?0.189) and males (0.104?r?0.105). Results from standard multiple regression analysis indicated that the primary and most significant predictors for FNBMD in both sexes were age, TLTM, and TFM. For LSBMD, the most significant predictor was TFM in men and TFM, age, and TLTM in females. Our regression model explained 8.3-14.2% and 14.8-29.6% of the total variance in LSBMD and FNBMD for males and females, respectively. This study suggests that habitual PA is minimally but positively associated with BMD and FSI among older adult males and females and that body composition factors like TLTM and TFM are the strongest determinants of BMD and FSI in this population.
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Determinants of weight loss dieting among adolescents: a longitudinal analysis.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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To prospectively assess characteristics associated with dieting behaviors in adolescence.
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Combination and adaptation of two tools to assess parental feeding practices in pre-school children.
Eat Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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To test a combined version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire and the expanded concept of parental control ("covert" and "overt") among Portuguese preschool children.
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Seroprevalence and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in pigs in southern Piauí.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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This study is aimed to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with T. gondii infection in pigs. We evaluated 143 pigs, in 10 randomly-chosen farms located in Southern Piauí. The pig's blood serum was analyzed through ELISA in detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies. A seroprevalence of 25.5% was observed in the pigs that reacted against T. gondii antigens. The data from the records demonstrated an association with some factors such as: age, diet, type of management, breed and presence of cats in the farms with a prevalence of T. gondii. With the exception of sex, all others features represent risk factors for T. gondii infection. Furthermore, our data contributed to the understanding of the T. gondii seroprevalence in pig farms located in Southern Piauí.
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Could the Food Neophobia Scale be adapted to pregnant women? A confirmatory factor analysis in a Portuguese sample.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) is widely used in different countries, however appropriate psychometric analyses are required to allow cross-cultural comparisons. To our knowledge, most studies have been conducted among children and adult populations, with no reference to pregnant women. The objective of this study was to translate and test the psychometric properties of a Portuguese version of the FNS, and to identify clusters of food neophobia during pregnancy.
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Association between energy-dense food consumption at 2 years of age and diet quality at 4 years of age.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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The present study aimed to evaluate the association between the consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age and the consumption of foods and diet quality at 4 years of age. The sample included 705 children evaluated at 2 and 4 years of age, as part of the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Data on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of both children and mothers were collected by face-to-face interviews. The weight and height of children were measured by trained professionals. Based on FFQ, four energy-dense food groups were defined: soft drinks; sweets; cakes; salty snacks. A healthy eating index was developed using the WHO dietary recommendations for children (2006) aged 4 years. The associations were evaluated through Poisson regression models. After adjustment for maternal age and education, childs carer, childs siblings and childs BMI, higher consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was found to be associated with higher consumption of the same foods 2 years later. An inverse association was found between the intake ( ? median) of soft drinks (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0·74, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·95), salty snacks (IRR = 0·80, 95 % CI 0·65, 1·00) and sweets (IRR = 0·73, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·91) at 2 years of age and the consumption of fruit and vegetables at 4 years of age ( ? 5 times/d). Weekly and daily consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was associated with a lower healthy eating score at 4 years of age (IRR = 0·75, 95 % CI 0·58, 0·96; IRR = 0·56, 95 % CI 0·41, 0·77, respectively). The consumption of energy-dense foods at young ages is negatively associated with the diet quality of children a few years later.
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IGF-1 Intranasal Administration Rescues Huntingtons Disease Phenotypes in YAC128 Mice.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Huntingtons disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by an expansion of CAG repeats in the gene encoding for huntingtin. Brain metabolic dysfunction and altered Akt signaling pathways have been associated with disease progression. Nevertheless, conflicting results persist regarding the role of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1)/Akt pathway in HD. While high plasma levels of IGF-1 correlated with cognitive decline in HD patients, other data showed protective effects of IGF-1 in HD striatal neurons and R6/2 mice. Thus, in the present study, we investigated motor phenotype, peripheral and central metabolic profile, and striatal and cortical signaling pathways in YAC128 mice subjected to intranasal administration of recombinant human IGF-1 (rhIGF-1) for 2 weeks, in order to promote IGF-1 delivery to the brain. We show that IGF-1 supplementation enhances IGF-1 cortical levels and improves motor activity and both peripheral and central metabolic abnormalities in YAC128 mice. Moreover, decreased Akt activation in HD mice brain was ameliorated following IGF-1 administration. Upregulation of Akt following rhIGF-1 treatment occurred concomitantly with increased phosphorylation of mutant huntingtin on Ser421. These data suggest that intranasal administration of rhIGF-1 ameliorates HD-associated glucose metabolic brain abnormalities and mice phenotype.
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The involvement of heparin in retinal infection by Toxoplasma gondii in a chick model revealed an ontogenetic-dependent pattern.
Parasitol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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This work aimed to test the influence of heparin on the susceptibility of retinal cells to Toxoplasma gondii infection. Primary cultures of retinas from chick embryos of 8 (E8) or 11 (E11) days and fibroblasts (control) were used. To determine the influence of heparin in T. gondii infection, tachyzoites of the RH strain were treated with heparin before addition in the culture. A monoclonal anti-heparin antibody was used to analyze the heparin distribution on fibroblast and retinal cell surfaces. Our results showed that retinal cells (E8 and E11) had a higher infection rate than fibroblasts (91% and 24% versus 13%, respectively). Pre-treatment of T. gondii with heparin decreased infection of E8 retinal cells when compared with non-treated parasites (45% versus 91%, respectively), but not of E11 cells (35% versus 48%). In accordance, retinal cells presented an intense heparin staining by immunofluorescence assay. In conclusion, retinal cells from chick embryos were more susceptible to infection by T. gondii compared to fibroblasts and, pre-treatment of tachyzoites with heparin decreased the number of infected cells and parasite burden particularly for E8 retinal cells.
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The influence of early feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake among preschool children in 4 European birth cohorts.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Fruit and vegetable intake in children remains below recommendations in many countries. The long-term effects of early parental feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake are not clearly established.
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Identifying adolescents with high fasting glucose: the importance of adding grandparents data when assessing family history of diabetes.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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To evaluate the role of adding grandparents data to parental information to the assessment of a family history of diabetes, in order to identify adolescents with high fasting glucose.
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Systematic review of saturated fatty acids on inflammation and circulating levels of adipokines.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Diet is one factor that plays a part in coronary heart disease risk through multiple biological mechanisms including subclinical inflammation. In this review, we aimed to systematically assess and summarize evidence regarding the association of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) with inflammatory markers and adipokines. An electronic search of the literature was conducted up to September 2010 using Medline, Scopus, Web of Science, and Science Direct (updated from September 2010 to August 2011 through Medline). Original studies that were written in Portuguese, English, Spanish, or French, and addressed the effects of SFA (not dietary sources or SFA-rich diets) on inflammatory markers or adipokines in adult populations were considered eligible. Data from 15 studies providing adjusted estimates were extracted. The publication year varied from 1995 to 2010 and the sample size from 54 to 4900. Most studies were cross sectional, with 3 studies using a prospective design. Twelve studies assessed total SFA, and 3 studies considered their subtypes, which were measured through dietary assessments (11 studies) or in blood samples (4 studies). Significant positive associations were observed between SFA and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and interleukin-6, whereas no significant associations were observed with E-selectin, tumor necrosis factor ?, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, fibrinogen, and adiponectin. For high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 2 studies showed significant positive associations, whereas 3 studies reported no significant associations. One study reported a significant inverse association of SFA with leptin, although the other 3 found no significant associations. Based on this systematic review, a potential positive association of SFA with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein but not with adipokines is suggested, which should be confirmed by future research.
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Short-time variation in serum uric acid concentrations in post-myocardial infarction patients.
Clin. Lab.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Studies on SUA temporal profile in relation to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the SUA level variations following myocardial infarction.
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Effect of television viewing on food and nutrient intake among adolescents.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Among the behaviors associated with food intake, exposure to television is particularly important given the number of adolescents exposed. Also, increased time spent watching television has been associated with physical inactivity and with less desirable dietary intake among adolescents. The aim of this study was to examine the association between television viewing and dietary intake among 13-y-old adolescents.
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Effect of carrageenans of different chemical structures in biointerfaces: A Langmuir film study.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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Carrageenans have unique properties in the pharmaceutical and food industries that involve interactions with lipid interfaces, which may be accessed if surface chemistry techniques are employed. The interaction between three different types of carrageenans with dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) was investigated using Langmuir monolayers as biointerface models. With a combination of data on Surface Pressure-Area Isotherms and Polarization Modulation Infrared Reflection-Absorption Spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS), the effect of different fractions on DPPC monolayers was compared by considering the chemical and structural differences as well as the anticoagulant activity of each fraction. Thus, a model is proposed in which carrageenans can encompass interactions that are maximized due to geometrical adaptations on behalf of the interactions between polysaccharide sulfate groups and lipid polar heads.
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Caffeine intake reduces sleep duration in adolescents.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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In our study, we hypothesized that higher caffeine intake would be associated with lower sleep duration among 13-year-old adolescents. In addition, we aimed to identify food sources of caffeine intake in this sample. Eligible participants were adolescents who were born in 1990 and attended school in Porto, Portugal, in 2003/2004. Self-administered questionnaires were used, and diet was evaluated using a food frequency questionnaire. From the 2160 eligible participants, only 1522 with valid information regarding their diet were included in this study. In our sample, the median intake of caffeine was 23.1 mg/d, with soft drinks being the major source. Ice tea presented the highest median (25th-75th percentiles) contribution (33.1% [14.0-52.1]), followed by cola (21.1% [6.4-37.6]). Regarding cocoa products, chocolate bars presented a median contribution of 5.1% (1.0-14.0), and snacks containing chocolate had a contribution of 3.0% (0.5-7.2). Coffee and tea presented a negligible contribution. Adolescents who reported less sleep duration and those who spent more time watching TV during the weekend had a significantly higher caffeine intake. Overall, boys had higher intakes of caffeine from soft drinks, and private school attendees, those who had parents with more education, who reported less television viewing time and had lower body mass index presented higher intakes of caffeine from chocolate. Considering sleeping more than 9.5 hours as a reference class, for each increase of 10 mg/d in caffeine intake, we found that the odds ratio of sleeping 8.5 hours or less was 1.12 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.19). Our results support the hypothesis that caffeine intake was inversely associated with sleep duration in adolescents.
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Surface chemistry and spectroscopy studies on 1,4-naphthoquinone in cell membrane models using Langmuir monolayers.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Investigating the role of drugs whose pharmaceutical activity is associated with cell membranes is fundamental to comprehending the biochemical processes that occur on membrane surfaces. In this work, we examined the action of 1,4-naphthoquinone in lipid Langmuir monolayers at the air-water interface, which served as a model for half of a membrane, and investigated the molecular interactions involved with tensiometry and vibrational spectroscopy. The surface pressure-area isotherms exhibited a noticeable shift to a lower area in relation to 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) and 1,2-dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (DPPS) lipid monolayers, which indicated a disruption of the monolayer structure and solubilisation of the lipids towards the aqueous subphase. To better correlate to the action of this drug in biological membrane events, cell cultures that represented tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic cells were spread onto the air-water interface, and 1,4-naphthoquinone was then incorporated. While only slight changes were observed in the non-tumorigenic cells upon drug incorporation, significant changes were observed in the tumorigenic cells, on which the organisation of the Langmuir monolayers was disrupted as evidenced by tensiometry and vibrational spectroscopy. This work then shows that this drug interacts preferentially for specific surfaces. In simplified models, it has a higher effect for the negative charged DPPS rather than the zwitterionic DPPC; and for complex cell cultures, 1,4-naphthoquinone presents a more significant effect for that representing tumorigenic cells.
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Physical and chemical stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems: targeted delivery and main routes of administration.
Curr. Pharm. Des.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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In the area of drug delivery, novel tools and technological approaches have captured the attention of researchers in order to improve the performance of conventional therapeutics and patient compliance to pharmacological therapy. Stimuli-responsive drug delivery systems (DDS) appear as a promising approach to control and target drug delivery. When these DDS are administered, the drug release is activated and then modulated through some action or external input and facilitated by the energy supplied externally. The stimuli responsible to activate the drug release can be classified into three types according to their nature or the type of energy applied: physical (e.g. magnetic field, electric field, ultrasound, temperature and osmotic pressure); chemical (e.g. pH, ionic strength and glucose); and biological (enzymes and endogenous receptors). The present review gives an overview of the most significant physical and chemical stimuliresponsive DDS and elucidates about their current and relevant applications in controlled and targeted drug delivery attending different routes of administration.
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Galectin-3 negatively regulates the frequency and function of CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells and influences the course of Leishmania major infection.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Galectin-3, an endogenous glycan-binding protein, plays essential roles during microbial infection by modulating innate and adaptive immunity. However, the role of galectin-3 within the CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) T regulatory (TREG ) cell compartment has not yet been explored. Here, we found, in a model of Leishmania major infection, that galectin-3 deficiency increases the frequency of peripheral TREG cells both in draining lymph nodes (LNs) and sites of infection. These observations correlated with an increased severity of the disease, as shown by increased footpad swelling and parasite burden. Galectin-3-deficient (Lgals3(-/-) ) TREG cells displayed higher CD103 expression, showed greater suppressive capacity, and synthesized higher amounts of IL-10 compared with their wild-type (WT) counterpart. Furthermore, both TREG cells and T effector (TEFF ) cells from Lgals3(-/-) mice showed higher expression of Notch1 and the Notch target gene Hes-1. Interestingly, Notch signaling components were also altered in both TREG and TEFF cells from uninfected Lgals3(-/-) mice. Thus, endogenous galectin-3 regulates the frequency and function of CD4(+) CD25(+) Foxp3(+) TREG cells and alters the course of L. major infection.
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Saturated fatty acids intake in relation to C-reactive protein, adiponectin, and leptin: a population-based study.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Evidence on the relation of saturated fatty acids (SFA) with inflammatory markers and adipokines is scarce and inconsistent. This study aimed to evaluate the association of the intake of total SFA, their subtypes (lauric, myristic, palmitic, and stearic acids), and SFA to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) ratio (SFA/PUFA ratio) with serum concentrations of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, and leptin among Portuguese adults.
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Lysophosphatidylcholine triggers TLR2- and TLR4-mediated signaling pathways but counteracts LPS-induced NO synthesis in peritoneal macrophages by inhibiting NF-?B translocation and MAPK/ERK phosphorylation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is the main phospholipid component of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and is usually noted as a marker of several human diseases, such as atherosclerosis, cancer and diabetes. Some studies suggest that oxLDL modulates Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling. However, effector molecules that are present in oxLDL particles and can trigger TLR signaling are not yet clear. LPC was previously described as an attenuator of sepsis and as an immune suppressor. In the present study, we have evaluated the role of LPC as a dual modulator of the TLR-mediated signaling pathway.
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[Lifestyles and self-rated health, in Portuguese elderly from rural and urban areas].
Acta Med Port
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2011
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The perception of health status is essential for better planning in health, not only due to its role as a determinant of health, but also because it is related with the adoption of health-promoting behaviours. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship between lifestyles and self-rated health, in Portuguese elderly, according to their residence in rural or urban areas. We evaluated 80 individuals from Rebordelo, Trás-os-Montes (rural area) and 383 from Porto (urban area), with 60 or more years and with four or less years of education. Data were collected by trained interviewers, through a structured questionnaire, to evaluate social, demographic, health and behavioural characteristics. Anthropometric measures were also obtained. Leisure-time physical activity, tobacco, alcohol and fruit and vegetable consumption were the lifestyles evaluated. To evaluate self-rated health, each person rated their health status, according to five options (excellent, very good, good, reasonable or poor), later grouped into two: poor versus the others. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated by unconditional logistic regression, after adjustment for sex and education. About 41% of the elderly from the rural area and 32% from the urban area rated their health status as poor. In multivariate analysis, in the rural area, poor self-rated health was inversely associated with the practice of leisure-time physical activity (OR = 0.22, 95%CI 0.06-0.80). In urban area, alcohol consumption was associated with a lower probability of self-rating health as poor (considering not drinking as reference, >0-15 g alcohol/day: OR = 0.42, 95%CI 0.24-0.72; >15 g alcohol/day: OR = 0.60, 95%CI 0.32-1.11). In the rural area, a positive association between fruit and vegetable consumption and poor self-rated health was found (? 5 vs. <5 portions/day: OR = 5.21, 95%CI 1.14-23.83), while in the urban area there was an inverse association (OR = 0.75, 95%CI 0.45-1.25). Poor Self-rated health was inversely associated with leisure-time physical activity in the rural area, and with the consumption of alcoholic beverages in the urban area. The consumption of fruit and vegetables was associated with self-rated health in both populations, but while in the rural area the consumption of 5 or more servings per day was associated with a poor perception of health, in the urban area this association was in the inverse direction.
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Transphyletic conservation of developmental regulatory state in animal evolution.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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Specific regulatory states, i.e., sets of expressed transcription factors, define the gene expression capabilities of cells in animal development. Here we explore the functional significance of an unprecedented example of regulatory state conservation from the cnidarian Nematostella to Drosophila, sea urchin, fish, and mammals. Our probe is a deeply conserved cis-regulatory DNA module of the SRY-box B2 (soxB2), recognizable at the sequence level across many phyla. Transphyletic cis-regulatory DNA transfer experiments reveal that the plesiomorphic control function of this module may have been to respond to a regulatory state associated with neuronal differentiation. By introducing expression constructs driven by this module from any phyletic source into the genomes of diverse developing animals, we discover that the regulatory state to which it responds is used at different levels of the neurogenic developmental process, including patterning and development of the vertebrate forebrain and neurogenesis in the Drosophila optic lobe and brain. The regulatory state recognized by the conserved DNA sequence may have been redeployed to different levels of the developmental regulatory program during evolution of complex central nervous systems.
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The role of physical activity and diet on overall and central obesity incidence.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2011
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Evaluate the role of different types of physical activity (PA) and diet on overall and central obesity incidence.
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Neurofunctional evaluation of young male offspring of rat dams with diabetes induced by streptozotocin.
ISRN Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2011
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Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease, being one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. As a consequence, pregnancy-associated diabetes is increasingly common. Given the numerous studies about the influence of diabetes on offspring of diabetic rat dams, the neurological outcome is of outmost importance. This paper aimed at evaluating the neurofunctional performance of young male offspring of rat dams with diabetes induced by streptozotocin. Diabetes was induced in Wistar female rats by streptozotocin administration, while control groups received vehicle injection. At two-month survival period, male offspring from each group were randomized to the water maze Morris test, in order to assess their neurofunctional status. There was no significant difference between the groups as assessed by the Morris water maze test for spatial reference task. Our results point to the need of further investigation on the offspring neurofunctional performance.
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Food sources of nutrients among 13-year-old Portuguese adolescents.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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To identify food sources of nutrients in adolescents diets and to identify differences in food sources according to individual characteristics.
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Family history of coronary heart disease, health care and health behaviors.
Rev Port Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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Previous studies on health care and health behaviors in individuals with a family history of coronary heart disease (CHD) have produced contradictory results, and there is still no evidence that these individuals are more aware of their risk and have improved health behaviors and heath care. This study aims to evaluate health care and health behaviors according to family history of CHD.
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Dietary intake of ?-linolenic acid and low ratio of n-6:n-3 PUFA are associated with decreased exhaled NO and improved asthma control.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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As recently described, adherence to the Mediterranean diet is associated with improved asthma control. However, evidence of how specific nutrients such as fatty acids and antioxidants may affect this relationship remains largely unknown. We aimed to examine the association between dietary intake of fatty acids and antioxidants and asthma control. A cross-sectional study was developed in 174 asthmatics, mean age of 40 (SD 15) years. Dietary intake was obtained by a FFQ, and nutritional content was calculated using Food Processor Plus™ software (ESHA Research, Inc., Salem, OR, USA). Good asthma control was defined by the combination of forced expiratory volume during the first second, exhaled NO (eNO) and Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) score (control: forced expiratory volume in the first second ?80 %; eNO ?35 ppb; ACQ <1·0, scale 0-6 score). Multiple linear and logistic regression models were performed to analyse the associations between nutrients and asthma outcomes, adjusting for confounders. A high n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio predicted high eNO, whereas high intakes of n-3 PUFA, a-linolenic acid (ALA) and SFA were associated with low eNO. Odds for controlled asthma improved along with an increased intake of n-3 PUFA (OR 0·14, 95% CI 0·04, 0·45; P for trend=0·001), SFA (OR 0·36, 95% CI 0·13, 0·97; P for trend=0·047) and ALA (OR 0·18, 95% CI 0·06, 0·58; P for trend=0·005). A high n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio increased the odds for uncontrolled asthma (OR 3·69, 95% CI 1·37, 9·94; P for trend=0·009), after adjusting for energy intake, sex, age, education and use of inhaled corticosteroids. Higher intakes of n-3 PUFA, ALA and SFA were associated with good asthma control, while the risk for uncontrolled asthma increased with a higher n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. The present results introduce a protective effect of ALA in asthma control, independent of marine n-3 fatty acids, and provide a rationale to dietary intervention studies in asthma.
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Social and behavioural determinants of alcohol consumption.
Ann. Hum. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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To evaluate social and behavioural determinants of alcohol consumption in an urban sample of Portuguese adults.
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Cystic brain metastases radiologically simulating neurocysticercosis.
Sao Paulo Med J
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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Brain metastases are common complications of cancer. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the main diagnostic imaging method in these cases, rarely shows cystic images.
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Major habitual dietary patterns are associated with acute myocardial infarction and cardiovascular risk markers in a southern European population.
J Am Diet Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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Most dietary pattern analyses in southern Europe have relied on a priori food approaches using Mediterranean-style diet indexes. These methods may not reflect the current populations food consumption.
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Centriolar satellites are assembly points for proteins implicated in human ciliopathies, including oral-facial-digital syndrome 1.
J. Cell. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Ciliopathies are caused by mutations in genes encoding proteins required for cilia organization or function. We show through colocalization with PCM-1, that OFD1 (the product of the gene mutated in oral-facial-digital syndrome 1) as well as BBS4 and CEP290 (proteins encoded by other ciliopathy genes) are primarily components of centriolar satellites, the particles surrounding centrosomes and basal bodies. RNA interference experiments reveal that satellite integrity is mutually dependent upon each of these proteins. Upon satellite dispersal, through mitosis or forced microtubule depolymerization, OFD1 and CEP290 remain centrosomal, whereas BBS4 and PCM-1 do not. OFD1 interacts via its fifth coiled-coil motif with the N-terminal coiled-coil domain of PCM-1, which itself interacts via its C-terminal non-coiled-coil region with BBS4. OFD1 localization to satellites requires its N-terminal region, encompassing the LisH motif, whereas expression of OFD1 C-terminal constructs causes PCM-1 and CEP290 mislocalization. Moreover, in embryonic zebrafish, OFD1 and BBS4 functionally synergize, determining morphogenesis. Our observation that satellites are assembly points for several mutually dependent ciliopathy proteins provides a further possible explanation as to why the clinical spectrum of OFD1, Bardet-Biedl and Joubert syndromes overlap. Furthermore, definition of how OFD1 and PCM-1 interact helps explain why different OFD1 mutations lead to clinically variable phenotypes.
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Inventory of heavy metal content in organic waste applied as fertilizer in agriculture: evaluating the risk of transfer into the food chain.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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In this work, an environmental risk assessment of reusing organic waste of differing origins and raw materials as agricultural fertilizers was carried out. An inventory of the heavy metal content in different organic wastes (i.e., compost, sludge, or manure) from more than 80 studies at different locations worldwide is presented.
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Salt intake and type of intestinal metaplasia in Helicobacter pylori-infected Portuguese men.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
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The relation between salt intake and intestinal metaplasia (IM) types and the potential interaction with H. pylori virulence are poorly understood and may contribute to further understand gastric carcinogenesis. We quantified the association between dietary salt exposure and complete, incomplete, and mixed IM, taking into account the potential effect modification according to the virulence of H. pylori infecting strains. H. pylori-infected male volunteers (n = 233) underwent an upper digestive endoscopy and completed questionnaires comprising different measures of salt exposure (main food items/groups contributing to dietary salt intake, estimated dietary sodium intake, visual analogical scale for salt intake, preference for salty/salted foods). A histological diagnosis was assigned based on the most severe lesion observed. H. pylori virulence was assessed by characterizing vacA and cagA genes. Odds ratios were estimated through age- and education-adjusted logistic regression models. The risk of IM was not significantly increased in H. pylori infected subjects with higher levels of salt consumption. The lack of association was consistent across measures of salt exposure, categories of H. pylori virulence, and types of IM. In conclusion, in this H. pylori positive population, salt intake did not increase the risk of any IM type, regardless of the virulence of the infecting strains.
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Sugar-sweetened beverage intake and overweight in children from a Mediterranean country.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
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To assess the association between sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption and overweight in children from a Mediterranean country.
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Validity and reproducibility of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire for use among Portuguese pregnant women.
Matern Child Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2010
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This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reproducibility of a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to estimate nutrient intake among Portuguese pregnant women. A sample of 101 pregnant women completed a 3-day food diary (FD) in each pregnancy trimester (reference method) and an interviewer-administered FFQ in the immediate post-partum period. Ranking women according to their usual intake showed that, on average, 65% were classified into the same +/-1 quintile and 2.4% into opposite quintiles by the two methods. Energy-adjusted and de-attenuated correlation coefficients ranged from 0.20 (protein) to 0.58 (riboflavin). Similar results were obtained when the FFQ was compared to each trimester-specific FD. To assess the FFQ reproducibility, 70 women in their third pregnancy trimester were interviewed twice within a 2-week interval. The level of agreement was high, with > or = 75% of the participants being classified into the same +/-1 quintile by the two administrations for 13 of the 15 nutrients examined. A review of the published literature revealed that this is the first FFQ to take the whole pregnancy as its reference time window. Our findings showed that a single administration of this FFQ in the immediate post-partum period is a valid tool to rank Portuguese pregnant women according to their intakes.
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Adherence to the Southern European Atlantic Diet and occurrence of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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The Southern European Atlantic Diet (SEAD) is the traditional diet in northern Portugal and Galicia, a region in northwest Spain.
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Food patterns according to sociodemographics, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in Portuguese children.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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Our study aimed to describe the association between food patterns and gender, parental education, physical activity, sleeping and obesity in 1976 children aged 5-10 years old. Dietary intake was measured by a semi quantitative food frequency questionnaire; body mass index was calculated and categorized according to the IOTF classification. Factor analysis and generalized linear models were applied to identify food patterns and their associations. TV viewing and male gender were significant positive predictors for fast-food, sugar sweetened beverages and pastry pattern, while a higher level of maternal education and longer sleeping duration were positively associated with a dietary patterns that included fruit and vegetables.
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Measurement of dietary intake of fatty acids in pregnant women: comparison of self-reported intakes with adipose tissue levels.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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Dietary fatty acids affect several pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth and development. We compared self-reported intakes with concentrations of fatty acids in adipose tissue in pregnant women.
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Alcohol intake and systemic markers of inflammation--shape of the association according to sex and body mass index.
Alcohol Alcohol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
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To assess the association of alcohol intake with high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), uric acid and leukocyte count in blood, and whether sex and body mass index (BMI) modify these associations.
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hth maintains the pool of eye progenitors and its downregulation by Dpp and Hh couples retinal fate acquisition with cell cycle exit.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2009
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During Drosophila eye development, recruitment of retinal precursors from a pool of progenitor cells is tightly coupled to proliferation control. However, how this coupling operates is still unclear. Here we show that the transcription factor hth, together with eyeless, is required to stimulate proliferation of progenitor cells. Accordingly, knocking down hth expression results in severely reduced eyes. Our experiments reveal three additional functions for hth: the cell cycle of progenitors is characterized by a relatively long G2 phase, which makes them prone to enter mitosis; hth represses the burst of string/cdc25 expression that precedes G1 arrest, and also the early expression of the proneural gene atonal. Thereby, hth maintains the proliferative and undifferentiated state of eye progenitors. Furthermore, we show that the G1 synchronization that characterizes retinal precursors is the result of the spatially controlled repression of hth by Dpp and Hh, and not of an actively induced cell cycle arrest. We integrate these results in a model of the early steps of eye development that links proliferation control and differential gene expression with patterning signals.
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Azithromycin reduces ocular infection during congenital transmission of toxoplasmosis in the Calomys callosus model.
J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2009
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Toxoplasma gondii is a widely distributed obligatory intracellular parasite that causes severe disease to the fetus when transmitted during pregnancy. Drugs used to avoid congenital transmission have shown side effects, and their efficacy is controversial. The most widely used treatment for acute toxoplasmosis during pregnancy is pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine, which has several side effects. In this work, we tested the efficacy of azithromycin in reducing congenital transmission of T. gondii in the large vesper mouse, Calomys callosus, a rodent. Females of C callosus were inoculated perorally with 20 cysts of ME49 strain of T. gondii on the day of fertilization, and fetuses were collected from the 15th to the 19th day of gestation. Azithromycin (300 mg/kg), in association with pyrimethamine (100 or 50 mg/kg) plus sulfadiazine (100 or 75 mg/kg) and folinic acid (15 mg/kg) (SPAf), or vehicle, were administered orally on different days after infection. Brain and ocular tissues were removed and processed for immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal antibody against T. gondii, or were processed for parasite DNA quantification. Toxoplasma gondii was detected in the brains of all females and in fetuses eyes of C. callosus treated with SPAf. On the other hand, in females treated with azithromycin, there was a reduction of T. gondii in the brains of mothers, and no parasites were detected in eyes of fetuses, indicating that azithromycin may represent an alternative treatment for toxoplasmosis during pregnancy.
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Impact of risk factors for non-fatal acute myocardial infarction.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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The impact of risk factors for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) strongly differs across populations and most studies do not consider age as an effect modifier. This study aims to estimate the population attributable fractions (PAFs) of established risk factors for non-fatal AMI, considering age stratification, within a population-based case-control study of Portuguese men. Cases were male patients consecutively admitted with an incident AMI, during 1999-2003 (n = 638) and controls were a representative sample of the non-institutionalized Porto, Portugal inhabitants (n = 851). PAFs were derived by the equation: PAF = 1 - Sigma (rho/R), in which rho is the proportion of cases in each exposure stratum and R is the adjusted odds ratio. PAFs were obtained for the individual effect of each factor and for combinations of them, after allowance for confounding. High waist-to-hip ratio (> 0.90), smoking and lower education levels (0-4 years) had the highest PAFs among men aged < or = 45 years: 81.2% (95% CI: 71.2-88.2), 63.5% (95% CI: 42.0-80.6) and 53.8% (95% CI: 40.9-66.2), respectively. For the oldest men, high waist-to-hip ratio (PAF = 88.7%, 95% CI: 77.6-94.7) and lack of leisure-time physical activity (PAF = 44.8%, 95% CI: 32.0-58.2) were the risk factors with the highest impact. Lifestyles explained 77.2% (95% CI: 53.4-90.9) of young myocardial infarction cases and 77.6% (95% CI: 65.3-86.4) of the cases aged > 45 years. Preventive targeted interventions to decrease the prevalence of such modifiable risk factors would likely reduce morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular events and related conditions.
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Overall and central obesity incidence in an urban Portuguese population.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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To provide overall and central obesity incidence estimates by gender, age and educational level in an urban Portuguese population.
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Self-reporting weight and height: misclassification effect on the risk estimates for acute myocardial infarction.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2009
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The accuracy of self-reported weight and height to measure obesity has been evaluated, but no information is available on the possible error effects of self-reporting when estimating the association between body mass index (BMI) categories and the occurrence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We aim to evaluate if two different sources of information on height and weight (reported vs. measured) result in different risk estimates for non-fatal AMI events.
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A note on regulatory concerns and toxicity assessment in lipid-based delivery systems (LDS).
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Lipid-based Delivery Systems (LDS) has been the focus of potential strategies in drug delivery for several years. A great deal of work has been invested on how to exploit their biocompatible and biodegradable nature, in combination with their nanosize range in a profitable way in the field of nanomedicines. A number of drugs loaded in LDS have been already tested in vivo successfully. However, in vivo behaviour of nanosized materials differs from their bulk counterparts (and also change drug properties), mainly depending on the particular LDS physicochemical characteristics. These may have huge impact on the toxicity of the system, despite the physiological nature of the lipid materials. This note on the regulatory concerns and toxicity assessment in LDS suggests that current knowledge of public and scientific communities is lacking, requiring intensive research and policy measures to provide a deep understanding on toxicological risks.
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Gender heterogeneity in the association between lifestyles and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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To evaluate the modification effect of sex in the association between lifestyles and acute myocardial infarction (AMI).
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The Southern European Atlantic Diet is associated with lower concentrations of markers of coronary risk.
Atherosclerosis
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The Southern European Atlantic Diet (SEAD) is the traditional diet of Northern Portugal and Galicia, a region in northwest Spain. The SEAD has been associated with a lower risk of non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, but the mechanisms of this association have not yet been investigated. Thus, we examined the association between the SEAD and numerous biomarkers of coronary risk, blood pressure and anthropometrics.
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A review of methods to assess parental feeding practices and preschool childrens eating behavior: the need for further development of tools.
J Acad Nutr Diet
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We reviewed tools developed to measure parental feeding practices and eating behavior and food intake or preferences of children aged 0 to 5 years. Two electronic literature databases (Medline and Psycinfo) were used to search for both observational and experimental studies in human beings. The articles selected for review were those presenting tools with data on internal consistency and/or test-retest reliability and/or construct validity. A total of 3,445 articles were retrieved, and further searching of reference lists and contact with experts produced an additional 18 articles. We identified three tools on the qualitative dimension of childrens eating behavior, two tools on food intake or preferences, and one tool on parental feeding practices with rigorous testing of internal consistency, construct validity, and test-retest reliability. All other tools presented in this review need further evaluation of their validity or reliability. Because major gaps exist, we highlight the need for more tools on parental attention to childrens hunger and satiety cues, and the need to evaluate the degree of control allowed to children younger than age 2 years in feeding events. Food avoidance (ie, behaviors or strategies to take away and to reject food) and food approach (ie, attractiveness for food stimuli) have not been assessed in children aged 12 to 24 months. Food preference tests based on sensory aspects rather than nutritional quality may be worth investigating. We identified a need for further evaluation of quality, especially test-retest reliability and construct validity, for most tools developed for use in studying children aged 0 to 5 years.
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Body image and depressive symptoms in 13-year-old adolescents.
J Paediatr Child Health
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To evaluate the prevalence of body dissatisfaction and the association with depressive symptoms in 13-year-old adolescents, according to gender, and also to analyse the possible modifying effect of body mass index on this association.
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Association between dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome in a sample of Portuguese adults.
Nutr J
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There is scarce evidence regarding the association between diet and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Portuguese population. We aim to evaluate the association between a posteriori dietary patterns (DPs) and MetS and its features.
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Predicting risk of atrial fibrillation after heart valve surgery: evaluation of a Brazilian risk score.
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of a Brazilian score for predicting atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients undergoing heart valve surgery in the Division of Cardiovascular Surgery of Pronto Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco - PROCAPE (Recife, PE, Brazil).
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GuaragnaSCORE satisfactorily predicts outcomes in heart valve surgery in a Brazilian hospital.
Rev Bras Cir Cardiovasc
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the applicability of GuaragnaSCORE for predicting mortality in patients undergoing heart valve surgery in the Division of Cardiovascular Surgery of Pronto Socorro Cardiológico de Pernambuco - PROCAPE, Recife, PE, Brazil.
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Human impact in naturally patched small populations: genetic structure and conservation of the burrowing rodent, tuco-tuco (Ctenomys lami).
J. Hered.
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Isolated or semi-isolated small populations are commonly found among species, due to a naturally patchy occupancy of suitable habitats or also as a result of habitat alterations. These populations are subject to an increased risk of local extinction because they are more vulnerable to demographic, genetic, and environmental stochasticity. Considering that natural areas have been becoming progressively more fragmented and smaller, understanding the genetic structure and evolutionary dynamics of small populations is critical. Ctenomys lami has 26 karyotypes distributed in a small area (936 km(2)) continually modified by human actions. We assessed the genetic geographical structure of this species, examining 178 specimens sampled on a fine scale, using information from chromosomal variability, mitochondrial DNA control region and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences, and 14 microsatellite loci. The observed isolation-by-distance pattern and a clinal genetic variation suggest a stepping-stone population model. The results did not indicate genetic structuring associated with distinct karyotypes. However, mitochondrial and nuclear molecular markers demonstrated the existence of 2 demes, which are not completely isolated but are probably reinforced by a geographical barrier. The vulnerability of C. lami is greater than previously supposed, and our data support the designation of one Evolutionary Significant Unit and one Management Unit, and also the inclusion of this species conservation status as vulnerable.
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Fish discards management: pollution levels and best available removal techniques.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
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Fish discards and by-catch issues are highly topical subjects that are permanently under a social focus. Two main approaches are being considered to address this discard problem: reducing the by-catch and increasing by-catch utilization. Interest in increased by-catch valorization may arise from a greater demand for fish products, such as the development of new markets for previously discarded species, the use of low-value specimens for aquaculture or the creation of value-added fish products for the food, pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries. However, contaminants present in fish discards may be transferred to their valorized products, leading to possible long-term bioaccumulation and subsequent adverse health effects. In this valorization framework, the aim is to promote responsible and sustainable management of marine resources. The pollutant levels in catches from European fisheries and the best available decontamination techniques for marine valorized discards/by-products are compiled and analyzed in this work.
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Multicorrelation models and uptake factors to estimate extractable metal concentrations from soil and metal in plants in pasturelands fertilized with manure.
Environ. Pollut.
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Environmental risk assessment (ERA) is a useful methodology to estimate the possible adverse effects to human health due to contaminants exposure. In the case of agricultural scenarios, this method requires knowing the concentrations of contaminants in soil solution and vegetation, among other parameters. This study aimed to develop multicorrelation models to estimate metal extractable from soil as a function of total metal concentration in soil and soil properties in a cattle manure application scenario. It also aimed to estimate metal concentrations in plant by soil-plant uptake factors (UF). All the multicorrelation models obtained were significant, ranging R(2) values from 0.44 for Cd to 0.92 for Cu. Soil-plant UF were an adequate method for the estimation of metal concentration in plant, since the relationship between the soil-plant UF and the extractable metal concentration from soil was significantly described by a power model, for all the heavy metals.
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A restricted mixture model for dietary pattern analysis in small samples.
Stat Med
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Multivariate finite mixture models have been applied to the identification of dietary patterns. These models are known to have many parameters, and consequently large samples are usually required. We present a special case of a multivariate mixture model that reduces the number of parameters to be estimated and seems adequate for small to moderately sized samples. We illustrate our approach with an analysis of Portuguese data from a food-frequency questionnaire and with a simulation study.
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Probing the interaction between heparan sulfate proteoglycan with biologically relevant molecules in mimetic models for cell membranes: a Langmuir film study.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
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Investigating the role of proteoglycans associated to cell membranes is fundamental to comprehend biochemical process that occurs at the level of membrane surfaces. In this paper, we exploit syndecan-4, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan obtained from cell cultures, in lipid Langmuir monolayers at the air-water interface. The monolayer served as a model for half a membrane, and the molecular interactions involved could be evaluated with tensiometry and vibrational spectroscopy techniques. Polarization-modulation infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) employed in a constant surface pressure regime showed that the main chemical groups for syndecan-4 were present at the air-water interface. Subsequent monolayer decompression and compression showed surface pressure-area isotherms with a large expansion for the lipid monolayers interacting with the cell culture reported to over-express syndecan-4, which was also an indication that the proteoglycan was inserted in the lipid monolayer. The introduction of biological molecules with affinity for syndecam-4, such as growth factors, which present a key role in biochemical process of cell signaling, changed the surface properties of the hybrid film, leading to a model, by which the growth factor binds to the sulfate groups present in the heparan sulfate chains. The polypeptide moiety of syndecan-4 responds to this interaction changing its conformation, which leads to lipid film relaxation and further monolayer condensation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.