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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effect of Illumination on the Content of Melatonin, Phenolic Compounds, and Antioxidant Activity During Germination of Lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and Kidney Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.).
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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This study reports the effects of two different illumination conditions during germination (12 h light/12 h dark vs 24 h dark) in lentils (Lens culinaris L.) and kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on the content of melatonin and phenolic compounds, as well as the antioxidant activity. Germination led to relative increase in melatonin content and significant antioxidant activity, while the content of phenolic compounds decreased. The highest melatonin content was obtained after 6 days of germination under 24 h dark for both legumes. These germinated legume seeds with improved levels of melatonin might play a protective role against free radicals. Thus, considering the potent antioxidant activity of melatonin, these sprouts can be consumed as direct foods and be offered as preventive food strategies in combating chronic diseases through the diet.
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The use of magnetic resonance imaging to better define hoof pathology in the reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata).
J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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A 22-yr-old bull giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) with severely altered hoof conformation in both forelimbs was presented for necropsy following acute mortality. Due to multiple challenges that prevented safe immobilization, corrective hoof trimming procedures were never performed on this animal. To better define the extent of the damage of the soft tissue structures and bone within the hoof, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system was used to obtain images of these structures. The MRI study found evidence of severe osteolysis, phalangeal fractures of both forelimbs, and tenosynovitis of several tendon sheaths. These findings help demonstrate the impact that hoof overgrowth can have on internal structures within the hoof. By managing hoof problems early in the course of disease and investing in appropriate facilities that make giraffe immobilization safer, morbidity and mortality associated with hoof disease and overgrowth can potentially be reduced.
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[Idiopathic scrotal elephantiasis. A case report].
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Penoscrotal lymphedema (scrotal elephantiasis) is a condition that has been described in areas in which filariasis is endemic.
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Anticyclic Citrullinated Protein Antibodies Are Implicated in the Development of Cardiovascular Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Previous studies have suggested a relationship between anticyclic citrullinated protein (CCP) levels and development of cardiovascular disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, a limited number of studies have demonstrated an involvement of anti-CCPs in those processes. This study was aimed to define the specific role of these auto-antibodies in the pro-oxidative, inflammatory, and proatherogenic profile observed in leukocytes from RA patients.
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Safety and Efficacy of Implementing a Multidisciplinary Heart Team Approach for Revascularization in Patients With Complex Coronary Artery Disease: An Observational Cohort Pilot Study.
JAMA Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Since the advent of transcatheter aortic valve replacement, the multidisciplinary heart team (MHT) approach has rapidly become the standard of care for patients undergoing the procedure. However, little is known about the potential effect of MHT on patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
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Inter-subject variability in human atrial action potential in sinus rhythm versus chronic atrial fibrillation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Human atrial electrophysiology exhibits high inter-subject variability in both sinus rhythm (SR) and chronic atrial fibrillation (cAF) patients. Variability is however rarely investigated in experimental and theoretical electrophysiological studies, thus hampering the understanding of its underlying causes but also its implications in explaining differences in the response to disease and treatment. In our study, we aim at investigating the ability of populations of human atrial cell models to capture the inter-subject variability in action potential (AP) recorded in 363 patients both under SR and cAF conditions.
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Electronic cigarette use among adult population: a cross-sectional study in Barcelona, Spain (2013-2014).
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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This study seeks to analyse the prevalence and correlates of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use, purchase location and satisfaction with its use in a sample of the general population of the city of Barcelona, Spain.
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Antigenic structures stably expressed by recombinant TGEV-derived vectors.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2014
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Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-stranded RNA viruses with potential as immunization vectors, expressing high levels of heterologous genes and eliciting both secretory and systemic immune responses. Nevertheless, its high recombination rate may result in the loss of the full-length foreign gene, limiting their use as vectors. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) was engineered to express porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) small protein domains, as a strategy to improve heterologous gene stability. After serial passage in tissue cultures, stable expression of small PRRSV protein antigenic domains was achieved. Therefore, size reduction of the heterologous genes inserted in CoV-derived vectors led to the stable expression of antigenic domains. Immunization of piglets with these TGEV vectors led to partial protection against a challenge with a virulent PRRSV strain, as immunized animals showed reduced clinical signs and lung damage. Further improvement of TGEV-derived vectors will require the engineering of vectors with decreased recombination rate.
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Endothelial C-type natriuretic peptide maintains vascular homeostasis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The endothelium plays a fundamental role in maintaining vascular homeostasis by releasing factors that regulate local blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and the reactivity of leukocytes and platelets. Accordingly, endothelial dysfunction underpins many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Herein, we evaluated mice with endothelial-specific deletion of Nppc, which encodes C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP), and determined that this mediator is essential for multiple aspects of vascular regulation. Specifically, disruption of CNP leads to endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, atherogenesis, and aneurysm. Moreover, we identified natriuretic peptide receptor-C (NPR-C) as the cognate receptor that primarily underlies CNP-dependent vasoprotective functions and developed small-molecule NPR-C agonists to target this pathway. Administration of NPR-C agonists promotes a vasorelaxation of isolated resistance arteries and a reduction in blood pressure in wild-type animals that is diminished in mice lacking NPR-C. This work provides a mechanistic explanation for genome-wide association studies that have linked the NPR-C (Npr3) locus with hypertension by demonstrating the importance of CNP/NPR-C signaling in preserving vascular homoeostasis. Furthermore, these results suggest that the CNP/NPR-C pathway has potential as a disease-modifying therapeutic target for cardiovascular disorders.
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Design and validation of the INICIARE instrument, for the assessment of dependency level in acutely ill hospitalised patients.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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The aim of this study was to establish the validity and reliability of an instrument (Inventario del NIvel de Cuidados mediante IndicAdores de clasificación de Resultados de Enfermería) used to assess the dependency level in acutely hospitalised patients. This instrument is novel, and it is based on the Nursing Outcomes Classification.
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Benign soft-tissue lesions of the fingers: radiopathological correlation and clinical considerations.
Skeletal Radiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Soft-tissue lesions of the fingers are commonly found in daily clinical practice. A wide range of tumors and pseudotumors have been described in this location, and the majority of them are benign. Ganglion cysts are the most common entity, and the localized type of tenosynovial giant cell tumors are the most frequent solid condition. Both may be easily recognized owing to their typical clinical and radiological characteristics. However, categorization of the spectrum of soft-tissue lesions of the fingers remains limited, despite imaging development, and many patients undergo surgery before radiological or histological diagnosis. Clinical history, radiographic features, and ultrasound and magnetic resonance patterns may help in obtaining the correct diagnosis or reducing the list of differential diagnoses. Radiologists should be familiar with imaging findings so that they can determine the size, extension, and affected neighboring anatomical structures, and provide information that allows adequate presurgical counseling.
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Effects of housing conditions and season on the activity rhythm of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) kept under natural conditions within their distributional range in Central Mexico.
Chronobiol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The timing and pattern of mammalian behavioral activities are regulated by an evolutionary optimized interplay of the genetically based biological (circadian) clock located in the brain's suprachiasmatic nuclei and direct responses to environmental factors that superimpose and thus mask the clock-mediated effects, the most important of which is the photically induced phase-setting (synchronization) of the circadian rhythmicity to the 24-hour solar day. In wild and captive animals living under the natural conditions prevailing in their habitat, to date, only a few attempts have been made to analyze the role of these two regulatory mechanisms in the species' adaptation to the time structure prevailing in their habitat. We studied the impact of housing conditions and season on the daily timing and pattern of activity in Mexican spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi). To this end, we carried out long-term activity recordings with Actiwatch® AW4 accelerometer/data-logger devices in 11 adult Ateles living under identical natural lighting and climatic conditions in either a large wire netting cage or a 0.25?ha forest enclosure in the primatological field station of Veracruz State University near Catemaco, Mexico. In a gravid female in the forest enclosure, we obtained first-hand information on the effect of late pregnancy and parturition on the monkey's activity rhythm. The Ateles behaved strictly diurnal and undertook about 90% of daily total activity during this activity time. Due to a higher second activity peak in late afternoon, the bimodal activity pattern was more pronounced in monkeys living in the forest enclosure. Although the spider monkeys kept there had an earlier activity onset and morning activity peak than their conspecifics in the cage, no consistent differences were found in the parameters characterizing the phase-setting of the circadian system to the environmental 24-h periodicity, either by comparison or correlation with the external time markers of sunrise (SR) and sunset (SS). The most obvious effect of late pregnancy, parturition and lactation was a distinct reduction of the activity level during the week of parturition and the next. Seasonal variations in the form of significant differences between the long-day summer half year and the short-day winter half year were established in the phase-angle differences of the morning activity peak to SR, in the evening activity peak and activity offset to SS, as well as in the activity time and the peak-to-peak interval, but not in the phase position of activity onset to SR or in the height of the morning and evening activity peak. These findings in combination with a high variability of the phase angle differences indicate that in A. geoffroyi, a relatively weak circadian component and strong masking direct effects of environmental factors are involved in the regulation of the daily activity rhythm.
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Oxidative stress and DNA damage in obesity-related tumorigenesis.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Reactive oxygen species induce oxidative modification of critical macromolecules. Oxygen derived free radicals may act as potential cytotoxic intermediates inducing inflammatory and degenerative processes, or as signal messengers for the regulation of gene expression. This dual effect mainly depends on the availability of free radicals in terms of concentration, as well as on the environmental characteristics in which they are produced. The formation of free radicals has been proposed to be the linking factor between certain metabolic disturbances and cancer. Circulating mononuclear cells of patients with high cholesterol levels, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome or obesity present lower levels of antioxidant enzymes and increased concentrations of oxidative stress by-products such as isoprostanes or the DNA oxidized and highly mutagenic base 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine. Overweight or obese subjects also exhibit hormonal changes as a consequence of the increase of mass fat, and these hormonal alterations have been implicated in the alteration of different signal transduction mechanisms and in cell growth and differentiation. A significant correlation has been found between body mass index and cancer. The biological factors and molecular mechanisms implicated in obesity associated cancer susceptibility will be reviewed.
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Dakin solution alters macrophage viability and function.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Macrophages are important in wound defense and healing. Dakin's solution (DS), buffered sodium hypochlorite, has been used since World War I as a topical antimicrobial for wound care. DS has been shown to be toxic to host cells, but effects on immune cells are not well documented.
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[Sensory evaluation of enteral nutritional supplements].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Enteral nutrition (EN) is indicated in patients who, although they may not eat enough food, maintain a sufficient function to receive, digest and absorb nutrients digestive system. Oral Nutritional Supplements (SON) are nutritionally complete or incomplete formulas (depending on whether or not provide all the nutrients needed to serve as the sole source of nutrients), which supplement inadequate oral diet. This study aims to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics of hyperproteic, normoproteic and fiber-enriched oral SON.
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Body mass index and acute coronary syndromes: Paradox or confusion?
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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A better prognosis in obese patients has been described in acute coronary syndromes (ACS). However, this evidence is mostly based on retrospective studies and has provided conflicting results. No study reported cause-specific mortality according to body mass index (BMI) in ACS. We aimed to prospectively assess the impact of BMI on mortality and its specific causes in ACS patients.
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Predictive ability of bleeding risk scores in the routine clinical practice.
Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Previous predictive models of bleeding in acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) used different definitions of bleeding and some of them come from populations lacking important predictors of haemorrhagic complications. Our group previously developed a predictive model of bleeding (PMB), including clinically meaningful variables, providing an optimal predictive ability. We aimed to compare the ability of this PMB with the main available bleeding risk scores for predicting major bleeding according to different definitions in non-selected ACS patients from daily clinical practice.
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Infection of California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) with terrestrial Brucella spp.
Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Infections with Brucella ceti and pinnipedialis are prevalent in marine mammals worldwide. A total of 22 California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) were examined to determine their exposure to Brucella spp. at San Esteban Island in the Gulf of California, Mexico, in June and July 2011. Although samples of blood, vaginal mucus and milk cultured negative for these bacteria, the application of rose Bengal, agar gel immunodiffusion, PCR and modified fluorescence polarization assays found that five animals (22.7%) had evidence of exposure to Brucella strains. The data also suggested that in two of these five sea lions the strains involved were of terrestrial origin, a novel finding in marine mammals. Further work will be required to validate and determine the epidemiological significance of this finding.
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Analysis of factors influencing telephone call response rate in an epidemiological study.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Descriptive epidemiology research involves collecting data from large numbers of subjects. Obtaining these data requires approaches designed to achieve maximum participation or response rates among respondents possessing the desired information. We analyze participation and response rates in a population-based epidemiological study though a telephone survey and identify factors implicated in consenting to participate. Rates found exceeded those reported in the literature and they were higher for afternoon calls than for morning calls. Women and subjects older than 40 years were the most likely to answer the telephone. The study identified geographical differences, with higher RRs in districts in southern Spain that are not considered urbanized. This information may be helpful for designing more efficient community epidemiology projects.
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Soluble DPP4 induces inflammation and proliferation of human smooth muscle cells via protease-activated receptor 2.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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DPP4 is an ubiquitously expressed cell-surface protease that is shedded to the circulation as soluble DPP4 (sDPP4). We recently identified sDPP4 as a novel adipokine potentially linking obesity to the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate direct effects of sDPP4 on human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs) and to identify responsible signaling pathways. Using physiological concentrations of sDPP4, we could observe a concentration-dependent activation of ERK1/2 (3-fold) after 6h, which remained stable for up to 24h. Additionally, sDPP4 treatment induced a 1.5-fold phosphorylation of the NF-?B subunit p65. In accordance with sDPP4-induced stress and inflammatory signaling, sDPP4 also stimulates hVSMC proliferation. Furthermore we could observe an increased expression and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 (2.5-, 2.4- and 1.5-fold, respectively) by the sDPP4 treatment. All direct effects of sDPP4 on signaling, proliferation and inflammation could completely be prevented by DPP4 inhibition. Bioinformatic analysis and signaling signature induced by sDPP4 suggest that sDPP4 might be an agonist for PAR2. After the silencing of PAR2, the sDPP4-induced ERK activation as well as the proliferation was totally abolished. Additionally, the sDPP4-induced upregulation of IL-6 and IL-8 could completely be prevented by the PAR2 silencing. In conclusion, we show for the first time that sDPP4 directly activates the MAPK and NF-?B signaling cascade involving PAR2 and resulting in the induction of inflammation and proliferation of hVSMC. Thus, our in vitro data might extend the current view of sDPP4 action and shed light on cardiovascular effects of DPP4-inhibitors.
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Antifungal resistance to fluconazole and echinocandins is not emerging in yeast isolates causing fungemia in a Spanish tertiary care center.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Accurate knowledge of fungemia epidemiology requires identification of strains to the molecular level. Various studies have shown that the rate of resistance to fluconazole ranges from 2.5% to 9% in Candida spp. isolated from blood samples. However, trends in antifungal resistance have received little attention and have been studied only using CLSI M27-A3 methodology. We assessed the fungemia epidemiology in a large tertiary care institution in Madrid, Spain, by identifying isolates to the molecular level and performing antifungal susceptibility testing according to the updated breakpoints of European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) definitive document (EDef) 7.2. We studied 613 isolates causing 598 episodes of fungemia in 544 patients admitted to our hospital (January 2007 to December 2013). Strains were identified after amplification and sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region and further tested for in vitro susceptibility to amphotericin B, fluconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole, micafungin, and anidulafungin. Resistance was defined using EUCAST species-specific breakpoints, and epidemiological cutoff values (ECOFFs) were applied as tentative breakpoints. Most episodes were caused by Candida albicans (46%), Candida parapsilosis (28.7%), Candida glabrata (9.8%), and Candida tropicalis (8%). Molecular identification enabled us to better detect cryptic species of Candida guilliermondii and C. parapsilosis complexes and episodes of polyfungal fungemia. The overall percentage of fluconazole-resistant isolates was 5%, although it was higher in C. glabrata (8.6%) and non-Candida yeast isolates (47.4%). The rate of resistance to echinocandins was 4.4% and was mainly due to the presence of intrinsically resistant non-Candida species. Resistance mainly affected non-Candida yeasts. The rate of resistance to fluconazole and echinocandins did not change considerably during the study period.
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Transcranial cavitation detection in primates during blood-brain barrier opening--a performance assessment study.
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Focused ultrasound (FUS) has been shown promise in treating the brain locally and noninvasively. Transcranial passive cavitation detection (PCD) provides methodology for monitoring the treatment in real time, but the skull effects remain a major challenge for its translation to the clinic. In this study, we investigated the sensitivity, reliability, and limitations of PCD through primate (macaque and human) skulls in vitro. The results were further correlated with the in vivo macaque studies including the transcranial PCD calibration and real-time monitoring of blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening, with magnetic resonance imaging assessing the opening and safety. The stable cavitation doses using harmonics (SCDh) and ultraharmonics (SCDu), the inertial cavitation dose (ICD), and the cavitation SNR were quantified based on the PCD signals. Results showed that through the macaque skull, the pressure threshold for detecting the SCDh remained the same as without the skull in place, whereas it increased for the SCDu and ICD; through the human skull, it increased for all cavitation doses. The transcranial PCD was found to be reliable both in vitro and in vivo when the transcranial cavitation SNR exceeded the 1-dB detection limit through the in vitro macaque (attenuation: 4.92 dB/mm) and human (attenuation: 7.33 dB/ mm) skull. In addition, using long pulses enabled reliable PCD monitoring and facilitate BBB opening at low pressures. The in vivo results showed that the SCDh became detectable at pressures as low as 100 kPa; the ICD became detectable at 250 kPa, although it could occur at lower pressures; and the SCDu became detectable at 700 kPa and was less reliable at lower pressures. Real-time monitoring of PCD was further implemented during BBB opening, with successful and safe opening achieved at 250 to 600 kPa in both the thalamus and the putamen. In conclusion, this study shows that transcranial PCD in macaques in vitro and in vivo, and in humans in vitro, is reliable by improving the cavitation SNR beyond the 1-dB detection limit.
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Is it feasible to diagnose catheter-related candidemia without catheter withdrawal?
Med. Mycol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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Many bloodstream infections (BSI) in patients with central venous catheters (CVC) are not catheter-related (CR). Assessment of catheter involvement without catheter withdrawal has not been studied in candidemia. We assessed the value of conservative techniques to evaluate catheters as the origin of candidemia in patients with CVC in a prospective cohort study (superficial Gram stain and culture, Kite technique (Gram stain and culture of the first 1 cm blood drawn from the CVC), proportion of positive blood cultures (PPBCs), differential time to positivity (DTP), and minimal time to positivity (MTP)). All catheters were cultured at withdrawal. From June 2008 to January 2012, 22 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. CR-candidemia (CRC) was confirmed in 10. Validity values for predicting CRC were: superficial Gram stain (S, 30%; Sp, 81.83%; PPV, 60%; NPV, 56.3%; Ac, 57.1%), superficial cultures (S, 40%; Sp, 75%; PPV, 57.1%; NPV, 60%; Ac, 59.1%), Kite Gram stain (S, 33.3%; Sp, 66.7%; PPV, 50%; NPV, 50%; Ac, 50%), Kite culture (S, 80%; Sp, 66.7%; PPV, 66.7%; NPV, 80%; Ac, 72.7%), PPBC (S, 50%; Sp, 41.7%; PPV, 41.7%; NPV, 50.0%; Ac, 45.5%), DTP (S, 100%; Sp, 33.3%; PPV, 55.6%; NPV, 100%; Ac, 63.6%), and MTTP (S, 70%; Sp, 58.3%; PPV, 58.3%; NPV, 70%; Ac, 63.6%). While combinations of two tests improved sensitivity and NPV, more than two tests did not improve validity values. Classic tests to assess CR-BSI caused by bacteria cannot be reliably used to diagnose CRC. Combinations of tests could be useful, but more and larger studies are required.
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D-amino acids enhance the activity of antimicrobials against biofilms of clinical wound isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Within wounds, microorganisms predominantly exist as biofilms. Biofilms are associated with chronic infections and represent a tremendous clinical challenge. As antibiotics are often ineffective against biofilms, use of dispersal agents as adjunctive, topical therapies for the treatment of wound infections involving biofilms has gained interest. We evaluated in vitro the dispersive activity of D-amino acids (D-AAs) on biofilms from clinical wound isolates of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa; moreover, we determined whether combinations of D-AAs and antibiotics (clindamycin, cefazolin, oxacillin, rifampin, and vancomycin for S. aureus and amikacin, colistin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, and ceftazidime for P. aeruginosa) enhance activity against biofilms. D-Met, D-Phe, and D-Trp at concentrations of ? 5 mM effectively dispersed preformed biofilms of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa clinical isolates, an effect that was enhanced when they were combined as an equimolar mixture (D-Met/D-Phe/D-Trp). When combined with D-AAs, the activity of rifampin was significantly enhanced against biofilms of clinical isolates of S. aureus, as indicated by a reduction in the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) (from 32 to 8 ?g/ml) and a >2-log reduction of viable biofilm bacteria compared to treatment with antibiotic alone. The addition of D-AAs was also observed to enhance the activity of colistin and ciprofloxacin against biofilms of P. aeruginosa, reducing the observed MBIC and the number of viable bacteria by >2 logs and 1 log at 64 and 32 ?g/ml in contrast to antibiotics alone. These findings indicate that the biofilm dispersal activity of D-AAs may represent an effective strategy, in combination with antimicrobials, to release bacteria from biofilms, subsequently enhancing antimicrobial activity.
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Long-term renal and neurologic outcomes among survivors of diethylene glycol poisoning.
JAMA Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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At least 13 medication-associated diethylene glycol (DEG) mass poisonings have occurred since 1937. To our knowledge, this is the first longitudinal study characterizing long-term health outcomes among survivors beyond the acute poisoning period.
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Occult bloodstream infections in adults: a "benign" entity.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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Patients with septic episodes whose blood cultures turn positive after being sent home from emergency departments (EDs) are recognized as having occult bloodstream infections (BSI). The incidence, etiology, clinical circumstances, and outcome of occult BSI in children are well known, but, to our knowledge, data in adult patients are scarce. We analyzed the episodes of occult BSI in adult patients at our institution.
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[Rosai-Dorfman disease presented with involvement of the adrenal gland. A clinical case reported].
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Adrenal gland involvement is a very rare extranodal presentation of sinus histiocytosis with massive lymphadenopathy (Rosai-Dorfman disease). Its pathogenesis still remains unknown with many theories about its probable cause. Symptoms and signs of adrenal involvement presentation are uncertain. Although, it is a disease with a good prognosis and a favorable clinical course in most cases, the low index of suspicion and difficulty in radiological differential diagnosis lead to radical treatment.
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Circumstances and causes of falls by patients at a Spanish acute care hospital.
J Eval Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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A major problem in hospitals is that of falls, which can seriously reduce patients' quality of life. Fall rates vary considerably depending on health care practices, the hospital environment and the measurement method used. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics of hospitalized acute patients who suffer falls, by analysing the distribution and the profile of these patients.
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Acute left main coronary artery thrombosis as the first manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus and catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome.
Am J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Most coronary events in young adults are related to atherosclerosis; however, approximately 20% of coronary heart disease in young adults is related to nonatherosclerotic factors such as coronary abnormalities, connective tissue disorders, and autoimmune diseases. Different initial manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) have been reported. Myocardial infarction is observed in patients with SLE in all age groups; it appears during the course of the disease; and it is unusual in the APS. We present a unique case of a 28-year-old young man previously healthy who has an ST-elevation myocardial infarction by total acute thrombosis of the left main coronary artery. Laboratory studies demonstrated the presence of antibodies for SLE and APS. The patient was treated successfully with percutaneous coronary intervention. He developed catastrophic APS despite an adequate anticoagulation and was treated with intravenous steroids and plasmapheresis. Clinical evolution was satisfactory, and he discharged from the hospital. This case highlights the importance of considering in the emergency department, the prothrombotic states such as SLE and APS in young patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction caused by an unexplained intracoronary thrombosis. Early diagnosis of catastrophic APS and aggressive therapies are essential to help such patients from succumbing to this potentially fatal condition.
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Biofilms and persistent wound infections in United States military trauma patients: a case-control analysis.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Complex traumatic injuries sustained by military personnel, particularly when involving extremities, often result in infectious complications and substantial morbidity. One factor that may further impair patient recovery is the persistence of infections. Surface-attached microbial communities, known as biofilms, may play a role in hindering the management of infections; however, clinical data associating biofilm formation with persistent or chronic infections are lacking. Therefore, we evaluated the production of bacterial biofilms as a potential risk factor for persistent infections among wounded military personnel.
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Atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in systemic lupus erythematosus: effects of in vivo statin treatment.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Statins may have beneficial vascular effects in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) beyond their cholesterol-lowering action, although the mechanisms involved are not completely understood. We investigated potential mechanisms involved in the efficacy of fluvastatin in preventing atherothrombosis in SLE.
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Polymers Fight HIV: Potent (Pro)Drugs Identified Through Parallel Automated Synthesis.
Adv Healthc Mater
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Macromolecular (pro)drugs interfere with the proliferation of HIV through both inhibition of viral cell entry and via intracellular delivery of antiviral drugs. Lead polymer conjugates exhibit longevity of action exceeding that of parent nucleoside analogue drug and are active in primary T cell over at least 72 h.
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[The right to die with dignity in an acute-care hospital: a qualitative study].
Enferm Clin
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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To examine the perceptions and beliefs of doctors and nurses, and the barriers and facilitators they must address as regards the right to die with dignity in an acute-care hospital, and to consider the applicability of the provisions of Law 2/2010 of 8 April in this respect.
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Gene profiling reveals specific molecular pathways in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease in antiphospholipid syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid syndrome with lupus.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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To identify shared and differential molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AT) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), primary antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and APS associated with SLE (APS plus SLE).
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Randomised clinical trial: conventional Lichtenstein vs. hernioplasty with self-adhesive mesh in bilateral inguinal hernia surgery.
Hernia
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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To compare the results of conventional Lichtenstein hernioplasty with polypropylene mesh (PLP) with a lightweight self-adhesive mesh (Parietene Progrip®; Covidien, Dublin, Ireland) (PPG) used in patients with bilateral inguinal hernia.
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Comparison and analysis of objective functions in flux balance analysis.
Biotechnol. Prog.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Flux balance analysis (FBA) is currently one of the most important and used techniques for estimation of metabolic reaction rates (fluxes). This mathematical approach utilizes an optimization criterion in order to select a distribution of fluxes from the feasible space delimited by the metabolic reactions and some restrictions imposed over them, assuming that cellular metabolism is in steady state. Therefore, the obtained flux distribution depends on the specific objective function used. Multiple studies have been aimed to compare distinct objective functions at given conditions, in order to determine which of those functions produces values of fluxes closer to real data when used as objective in the FBA; in other words, what is the best objective function for modeling cell metabolism at a determined environmental condition. However, these comparative studies have been designed in very dissimilar ways, and in general, several factors that can change the ideal objective function in a cellular condition have not been adequately considered. Additionally, most of them have used only one dataset for representing one condition of cell growth, and different measuring techniques have been used. For these reasons, a rigorous study on the effect of factors such as the quantity of used data, the number and type of fluxes utilized as input data, and the selected classification of growth conditions, are required in order to obtain useful conclusions for these comparative studies, allowing limiting clearly the application range on any of those results. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:985-991, 2014.
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Human plasma enhances the expression of Staphylococcal microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules promoting biofilm formation and increases antimicrobial tolerance In Vitro.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Microbial biofilms have been associated with the development of chronic human infections and represent a clinical challenge given their increased antimicrobial tolerance. Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing a diverse range of diseases, of which biofilms are often involved. Staphylococcal attachment and the formation of biofilms have been shown to be facilitated by host factors that accumulate on surfaces. To better understand how host factors enhance staphylococcal biofilm formation, we evaluated the effect of whole human plasma on biofilm formation in clinical isolates of S. aureus and the expression of seven microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs) known to be involved in biofilm formation by quantitative real-time PCR. We also evaluated whether plasma augmented changes in S. aureus biofilm morphology and antimicrobial resistance.
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[Evaluation of a structured program of physical exercise in morbidly obese patients awaiting bariatric surgery].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Obesity is a chronic disease whose prevalence is increasing up to be considered a real epidemic. In the case of morbid obesity, in many cases required to resort to surgery to achieve adequate weight reduction and improvement of comorbidities. There are, however, few studies have evaluated the influence of a structured program of physical exercise in these patients before surgery.
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Intramyocardial hemorrhage in spontaneously reperfused myocardial infarction.
Rev. Invest. Clin.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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OBJECTIVE. The presence of intramyocardial hemorrhage (IMH) is frequent in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). We aim for the presence IMH using cMRI in patients who presented AMI and did not undergo PPCI or thrombolysis. Cardiac magnetic resonance has proven to be a highly sensitive method for detect its presence in the ischemic damaged tissue. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Patients admitted with diagnosis of ST elevation myocardial infarction > 24 h after initial presentation and without reperfusion therapy were enrolled in the study. All patients underwent cardiac magnetic resonance for detecting edema, microvascular obstruction and intramyocardial hemorrhage, followed by coronary angiography. RESULTS. Seven male patients, with median age of 53 years, were enrolled. Cardiac magnetic resonance showed that all patients had microvascular obstruction and edema. Two of them had intramyocardial hemorrhage in association with spontaneous reperfusion demonstrated by angiography. CONCLUSION. The results of our study show that in patients with acute myocardial infarction, intramyocardial hemorrhage occurs not only after therapeutic, but also after spontaneous reperfusion. This is the first time that its presence is demonstrated by cardiac magnetic resonance.
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[FRAX® thresholds to identify people with high or low risk of osteoporotic fracture in Spanish female population.]
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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To detect FRAX(®) threshold levels that identify groups of the population that are at high/low risk of osteoporotic fracture in the Spanish female population using a cost-effective assessment.
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Improvement of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry identification of difficult-to-identify bacteria and its impact in the workflow of a clinical microbiology laboratory.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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This study evaluates matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) capability for the identification of difficult-to-identify microorganisms. A total of 150 bacterial isolates inconclusively identified with conventional phenotypic tests were further assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing and by MALDI-TOF MS following 2 methods: a) a simplified formic acid-based, on-plate extraction and b) performing a tube-based extraction step. Using the simplified method, 29 isolates could not be identified. For the remaining 121 isolates (80.7%), we obtained a reliable identification by MALDI-TOF: in 103 isolates, the identification by 16S rRNA sequencing and MALDI TOF coincided at the species level (68.7% from the total 150 analyzed isolates and 85.1% from the samples with MALDI-TOF result), and in 18 isolates, the identification by both methods coincided at the genus level (12% from the total and 14.9% from the samples with MALDI-TOF results). No discordant results were observed. The performance of the tube-based extraction step allowed the identification at the species level of 6 of the 29 unidentified isolates by the simplified method. In summary, MALDI-TOF can be used for the rapid identification of many bacterial isolates inconclusively identified by conventional methods.
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Macromolecular prodrugs of ribavirin: concerted efforts of the carrier and the drug.
Adv Healthc Mater
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Polymers in tune. Automated parallel polymer synthesis is developed to obtain libraries of macromolecular prodrugs of ribavirin, a broad-spectrum antiviral agent. As many as 10 identified lead polymer conjugates exhibit therapeutic efficacy matching that of the pristine drug and at the same time suppressed the origin of the main side effect of ribavirin.
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The Relationship between Species Diversity and Genetic Structure in the Rare Picea chihuahuana Tree Species Community, Mexico.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Species diversity and genetic diversity, the most basic elements of biodiversity, have long been treated as separate topics, although populations evolve within a community context. Recent studies on community genetics and ecology have suggested that genetic diversity is not completely independent of species diversity. The Mexican Picea chihuahuana Martínez is an endemic species listed as "Endangered" on the Red List. Forty populations of Chihuahua spruce have been identified. This species is often associated with tree species of eight genera in gallery forests. This rare Picea chihuahuana tree community covers an area no more than 300 ha and has been subject of several studies involving different topics such as ecology, genetic structure and climate change. The overall aim of these studies was to obtain a dataset for developing management tools to help decision makers implement preservation and conservation strategies. However, this unique forest tree community may also represent an excellent subject for helping us to understand the interplay between ecological and evolutionary processes in determining community structure and dynamics. The AFLP technique and species composition data were used together to test the hypothesis that species diversity is related to the adaptive genetic structure of some dominant tree species (Picea chihuahuana, Pinus strobiformis, Pseudotsuga menziesii and Populus tremuloides) of the Picea chihuahuana tree community at fourteen locations. The Hill numbers were used as a diversity measure. The results revealed a significant correlation between tree species diversity and genetic structure in Populus tremuloides. Because the relationship between the two levels of diversity was found to be positive for the putative adaptive AFLP detected, genetic and species structures of the tree community were possibly simultaneously adapted to a combination of ecological or environmental factors. The present findings indicate that interactions between genetic variants and species diversity may be crucial in shaping tree communities.
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Prevalence of conventional risk factors and lipid profiles in patients with acute coronary syndrome and significant coronary disease.
Ther Clin Risk Manag
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD), 80%-90% present at least one conventional risk factor. On the other hand, lipid profile modification after a cardiovascular event related to acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has been recognized. The prevalence of conventional risk factors and the lipid profile at the time of admission in patients with ACS and significant CAD (stenosis ?50%) determined through coronary angiography is not well described.
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Penicillium sp. as an organism that degrades endosulfan and reduces its genotoxic effects.
Springerplus
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Endosulfan is an organochloride and persistent pesticide that has caused concern because of its impact in the environment and its toxicity to and bioaccumulation in living organisms. In this study, we isolated an endosulfan-degrading fungus from the activated sludge from an industrial wastewater treatment plant. Through repetitive enrichment and successive subculture in media containing endosulfan as the sole carbon source, a fungus designated CHE 23 was isolated. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, strain CHE 23 was assigned to the genus Penicillium sp. In a mineral salt medium with 50 mg/l endosulfan as the sole source carbon, CHE 23 removed the added endosulfan in a period of six days. To verify the decrease in endosulfan toxicity due to the activity of the fungus, we performed genotoxicity tests trough the single cell gel electrophoresis assay or comet assay, with Eisenia fetida as the bioindicator species. This organism was exposed to the supernatants of the culture of the fungus and endosulfan. Our results indicated that the genotoxicity of endosulfan was completely reduced due the activity of this fungus. These results suggest that the Penicillium sp. CHE 23 strain can be used to degrade endosulfan residues and/or for water and soil bioremediation processes without causing toxicity problems, which are probably due to the generation of no-toxic metabolites during biodegradation.
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Inhibition of influenza virus in vivo by siRNA delivered using ABA triblock copolymer synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization.
Nanomedicine (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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Aim: Influenza virus remains a major threat, with outbreaks continuing to occur. Few treatment options are available and drug resistance can emerge rapidly. New drugs that can quickly be adapted to virus mutations are needed. Several highly effective siRNAs targeting influenza that inhibit virus replication are known; however, effective delivery of these siRNAs remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of ABA triblock copolymer-delivered siRNA to inhibit influenza virus replication in vivo. Materials & methods: We report on the delivery of a siRNA targeting the influenza virus in chicken embryos using an ABA triblock copolymer prepared by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization, containing a central cationic block and two outer hydrophilic polyethylene glycol blocks. Results: A significant reduction of virus titer was observed with the polymer/anti-influenza siRNA complexes, whereas the control with polymer/control siRNA complexes showed no effect. Conclusion: These data suggest that a reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer-based siRNA delivery platform may be suitable for combating infectious diseases in vivo. Original submitted 21 December 2012; Revised submitted 10 May 2013.
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"Causes of death in asthma, COPD and non-respiratory hospitalized patients: a multicentric study"
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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There is limited information on the causes of death in asthma patients.Objectives: To determine the causes of death in hospitalized asthmatic patients and to compare with those observed in COPD patients and non-respiratory individuals, with a particular interest in associations with previous cardiovascular disease.
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Regulation of Death Induction and Chemosensitizing Action of 3-Bromopyruvate in Myeloid Leukemia Cells. Energy Depletion, Oxidative Stress, and Protein Kinase Activity Modulation.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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3-Bromopyruvate (3-BrP) is an alkylating, energy-depleting drug that is of interest in anti-tumor therapies, although the mechanisms underlying its cytotoxicity are ill-defined. We show here that 3-BrP causes concentration-dependent cell death of HL60 and other human myeloid leukemia cells, inducing both apoptosis and necrosis at 20-30 ?M, and a pure necrotic response at 60 ?M. Low concentrations of 3-BrP (10-20 ?M) brought about a rapid inhibition of glycolysis, which at higher concentrations was followed by the inhibition of mitochondrial respiration. The combination of these effects causes concentration-dependent ATP depletion, although this cannot explain the lethality at intermediate 3-BrP concentrations (20-30 ?M). The oxidative stress caused by exposure to 3-BrP was evident as a moderate over-production of reactive oxygen species and a concentration-dependent depletion of glutathione, which was an important determinant of 3-BrP toxicity. In addition, 3-BrP caused glutathione-dependent stimulation of p38-MAPK, MEK/ERK and Akt/mTOR/p70S6K phosphorylation/activation, as well as rapid LKB-1/AMPK activation that was later followed by Akt-mediated inactivation. Experiments with pharmacological inhibitors revealed that p38-MAPK activation enhances 3-BrP toxicity, which is conversely restrained by ERK and Akt activity. Finally, 3-BrP was seen to cooperate with anti-tumor agents like arsenic trioxide and curcumin in causing cell death, a response apparently mediated by both the generation of oxidative stress induced by 3-BrP and the attenuation of Akt and ERK activation by curcumin. In summary, 3-BrP cytotoxicity is the result of a several combined regulatory mechanisms that might represent important targets to improve therapeutic efficacy.
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Impact of Mild Hypothermia on Platelet Responsiveness to Aspirin and Clopidogrel: an In Vitro Pharmacodynamic Investigation.
J Cardiovasc Transl Res
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2013
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The combination of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and therapeutic hypothermia in comatose patients after cardiac arrest due to an acute coronary syndrome has been reported to be safe and effective. However, recent investigations suggest that hypothermia may be associated with impaired response to clopidogrel and greater risk of thrombotic complications after PCI. This investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of hypothermia on the pharmacodynamic response of aspirin and clopidogrel in patients (n?=?20) with ST elevation myocardial infarction undergoing primary PCI. Higher platelet reactivity (ADP stimulus) was observed in samples incubated at 33 °C compared with those at 37 °C (multiple electrode aggregometry, 235.2?±?31.4 AU×min vs. 181.9?±?30.2 AU×min, p?
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Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation is strain dependent, multifactorial, and associated with reduced invasiveness and immunoreactivity during colonization.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2013
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Biofilms are thought to play an important role during colonization of the nasopharynx by Streptococcus pneumoniae, yet how they form in vivo and the determinants responsible remain unknown. Using scanning electron microscopy, we show that biofilm aggregates of increasing complexity form on murine nasal septa following intranasal inoculation. These biofilms were highly distinct from in vitro biofilms, as they were discontiguous and appeared to incorporate nonbacterial components such as intact host cells. Biofilms initially formed on the surface of ciliated epithelial cells and, as cells were sloughed off, were found on the basement membrane. The size and number of biofilm aggregates within nasal lavage fluid were digitally quantitated and revealed strain-specific capabilities that loosely correlated with the ability to form robust in vitro biofilms. We tested the ability of isogenic mutants deficient in CbpA, pneumolysin, hydrogen peroxide, LytA, LuxS, CiaR/H, and PsrP to form biofilms within the nasopharynx. This analysis revealed that CiaR/H was absolutely required for colonization, that PsrP and SpxB strongly impacted aggregate formation, and that other determinants affected aggregate morphology in a modest fashion. We determined that mice colonized with ?psrP mutants had greater levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-1?, and KC in nasal lavage fluid than did mice colonized with wild-type controls. This phenotype correlated with a diminished capacity of biofilm pneumococci to invade host cells in vitro despite enhanced attachment. Our results show that biofilms form during colonization and suggest that they may contribute to persistence through a hyperadhesive, noninvasive state that elicits a dampened cytokine response.
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Anisotropic light emissions in luminescent solar concentrators-isotropic systems.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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In this paper we develop a model to describe the emission profile from randomly oriented dichroic dye molecules in a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) waveguide as a function of incoming light direction. The resulting emission is non-isotropic, in contradiction to what is used in almost all previous simulations on the performance of LSCs, and helps explain the large surface losses measured in these devices. To achieve more precise LSC performance simulations we suggest that the dichroic nature of the dyes must be included in the future modeling efforts.
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Common Origin of Insect Trachea and Endocrine Organs from a Segmentally Repeated Precursor.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Segmented organisms have serially repeated structures [1] that become specialized in some segments [2]. We show here that the Drosophila corpora allata, prothoracic glands, and trachea have a homologous origin and can convert into each other. The tracheal epithelial tubes develop from ten trunk placodes [3, 4], and homologous ectodermal cells in the maxilla and labium form the corpora allata and the prothoracic glands. The early endocrine and trachea gene networks are similar, with STAT and Hox genes inducing their activation. The initial invagination of the trachea and the endocrine primordia is identical, but activation of Snail in the glands induces an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), after which the corpora allata and prothoracic gland primordia coalesce and migrate dorsally, joining the corpora cardiaca to form the ring gland. We propose that the arthropod ectodermal endocrine glands and respiratory organs arose through an extreme process of divergent evolution from a metameric repeated structure.
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Diagnostic yield of electroencephalography in a general inpatient population.
Neurodiagn J
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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To determine the frequency and clinical predictors of seizures and markers of epileptiform activity in a noncritically ill general inpatient population.
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[Clinical practice guideline. Traumatic urethral stenosis in males].
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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The incidence of urethral stenosis in Mexico had not been documented. At the Centro Médico Nacional La Raza, during the year 2010, 629 patients with urethral stenosis were attended as outpatient consultation: 85 % with previous urethral stenosis and 15 % with urethral treatment complication. Urethral stenosis is a chronic illness, with multiple etiological origins and the handling is controversial. It has a great negative impact for the patients and the recurrence reaches 85 %. The treatment consisted of an invasive approach (urethral dilations, endoscopy procedure) and open surgery (urethroplasty). The World Health Organization and World Alliance take the world challenge about the urinary tract infections associated with the attention of patients, focused on urethral stenosis. The objective of the following clinical guide is to offer to the health professional a clinical tool for making decisions in the handling of the hardship or masculine urethral stenosis, based on the best available evidence, carrying out in systematized form with bibliographical research using validated terms of the MeSH: urethral structures, in the databases Trip database, PubMed, Guideline Clearinghouse, Cochrane Library and Ovid.
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Advanced recognition of explosives in traces on polymer surfaces using LIBS and supervised learning classifiers.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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The large similarity existing in the spectral emissions collected from organic compounds by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a limiting factor for the use of this technology in the real world. Specifically, among the most ambitious challenges of todays LIBS involves the recognition of an organic residue when neglected on the surface of an object of identical nature. Under these circumstances, the development of an efficient algorithm to disclose the minute differences within this highly complex spectral information is crucial for a realistic application of LIBS in countering explosive threats. An approach cemented on scatter plots of characteristic emission features has been developed to identify organic explosives when located on polymeric surfaces (teflon, nylon and polyethylene). By using selected spectral variables, the approach allows to design a concise classifier for alerting when one of four explosives (DNT, TNT, RDX and PETN) is present on the surface of the polymer. Ordinary products (butter, fuel oil, hand cream, olive oil and motor oil) cause no confusion in the decisions taken by the classifier. With rates of false negatives and false positives below 5%, results demonstrate that the classification algorithm enables to label residues according to their harmful nature in the most demanding scenario for a LIBS sensor.
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HDL-cholesterol in coronary artery disease risk: Function or structure?
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are inversely related with coronary artery disease (CAD) and HDL-cholesterol is the only standardized and reproducible parameter available to estimate plasma concentration of these lipoproteins. However, pharmacological interventions intended to increase HDL-cholesterol have not been consistently associated to an effective CAD risk reduction. Among patients with a myocardial infarction, 43 and 44% of men and women, respectively, had normal plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol, whereas genetic studies have failed to show a causal association between HDL-cholesterol and CAD risk. Instead, HDL functionality seems to be the target to be evaluated, but the existing methods are still poorly reproducible and far to be adapted to the clinical laboratory. HDL subclasses rise as a potential alternative for the evaluation of CAD risk; HDL subclasses are a surrogate of intravascular metabolism of these lipoproteins and probably of their functionality. Low levels of large HDL and increased proportions of small particles are the most remarkable features associated to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or CAD. However, inflammation and other environmental factors are related with abnormal HDL structure, and, as a consequence, more prospective studies are needed to better support the clinical usefulness of HDL subclasses. New insights from proteome and lipidome profiles of HDL will provide potential HDL-related biomarkers in the coming years.
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Rapid and Systematic Access to Quasi-Diblock Copolymer Libraries Covering a Comprehensive Composition Range by Sequential RAFT Polymerization in an Automated Synthesizer.
Macromol Rapid Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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A versatile, cost-effective approach to the rapid, fully unattended preparation of systematic quasi-diblock copolymer libraries via sequential RAFT polymerization in an automated synthesizer is reported. The procedure is demonstrated with the synthesis of a 23 member library of low dispersity poly(butyl methacrylate)-quasiblock-poly(methyl methacrylate) covering a wide (fivefold) range of molar mass for the second block in a one-pot, sequential, RAFT polymerization.
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Retrospective analysis of mortalities in elephant shrews (Macroscelididae) and tree shrews (Tupaiidae) at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park, USA.
J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Investigations into the cause of mortality and other important findings at necropsy were made into two families of small mammals at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park (SNZP; USA). Necropsy reports from 1976 through 2008 were reviewed for all elephant shrews in family Macroscelididae (n = 118) and all tree shrews in family Tupaiidae (n = 90) that lived for greater than 30 days at the SNZP. Causes of mortality were classified by body system and etiology to identify prevalent diseases and trends across demographics for each family. In elephant shrews, gastrointestinal disease (n = 18) and respiratory disease (n = 22) were important causes of mortality with an increased prevalence of pneumonia in adult males. Trauma was a common cause of mortality in tree shrews (n = 22). Cryptococcosis was an important cause of mortality in both families (n = 8 elephant shrews; n = 13 tree shrews). Bacterial infections, often systemic at time of mortality, were also common (n = 16 elephant shrews; n = 17 tree shrews). Arteriosclerosis was a common comorbid pathology noted at necropsy in certain populations, seen only in Elephantulus rufescens in the family Macroscelididae (n = 22) and in only males in the family Tupaiidae (n = 11). Gongylonemiasis was seen commonly in tree shrews (n = 15), as a comorbid finding, or in 5 cases directly leading to mortality. Awareness of the prevalence of these diseases can help guide prevention and intervention strategies.
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A specific polymerase chain reaction method to identify Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is a multidrug-resistant nosocomial pathogen that is difficult to identify unequivocally using current methods. Accordingly, because the presence of this microorganism in a patient may directly determine the antimicrobial treatment, conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR assays targeting 23S rRNA were developed for the specific identification of S. maltophilia. The PCR protocol showed high specificity when tested against other species of Stenotrophomonas, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli and 100 clinical isolates of S. maltophilia previously identified using the Vitek system.
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[Prostate-specific antigen. The role in the prostate cancer diagnosis].
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Prostate cancer (PC) is a common malignant neoplasia in males over 50 years. The serum level of prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a tool in the diagnosis of PC and benign prostatic hyperplasia patients that improves the efficiency obtained with the digital rectal examination. The use of PSA increases the detection rates of organ-confined PC. The PSA must be requested by the primary care physician in male population over 45 years and if the result is above the normal levels, the patient must be send to an urologist.
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Control of seizures in different stages of partial epilepsy: LACO-EXP, a Spanish retrospective study of lacosamide.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Lacosamide is approved as adjunctive therapy for focal epilepsies. The number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) tried is associated with prognosis. This multicenter, retrospective, observational study (LACO-EXP) in Spain in 500 adult patients with focal epilepsies examined the efficacy and tolerability of add-on lacosamide. Factors associated with better efficacy/tolerability were analyzed. After 12months, the responder rate (?50% reduction in seizure frequency) was 57.1%, and the seizure-free rate was 14.9%. Efficacy was better when lacosamide was the first or second add-on AED, although there was a small chance to be seizure-free even for patients who had received ?10 prior AEDs. The mechanism of action of concomitant AEDs is important in all the stages, but differences are smaller in the early stages. Lacosamide was generally well tolerated. A slower dosage-titration schedule was associated with a lower adverse event rate. Further investigation of the timing of initiation of lacosamide add-on therapy and ideal combinations of AEDs is required.
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Distinguishing language and race disparities in epilepsy surgery.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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This study aimed to identify whether race/ethnicity and limited English proficiency impact the likelihood of pursuing surgical treatment for medically refractory epilepsy. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 213 patients with medically refractory epilepsy and mesial temporal sclerosis who were being considered for temporal lobectomy between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 2010 with follow-up through December 31, 2012. Demographic and clinical factors potentially associated with surgical utilization, including self-reported race/ethnicity and preferred language, were gathered from the medical record. Patients of Asian/Pacific Islander or African American race were significantly less likely to pursue surgical treatment of epilepsy compared with non-Hispanic whites in a multivariate logistic regression model (adjusted for nonconcordant ictal EEG, age, and limited English proficiency) (OR 0.20, p=0.003; OR 0.15, p=0.001, respectively). Limited English proficiency was also significantly associated with lower odds of surgery (OR 0.38, p=0.034). Both race and limited English proficiency contribute to disparities in the surgical management of medically refractory epilepsy, especially among Asian/Pacific Islanders and African Americans. Culturally sensitive patient-physician communication and patient education materials might aid in surgical decision-making among minority groups.
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Endemic genotypes of Candida albicans causing fungemia are frequent in the hospital.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Genotyping of Candida albicans strains causing candidemia can uncover the presence of endemic genotypes in the hospital. Using a highly reproducible and discriminatory microsatellite marker panel, we studied the genetic diversity of 217 C. albicans isolates from the blood cultures of 202 patients with candidemia (from January 2007 to December 2011). Each isolate represented 1 candidemia episode. Multiple episodes were defined as the isolation of C. albicans in further blood cultures taken ?7 days after the last isolation in blood culture. Of the 202 patients, 188 had 1 episode, 13 had 2 episodes, and 1 had 3 episodes. Identical genotypes showed the same alleles for all 6 markers. The genotypes causing both episodes were identical in most patients with 2 episodes (11/13; 84.6%). In contrast, 2 different genotypes were found in the patient with 3 episodes, one causing the first and second episodes and the other causing the third episode (isolated 6 months later). We found marked genetic diversity in 174 different genotypes: 155 were unique, and 19 were endemic and formed 19 clusters (2 to 6 patients per cluster). Up to 25% of the patients were infected by endemic genotypes that infected 2 or more different patients. Some of these endemic genotypes were found in the same unit of the hospital, mainly neonatology, whereas others infected patients in different wards.
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Na/K pump regulation of cardiac repolarization: insights from a systems biology approach.
Pflugers Arch.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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The sodium-potassium pump is widely recognized as the principal mechanism for active ion transport across the cellular membrane of cardiac tissue, being responsible for the creation and maintenance of the transarcolemmal sodium and potassium gradients, crucial for cardiac cell electrophysiology. Importantly, sodium-potassium pump activity is impaired in a number of major diseased conditions, including ischemia and heart failure. However, its subtle ways of action on cardiac electrophysiology, both directly through its electrogenic nature and indirectly via the regulation of cell homeostasis, make it hard to predict the electrophysiological consequences of reduced sodium-potassium pump activity in cardiac repolarization. In this review, we discuss how recent studies adopting the systems biology approach, through the integration of experimental and modeling methodologies, have identified the sodium-potassium pump as one of the most important ionic mechanisms in regulating key properties of cardiac repolarization and its rate dependence, from subcellular to whole organ levels. These include the role of the pump in the biphasic modulation of cellular repolarization and refractoriness, the rate control of intracellular sodium and calcium dynamics and therefore of the adaptation of repolarization to changes in heart rate, as well as its importance in regulating pro-arrhythmic substrates through modulation of dispersion of repolarization and restitution. Theoretical findings are consistent across a variety of cell types and species including human, and widely in agreement with experimental findings. The novel insights and hypotheses on the role of the pump in cardiac electrophysiology obtained through this integrative approach could eventually lead to novel therapeutic and diagnostic strategies.
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Effects of local delivery of D-amino acids from biofilm-dispersive scaffolds on infection in contaminated rat segmental defects.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Infectious complications of open fractures continue to be a significant factor contributing to non-osseous union and extremity amputation. The persistence of bacteria within biofilms despite meticulous debridement and antibiotic therapy is believed to be a major cause of chronic infection. Considering the difficulties in treating biofilm-associated infections, the use of biofilm dispersal agents as a therapeutic strategy for the prevention of biofilm-associated infections has gained considerable interest. In this study, we investigated whether local delivery of D-Amino Acids (D-AAs), a biofilm dispersal agent, protects scaffolds from contamination and reduces microbial burden within contaminated rat segmental defects in vivo. In vitro testing on biofilms of clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus demonstrated that D-Met, D-Phe, D-Pro, and D-Trp were highly effective at dispersing and preventing biofilm formation individually, and the effect was enhanced for an equimolar mixture of D-AAs. Incorporation of D-AAs into polyurethane scaffolds as a mixture (1:1:1 D-Met:D-Pro:D-Trp) significantly reduced bacterial contamination on the scaffold surface in vitro and within bone when implanted into contaminated femoral segmental defects. Our results underscore the potential of local delivery of d-AAs for reducing bacterial contamination by targeting bacteria within biofilms, which may represent a treatment strategy for improving healing outcomes associated with open fractures.
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Diagnostic yield of electroencephalography in a general inpatient population.
Mayo Clin. Proc.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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To determine the frequency and clinical predictors of seizures and markers of epileptiform activity in a non-critically ill general inpatient population.
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Visfatin/Nampt: an adipokine with cardiovascular impact.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Adipose tissue is acknowledged as an endocrine organ that releases bioactive factors termed adipokines. Visfatin was initially identified as a novel adipokine with insulin-mimetic properties in mice. This adipokine was identical to two previously described molecules, namely, pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) and the enzyme nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt). Enhanced circulating visfatin/Nampt levels have been reported in metabolic diseases, such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, visfatin/Nampt circulating levels correlate with markers of systemic inflammation. In cardiovascular diseases, visfatin/Nampt was initially proposed as a clinical marker of atherosclerosis, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular damage, with a potential prognostic value. Nevertheless, beyond being a surrogate clinical marker, visfatin/Nampt is an active player promoting vascular inflammation, and atherosclerosis. Visfatin/Nampt effects on cytokine and chemokine secretion, macrophage survival, leukocyte recruitment by endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle inflammation and plaque destabilization make of this adipokine an active factor in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Further research is required to fully understand the mechanisms mediating the cellular actions of this adipokine and to better characterize the factors regulating visfatin/Nampt expression and release in all these pathologic scenarios. Only then, we will be able to conclude whether visfatin/Nampt is a therapeutical target in cardiometabolic diseases.
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Beneficial effects of silibinin against the progression of metabolic syndrome, increased oxidative stress, and liver steatosis in Psammomys obesus, a relevant animal model of human obesity and diabetes.
J Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Insulin resistance and oxidative stress are major pathogenic mechanisms leading to chronic liver diseases in diabetic subjects. The gerbil Psammomys obesus is a unique model of nutritional diabetes resembling the disease in humans. This study investigated whether the natural ingredient silibinin, known as hepatoprotective, could decrease oxidative stress and reduce liver damage in obese gerbils.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.