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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Nutrition, epigenetics, and diseases.
Clin Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Increasing epidemiological evidence suggests that maternal nutrition and environmental exposure early in development play an important role in susceptibility to disease in later life. In addition, these disease outcomes seem to pass through subsequent generations. Epigenetic modifications provide a potential link between the nutrition status during critical periods in development and changes in gene expression that may lead to disease phenotypes. An increasing body of evidence from experimental animal studies supports the role of epigenetics in disease susceptibility during critical developmental periods, including periconceptional period, gestation, and early postnatal period. The rapid improvements in genetic and epigenetic technologies will allow comprehensive investigations of the relevance of these epigenetic phenomena in human diseases.
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High-frequency intra-operative ultrasound-guided surgery of superficial intra-cerebral lesions via a single-burr-hole approach.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The study described here examined the feasibility of using high-frequency intra-operative ultrasound (hfioUS) guidance to resect superficial intra-cerebral lesions through a single burr hole. A cohort of 23 consecutive patients with a total of 24 intra-cerebral lesions (9 intra-cerebral metastases, 8 gliomas, 4 infections, 2 lymphomas and 1 cavernoma) were studied. All lesions could be localized and successfully resected, biopsied or aspirated, and histopathological diagnoses were obtained in all cases. The mean operating time was 59.6 ± 23.9 min. The mean cross-sectional lesion size was 6.4 ± 7.6 cm(2), and the mean cortex surface-to-lesion distance was 0.6 ± 0.8 cm. Our results illustrate the feasibility of identifying and resecting superficial intra-cerebral lesions under hfioUS guidance via a single-burr-hole approach. We were able to achieve short resection times with no post-operative complications in all patients, favorable conditions under which to start adjuvant therapy when indicated.
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Combined administration of testosterone plus an ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor as a selective prostate-sparing anabolic therapy.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Because of its anabolic effects on muscle, testosterone is being explored as a function-promoting anabolic therapy for functional limitations associated with aging; however, concerns about testosterones adverse effects on prostate have inspired efforts to develop strategies that selectively increase muscle mass while sparing the prostate. Testosterones promyogenic effects are mediated through upregulation of follistatin. We show here that the administration of recombinant follistatin (rFst) increased muscle mass in mice, but had no effect on prostate mass. Consistent with the results of rFst administration, follistatin transgenic mice with constitutively elevated follistatin levels displayed greater muscle mass than controls, but had similar prostate weights. To elucidate signaling pathways regulated differentially by testosterone and rFst in prostate and muscle, we performed microarray analysis of mRNAs from prostate and levator ani of castrated male mice treated with vehicle, testosterone, or rFst. Testosterone and rFst shared the regulation of many transcripts in levator ani; however, in prostate, 593 transcripts in several growth-promoting pathways were differentially expressed after testosterone treatment, while rFst showed a negligible effect with only 9 transcripts differentially expressed. Among pathways that were differentially responsive to testosterone in prostate, we identified ornithine decarboxylase (Odc1), an enzyme in polyamine biosynthesis, as a testosterone-responsive gene that is unresponsive to rFst. Accordingly, we administered testosterone with and without ?-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an Odc1 inhibitor, to castrated mice. DFMO selectively blocked testosterones effects on prostate, but did not affect testosterones anabolic effects on muscle. Co-administration of testosterone and Odc1 inhibitor presents a novel therapeutic strategy for prostate-sparing anabolic therapy.
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The effects of testosterone deprivation and supplementation on proteasomal and autophagy activity in the skeletal muscle of the male mouse: differential effects on high-androgen responder and low-androgen responder muscle groups.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Men with prostate cancer who receive androgen deprivation therapy show profound skeletal muscle loss. We hypothesized that the androgen deficiency activates not only the ubiquitin-proteasome systems but also the autophagy and affects key aspects of the molecular cross talk between protein synthesis and degradation. Here, 2-month-old male mice were castrated and treated with either testosterone (T) propionate or vehicle for 7 days (short term) or 43 days (long term), and with and without hydroxyflutamide. Castrated mice showed rapid and profound atrophy of the levator ani muscle (high androgen responder) at short term and lesser atrophy of the triceps muscle (low androgen responder) at long term. Levator ani and triceps muscles of castrated mice showed increased level of autophagy markers and lysosome enzymatic activity; only the levator ani showed increased proteasomal enzymatic activity. The levator ani muscle of the castrated mice showed increased level and activation of forkhead box protein O3A, the inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamicyn, and the activation of tuberous sclerosis complex protein 2 and 5-AMP-activated protein kinase. Similar results were obtained in the triceps muscle of castrated mice. T rescued the loss of muscle mass after orchiectomy and inhibited lysosome and proteasome pathways dose dependently and in a seemingly IGF-I-dependent manner. Hydroxyflutamide attenuated the effect of T in the levator ani muscle of castrated mice. In conclusion, androgen deprivation in adult mice induces muscle atrophy associated with proteasomal and lysosomal activity. T optimizes muscle protein balance by modulating the equilibrium between mechanistic target of rapamicyn and 5-AMP-activated protein kinase pathways.
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Rapid and accurate anatomical localization of implanted subdural electrodes in a virtual reality environment.
J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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An accurate and rapid anatomical localization of implanted subdural electrodes is essential in the invasive diagnostic process for epilepsy surgery.
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Testosterone administration inhibits hepcidin transcription and is associated with increased iron incorporation into red blood cells.
Aging Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Testosterone administration increases hemoglobin levels and has been used to treat anemia of chronic disease. Erythrocytosis is the most frequent adverse event associated with testosterone therapy of hypogonadal men, especially older men. However, the mechanisms by which testosterone increases hemoglobin remain unknown. Testosterone administration in male and female mice was associated with a greater increase in hemoglobin and hematocrit, reticulocyte count, reticulocyte hemoglobin concentration, and serum iron and transferrin saturation than placebo. Testosterone downregulated hepatic hepcidin mRNA expression, upregulated renal erythropoietin mRNA expression, and increased erythropoietin levels. Testosterone-induced suppression of hepcidin expression was independent of its effects on erythropoietin or hypoxia-sensing mechanisms. Transgenic mice with liver-specific constitutive hepcidin over-expression failed to exhibit the expected increase in hemoglobin in response to testosterone administration. Testosterone upregulated splenic ferroportin expression and reduced iron retention in spleen. After intravenous administration of transferrin-bound (58) Fe, the amount of (58) Fe incorporated into red blood cells was significantly greater in testosterone-treated mice than in placebo-treated mice. Serum from testosterone-treated mice stimulated hemoglobin synthesis in K562 erythroleukemia cells more than that from vehicle-treated mice. Testosterone administration promoted the association of androgen receptor (AR) with Smad1 and Smad4 to reduce their binding to bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-response elements in hepcidin promoter in the liver. Ectopic expression of AR in hepatocytes suppressed hepcidin transcription; this effect was blocked dose-dependently by AR antagonist flutamide. Testosterone did not affect hepcidin mRNA stability. In conclusion, testosterone inhibits hepcidin transcription through its interaction with BMP/Smad signaling. Testosterone administration is associated with increased iron incorporation into red blood cells.
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The role of GH and IGF-I in mediating anabolic effects of testosterone on androgen-responsive muscle.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2010
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Testosterone (T) supplementation increases skeletal muscle mass, circulating GH, IGF-I, and im IGF-I expression, but the role of GH and IGF-I in mediating Ts effects on the skeletal muscle remains poorly understood. Here, we show that T administration increased body weight and the mass of the androgen-dependent levator ani muscle in hypophysectomized as well as castrated plus hypophysectomized adult male rats. T stimulated the proliferation of primary human skeletal muscle cells (hSKMCs) in vitro, an effect blocked by transfecting hSKMCs with small interference RNA targeting human IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR). In differentiation conditions, T promoted the fusion of hSKMCs into larger myotubes, an effect attenuated by small interference RNA targeting human IGF-IR. Notably, MKR mice, which express a dominant negative form of the IGF-IR in skeletal muscle fibers, treated with a GnRH antagonist (acyline) to suppress endogenous T, responded to T administration by an attenuated increase in the levator ani muscle mass. In conclusion, circulating GH and IGF-I are not essential for mediating Ts effects on an androgen-responsive skeletal muscle. IGF-I signaling plays an important role in mediating Ts effects on skeletal muscle progenitor cell growth and differentiation in vitro. However, IGF-IR signaling in skeletal muscle fibers does not appear to be obligatory for mediating the anabolic effects of T on the mass of androgen-responsive skeletal muscles in mice.
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How to assess active contact coordinates in deep brain stimulation surgery? Comparison of three methods for determining the position of the active contact.
Stereotact Funct Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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To date there is still no agreement in the literature on postoperative active contact coordinate (ACc) acquisition. The aim of the study is to test if the use of three methods commonly adopted in the literature for ACc acquisition (stereotactic X-rays (RXc), postoperative MRI (MRIc) and calculation of the expected ACc) for the same active contact (ACo) lead to significant differences. In our series of 176 ACo, mean euclidean distances were 1.2 +/- 0.3, 2.1 +/- 1.3, and 2.5 +/- 1.6 mm between MRIc and RXc, RXc and EXc, and MRIc and EXc, respectively. Statistically significant differences along the three axes were found. Our results indicate that final ACc depends on the method adopted to acquire them. MRI and X-rays lead to a similar ACc acquisition. The difference between the EXc and the direct visualization methods (X-rays and MRI) is significantly higher.
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Evaluation of hearing function after Gamma Knife surgery of vestibular schwannomas.
Neurosurg Focus
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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Due to technological advances in neuroradiology in recent years, incidental diagnoses of vestibular schwannomas (VSs) have increased. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hearing function after treatment with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) for VSs in patients adequately selected with "good" or "useful" hearing before treatment and to assess the possible predictive factors for hearing function preservation.
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Evaluation of different score index for predicting prognosis in gamma knife radiosurgical treatment for brain metastasis.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2009
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To assess the utility of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) and Score Index for Radiosurgery (SIR) stratification systems in predicting survival in patients with brain metastasis treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS).
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Testosterone plus low-intensity physical training in late life improves functional performance, skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, and mitochondrial quality control in male mice.
PLoS ONE
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Testosterone supplementation increases muscle mass in older men but has not been shown to consistently improve physical function and activity. It has been hypothesized that physical exercise is required to induce the adaptations necessary for translation of testosterone-induced muscle mass gain into functional improvements. However, the effects of testosterone plus low intensity physical exercise training (T/PT) on functional performance and bioenergetics are unknown. In this pilot study, we tested the hypothesis that combined administration of T/PT would improve functional performance and bioenergetics in male mice late in life more than low-intensity physical training alone. 28-month old male mice were randomized to receive T/PT or vehicle plus physical training (V/PT) for 2 months. Compare to V/PT control, administration of T/PT was associated with improvements in muscle mass, grip strength, spontaneous physical movements, and respiratory activity. These changes were correlated with increased mitochondrial DNA copy number and expression of markers for mitochondrial biogenesis. Mice receiving T/PT also displayed increased expression of key elements for mitochondrial quality control, including markers for mitochondrial fission-and-fusion and mitophagy. Concurrently, mice receiving T/PT also displayed increased expression of markers for reduced tissue oxidative damage and improved muscle quality.
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Testosterone improves the regeneration of old and young mouse skeletal muscle.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
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Aging is associated with loss of muscle mass and strength, reduced satellite cell number, and lower regenerative potential. Testosterone increases muscle mass, strength, and satellite cell number in humans; however, the effects of testosterone on the regenerative potential of skeletal muscle are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of testosterone on the skeletal muscle regeneration of young (2-month-old) and aged (24-month-old) male mice. We show that testosterone increases the number of proliferating satellite cells in regenerating "tibialis anterior" muscle of young and aged castrated mice 2 and 4 days postinjury. Testosterone supplementation increases the number and the cross-sectional area of regenerating fibers in both classes of age 4 days postinjury. Testosterone increases satellite cell activation and proliferation and the regeneration of both young and aged mouse muscle. These data suggest prospective application of androgens to improve the regenerating potential of the aged human skeletal muscle.
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Topical androgen antagonism promotes cutaneous wound healing without systemic androgen deprivation by blocking ?-catenin nuclear translocation and cross-talk with TGF-? signaling in keratinocytes.
Wound Repair Regen
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Orchidectomy in rodents and lower testosterone levels in men are associated with improved cutaneous wound healing. However, due to the adverse effects on skeletal and sexual tissues, systemic androgen blockade is not a viable therapeutic intervention. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that topical application of an androgen antagonist would elicit accelerated wound healing without systemic androgen antagonism. Full-thickness cutaneous wounds were created on adult C57BL6/J mice. Daily topical application of androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, resulted in improved gap closure similar to orchiectomized controls and faster than orchidectomized mice treated with topical testosterone. In vivo data showed that the effects of androgen antagonism on wound closure primarily accelerate keratinocytes migration without effecting wound contraction. Consequently, mechanisms of testosterone action on reepithelialization were investigated in vitro by scratch wounding assays in confluent keratinocytes. Testosterone inhibited keratinocyte migration and this effect was in part mediated through promotion of nuclear translocation of ?-catenin and by attenuating transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling through ?-catenin. The link between Wnt and TGF beta signaling was confirmed by blocking ?-catenin and by following TGF-?-induced transcription of a luciferase reporter gene. Together, these data show that blockade of ?-catenin can, as a potential target for novel therapeutic interventions, accelerate cutaneous wound healing.
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Visual outcome after fronto-temporo-orbito-zygomatic approach combined with early extradural and intradural optic nerve decompression in tuberculum and diaphragma sellae meningiomas.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
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The surgical challenge of the treatment of tuberculum (TSMs) and diaphragma sellae meningiomas (DSMs) is to preserve or improve the visual function. Extradural and intradural optic nerve decompression should reduce surgical trauma of the nerve achieving a good visual result.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.