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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic effects of the essential oil from Nectandra leucantha leaves.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Abstract Context: Nectandra (Lauraceae) species have been used in folk medicine as an antidiarrheal, analgesic, antifungal, etc., and have many pharmacological proprieties. Objective: Investigation of the chemical composition and cytotoxicity of essential oil from Nectandra leucantha Nees & Mart. leaves. This is the first study involving N. leucantha reported in the literature. Material and methods: The essential oil of N. leucantha leaves was obtained by hydrodistillation. Its chemical composition was determined using a combination of GC/FID, GC/MS, and determination of Kovats index (KI). In vitro cytotoxic activity was evaluated against six cancer cell lines - murine melanoma (B16F10-Nex2), human glioblastome (U-87), human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), human colon carcinoma (HCT), human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7), and human cervical tumor (Siha) as well as against one non-tumorigenic cell line - human foreskin fibroblast (HFF). Results: Thirty-three compounds were identified primarily sesquiterpenes (81.41%), the main compounds being bicyclogermacrene (28.44%), germacrene A (7.34%), spathulenol (5.82%), and globulol (5.25%). Furthermore, monoterpenes were also found in the analyzed oil (12.84%), predominantly ?- and ?-pinenes (6.59 and 4.57%, respectively). The crude essential oil displayed significant cytotoxic activity against B16F10-Nex2 (IC50 33?±?1??g/mL) and U87 (IC50 75.95?±?0.03??g/mL) and HeLa (IC50 60?±?12??g/mL) cell lines. The main identified compound, bicyclogermacrene, displayed IC50 ranging from 3.1?±?0.2 to 21?±?6??g/mL. Discussion and conclusion: The results indicate that the crude oils from leaves of N. leucantha displayed cytotoxic activity being bicyclogermacrene, the main compound identified in the crude oil responsible, at least in part, for this potential.
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Acetylsalicylic acid mitigates erythropoietin-associated blood pressure increase in nonuremic rats.
Clin. Exp. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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Abstract Background: Approximately 30% of the chronic kidney disease patients using recombinant human erythropoietin (rhuEPO) have an increase in blood pressure (BP). Its mechanism and whether it depends on renal function remain unclear. There is early evidence that acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) prevents the rhuEPO-induced increase in BP. This study aims to verify whether very high doses of rhuEPO can increase BP in nonuremic rats and whether the co-administration of ASA can prevent it. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: placebo/placebo; placebo/rhuEPO 200?UI/kg thrice weekly; placebo/ASA 50?mg/kg daily; rhuEPO 200?UI/kg thrice weekly/ASA 50?mg/kg daily. Hematocrit was measured before and after and systolic BP was measured weekly by tail-cuff technique. Direct measurement of the BP was obtained at the end. Results: The rhuEPO groups had higher final hematocrit (rhuEPO/placebo 56.7?±?7.6, rhuEPO/ASA 56.7?±?7.7; p?
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Impact of patient training patterns on peritonitis rates in a large national cohort study.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Ideal training methods that could ensure best peritoneal dialysis (PD) outcome have not been defined in previous reports. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of training characteristics on peritonitis rates in a large Brazilian cohort.
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Blood-brain barrier breakdown in reduced uterine perfusion pressure: a possible model of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical entity characterized by headaches, altered mental status, seizures, and visual disturbances and is associated with white matter vasogenic edema. There are no experimental models to study PRES brain changes.
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Mastoparan induces apoptosis in B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells via the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway and displays antitumor activity in vivo.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Mastoparan is an ?-helical and amphipathic tetradecapeptide obtained from the venom of the wasp Vespula lewissi. This peptide exhibits a wide variety of biological effects, including antimicrobial activity, increased histamine release from mast cells, induction of a potent mitochondrial permeability transition and tumor cell cytotoxicity. Here, the effects of mastoparan in malignant melanoma were studied using the murine model of B16F10-Nex2 cells. In vitro, mastoparan caused melanoma cell death by the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, as evidenced by the Annexin V-FITC/PI assay, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), generation of reactive oxygen species, DNA degradation and cell death signaling. Most importantly, mastoparan reduced the growth of subcutaneous melanoma in syngeneic mice and increased their survival. The present results show that mastoparan induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in melanoma cells through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway protecting the mice against tumor development.
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A subtraction tolerization method of immunization allowed for Wilms' tumor protein-1 (WT1) identification in melanoma and discovery of an antitumor peptide sequence.
J. Immunol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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On searching for melanoma transcription factors in a project focusing on internal antitumor peptide sequences from transcription factors, we found that a highly immunogenic component emerged upon using a subtraction tolerization method of immunization. While several conventional immunization procedures using whole melanoma cells induced a plethora of low affinity antibodies of various specificities, the subtraction tolerization method efficiently elicited mono-specific antibodies that recognized Wilms' tumor protein 1 (WT1), which is known as an important marker in melanoma prognosis and treatment. For the tolerization step, pre-immunization of Balb/c mice with a membrane-rich preparation of glioblastoma U87 cells was used. The subsequent immunizations with SK-MEL-28 melanoma cells elicited antibodies strongly reacting with 50 and 55kDa proteins, identified as WT1. Remarkably, this was the only component strongly reactive with these antibodies in a melanoma cell lysate. WT1 was then chosen as a target for selecting internally bioactive peptides. A hydrophilic Trojan peptide containing most of the zinc finger-2 domain of WT1 was synthesized and shown to inhibit SK-MEL-28 melanoma growth in vitro. The peptide WT1-pTj was also protective in vivo in a metastatic melanoma model and peptide-stimulated syngeneic dendritic cells reproduced the anti-melanoma effect of the unprotected peptide. Identification of antitumor peptides derived from major transcription factors represents a new tool to be explored in cancer research aiming at new therapeutic drugs.
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Effect of standard and neutral-pH peritoneal dialysis solutions upon fibroblasts proliferation.
J Bras Nefrol
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Continuous exposition of the peritoneal membrane to conventional dialysis solutions is an important risk factor for inducing structural and functional alterations.
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Urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio versus 24-h proteinuria in the screening for nephropathy in HIV patients.
Int J STD AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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To determine the correlation between protein-to-creatinine ratio and 24-h urinary protein, proteinuria was measured in 45 patients attending a public HIV clinic in Porto Alegre, Brazil, using 24-h urinary protein excretion (24hUP) and urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio. Spearman's correlation test was done to evaluate the association between spot protein-to-creatinine ratio and 24hUP. The limits of agreement between the two methods were analysed by the Bland-Altman method. For protein excretion <1?g/day, limits (95%) of agreement of protein-to-creatinine ratio and 24hUP were +0.112 and -0.097?g/day. A strong correlation (r?=?0.957) was found between protein-to-creatinine ratio and 24hUP excretion. The conclusion is that the protein-to-creatinine ratio in spot urine specimens is an accurate, convenient and reliable screening method to estimate the urinary protein excretion in HIV patients to detect abnormal urinary protein loss. Further studies are required to evaluate renal disease in HIV patients with chronic renal disease and higher urinary protein excretion.
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Anti-tumor activities of peptides corresponding to conserved complementary determining regions from different immunoglobulins.
Peptides
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Short synthetic peptides corresponding to sequences of complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) from different immunoglobulin families have been shown to induce antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumor activities regardless of the specificity of the original monoclonal antibody (mAb). Presently, we studied the in vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of synthetic peptides derived from conserved CDR sequences of different immunoglobulins against human tumor cell lines and murine B16F10-Nex2 melanoma aiming at the discovery of candidate molecules for cancer therapy. Four light- and heavy-chain CDR peptide sequences from different antibodies (C36-L1, HA9-H2, 1-H2 and Mg16-H2) showed cytotoxic activity against murine melanoma and a panel of human tumor cell lineages in vitro. Importantly, they also exerted anti-metastatic activity using a syngeneic melanoma model in mice. Other peptides (D07-H3, MN20v1, MS2-H3) were also protective against metastatic melanoma, without showing significant cytotoxicity against tumor cells in vitro. In this case, we suggest that these peptides may act as immune adjuvants in vivo. As observed, peptides induced nitric oxide production in bone-marrow macrophages showing that innate immune cells can also be modulated by these CDR peptides. The present screening supports the search in immunoglobulins of rather frequent CDR sequences that are endowed with specific antitumor properties and may be candidates to be developed as anti-cancer drugs.
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Arterial hypertension in nursing personnel of an emergency hospital.
Int J Nurs Pract
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Risk factors related to the workplace environment are being studied to identify positive associations with hypertension disorders. Hypertension is considered as one of the main modifiable risk factors and most important public health issues. The study aims to describe the prevalence of hypertension and associate it with sociodemographic, labour and health aspects, in the health-care nursing staff of an emergency hospital.Cross-sectional study enrolled 606 nursing workers. The data were collected from February to June, and the analysis was conducted in November 2010. Arterial blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were assessed, and sociodemographic and labour variables were investigated by means of a questionnaire. The data were analysed by descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate analysis. The prevalence of hypertension was 32% (n?=?388), with positive associations with age?>?49 years (OR?=?2.55 (CI: 1.19 to 5.43)), ethnicity (non-white) (odds ratio (OR)?=?2.22, confidence interval (CI) 1.16 to 1.24), BMI (OR?=?2.24 (CI: 1.25 to 4.01)) and WHR (OR?=?2.65 (CI: 1.95 to 7.763)). Arterial hypertension was frequent in the nursing staff of this emergency hospital. Further studies are needed to better understand the relationship between occupational aspects and arterial hypertension.
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HIV and schistosomiasis co-infection in African children.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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HIV/AIDS and schistosomiasis both cause a substantial disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa and the two diseases often overlap in their epidemiological characteristics. Although disease-specific control interventions are continuing, potential synergies in the control efforts for these two diseases have not been investigated. With a focus on children with schistosomiasis, we assess the risk for increased HIV transmission, HIV progression, and impaired response to drugs when given alongside HIV interventions. A new research agenda tailored to children is needed to better understand the interactions of these two diseases and the potential for combined responses.
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Effect of sampling and diagnostic effort on the assessment of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis and drug efficacy: a meta-analysis of six drug efficacy trials and one epidemiological survey.
Parasitology
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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SUMMARY It is generally recommended to perform multiple stool examinations in order to improve the diagnostic accuracy when assessing the impact of mass drug administration programmes to control human intestinal worm infections and determining efficacy of the drugs administered. However, the collection and diagnostic work-up of multiple stool samples increases costs and workload. It has been hypothesized that these increased efforts provide more accurate results when infection and drug efficacy are summarized by prevalence (proportion of subjects infected) and cure rate (CR, proportion of infected subjects that become egg-negative after drug administration), respectively, but not when these indicators are expressed in terms of infection intensity and egg reduction rate (ERR). We performed a meta-analysis of six drug efficacy trials and one epidemiological survey. We compared prevalence and intensity of infection, CR and ERR based on collection of one or two stool samples that were processed with single or duplicate Kato-Katz thick smears. We found that the accuracy of prevalence estimates and CR was lowest with the minimal sampling effort, but that this was not the case for estimating infection intensity and ERR. Hence, a single Kato-Katz thick smear is sufficient for reporting infection intensity and ERR following drug treatment.
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Angiotensin Converting Enzyme 90kDa isoform: Biomarker for diagnosis of preeclampsia?
Med. Hypotheses
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Preeclampsia (PE), one of the leading gestational hypertensive diseases, is characterized by increased blood pressure (?140/90mmHg) and pathological proteinuria after 20weeks gestation. It is a complex, multifactorial syndrome with an unestablished etiology and cure. The search continues for a biomarker that could assist in the early prediction or diagnosis of PE, reducing the rate of maternal and fetal mortality. Based on the findings of Casarini et al. that suggest the 90kDa isoform of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) as a possible marker of hypertension, we hypothesized that this isoform may be present in pregnant women with PE, since they present a transient and spontaneous model of systemic arterial hypertension in pregnancy. We believe, therefore, that pregnant women with pure PE (PPE) express the ACE 90kDa isoform in urine, as well as having elevated isoform enzymatic activity, during pregnancy only. Postpartum, with the normalization of blood pressure, the protein isoform would no longer be expressed. Pregnant women with superimposed preeclampsia (SPE) would present the ACE 90kDa isoform both during and after the gestation period, and its enzymatic activity would remain high as they are chronically hypertensive. It is expected that normotensive pregnant women do not present this isoform in their urine as elevated blood pressure levels do not occur. Both normotensive and PPE affected pregnant women with a family history of hypertension, will possibly express the ACE 90kDa isoform before pregnancy and may become hypertensive, only after some years, through the influence of environmental factors and/or other diseases. If our hypothesis is confirmed, it will allow differentiation of PPE and SPE sooner than 12weeks postpartum, which is currently the estimated period for confirmation of the specific diagnosis. Furthermore, it could be an early biomarker for predicting the disease, enabling the physician to choose the best clinical management. In addition, it would minimize the use of other methods as the biological sample for obtaining the marker is urine, a practical and effective test with good reproducibility. Finally, test results would enable a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in gestational hypertension.
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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: differences between pregnant and non-pregnant patients.
Neurol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinical-radiologic entity not yet understood, that presents with transient neurologic symptoms and particular radiological findings. Few papers show the differences between pregnant and non-pregnant patients. We review the cases of 38 women diagnosed with PRES, in order to find significant differences between pregnant (18) and non-pregnant (20) patients. We found differences among the age of patients (25.83 years old in pregnant and 29.31 years old in non pregnant; P=0.001); in the mean of highest systolic blood pressure, that was higher in non-pregnant group (185:162 mmHg; P=0.121); and in creatinine levels that was higher in non-pregnant group (3.47:1.04 mg/dL; P=0.001). To our knowledge, just a few papers analyzed whether PRES syndrome presented in the same way in pregnant and non-pregnant patients. The differences and the possible pathophisiology of this syndrome still remain enigmatic.
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Association of Schistosoma mansoni-specific IgG and IgE antibody production and clinical schistosomiasis status in a rural area of Minas Gerais, Brazil.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Studies in murine models and human populations have indicated that the collagen-rich granulomatous response against parasite eggs trapped in the liver is associated with the development of severe hepatosplenic schistosomiasis, characterized by periportal fibrosis and portal hypertension. The role of the humoral response in parasite susceptibility has been well established, but its participation in disease severity remains poorly understood. In this work, we evaluated the relationship between parasite-reactive IgE and IgG levels and schistosomiasis morbidity in infected patients with similar parasite burdens.
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A novel cell-penetrating peptide derived from WT1 enhances p53 activity, induces cell senescence and displays antimelanoma activity in xeno- and syngeneic systems.
FEBS Open Bio
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Wilms tumor protein 1 (WT1) transcription factor has been associated in malignant melanoma with cell survival and metastasis, thus emerging as a candidate for targeted therapy. A lysine-arginine rich peptide, WT1-pTj, derived from the ZF domain of WT1 was evaluated as an antitumor agent against A2058 human melanoma cells and B16F10-Nex2 syngeneic murine melanoma. Peptide WT1-pTj quickly penetrated human melanoma cells and induced senescence, recognized by increased SA-?-galactosidase activity, enhanced transcriptional activity of p53, and induction of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p27. Moreover, the peptide bound to p53 and competed with WT1 protein for binding to p53. WT1-pTj treatment led to sustained cell growth suppression, abrogation of clonogenicity and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Notably, in vivo studies showed that WT1-pTj inhibited both the metastases and subcutaneous growth of murine melanoma in syngeneic mice, and prolonged the survival of nude mice challenged with human melanoma cells. The 27-amino acid cell-penetrating WT1-derived peptide, depends on C(3) and H(16) for effective antimelanoma activity, inhibits proliferation of WT1-expressing human tumor cell lines, and may have an effective role in the treatment of WT1-expressing malignancies.
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[Nutritional status of adolescents in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, assessed by national and international criteria].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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This study sought to compare national and international criteria for assessing the nutritional status of adolescents. A cross-sectional analytical study was conducted in the period from July 2007 to January 2008 with a representative sample comprised of 1256 adolescents from the state of Maranhão. Body mass index (BMI) for age and gender was used to diagnose underweight, normal weight and overweight, using the criteria proposed by Conde and Monteiro and the World Health Organization (WHO). Chi-square, McNemar concordance and Spearman correlation tests were applied. According to the criteria of Conde and Monteiro and the WHO, there were significant differences among the boys with respect to low weight and obesity. It was observed that there was no significant divergence between the two criteria, and a significant positive correlation (0.011) between the two criteria was detected. With this analysis it can be seen that there are many divergences between the criteria used, therefore the best option and the advantage of using one or the other cannot be singled out. However, it should be stressed that the national criterion can also be used more, since there are no significant differences with the criteria advocated by the Ministry of Health of the WHO.
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Is the atherosclerotic phenotype of preeclamptic placentas due to altered lipoprotein concentrations and placental lipoprotein receptors? Role of a small-for-gestational-age phenotype.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Atherosis of spiral arteries in uteroplacental beds from preeclamptic women resemble those of atherosclerosis, characterized by increased plasma lipids and lipoproteins. We hypothesized that: 1) lipoprotein receptors/transporters in the placenta would be upregulated in preeclampsia, associated with increased maternal and fetal lipoprotein concentrations; and 2) expression of these would be reduced in preeclamptic placentae from women delivering small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants. Placental biopsies and maternal and umbilical serum samples were taken from 27 normotensive and 24 preeclamptic women. Maternal/umbilical cord serum LDL, HDL, total cholesterol, and triglycerides were measured. Placental mRNA expression of lipoprotein receptors/transporters were quantified using quantitative RT-PCR. Protein localization/expression of LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP-1) in the preeclamptic placentae with/without SGA was measured by immunohistochemistry. Placental mRNA expression of all genes except paraoxonase-1 (PON-1), microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), and protein disulfide isomerase family A member 2 (PDIA2) were observed. No differences for any lipoprotein receptors/transporters were found between groups; however, in the preeclamptic group placental LRP-1 expression was lower in SGA delivering mothers (n = 7; P = 0.036). LRP-1 protein was localized around fetal vessels and Hofbauer cells. This is the first detailed study of maternal/fetal lipoprotein concentrations and placental lipoprotein receptor mRNA expression in normotensive and preeclamptic pregnancies. These findings do not support a role of altered lipid metabolism in preeclampsia, but may be involved in fetal growth.
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Work-related stress according to the demand-control model and minor psychic disorders in nursing workers.
Rev Esc Enferm USP
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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This was a cross-sectional study that aimed to assess the association between work-related stress according to the Demand-Control Model, and the occurrence of Minor Psychic Disorder (MPD) in nursing workers. The participants were 335 professionals, out of which 245 were nursing technicians, aged predominantly between 20 and 40 years. Data were collected using the Job Stress Scale and the Self-Reporting Questionnaire-20. The analysis was performed using descriptive and analytical statistics. The prevalence of suspected MPD was 20.6%. Workers classified in the quadrants active job and high strain of the Demand-Control Model presented higher potential for developing MPD compared with those classified in the quadrant low strain. In conclusion, stress affects the mental health of workers and the aspects related to high psychological demands and high control still require further insight in order to understand their influence on the disease processes of nursing workers.
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Cytotoxic effects of dillapiole on MDA-MB-231 cells involve the induction of apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway by inducing an oxidative stress while altering the cytoskeleton network.
Biochimie
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Breast cancer is the worlds leading cause of death among women. This situation imposes an urgent development of more selective and less toxic agents. The use of natural molecular fingerprints as sources for new bioactive chemical entities has proven to be a quite promising and efficient method. Here, we have demonstrated for the first time that dillapiole has broad cytotoxic effects against a variety tumor cells. For instance, we found that it can act as a pro-oxidant compound through the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) release in MDA-MB-231 cells. We also demonstrated that dillapiole exhibits anti-proliferative properties, arresting cells at the G0/G1 phase and its antimigration effects can be associated with the disruption of actin filaments, which in turn can prevent tumor cell proliferation. Molecular modeling studies corroborated the biological findings and suggested that dillapiole may present a good pharmacokinetic profile, mainly because its hydrophobic character, which can facilitate its diffusion through tumor cell membranes. All these findings support the fact that dillapiole is a promising anticancer agent.
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Role of malnutrition and parasite infections in the spatial variation in childrens anaemia risk in northern Angola.
Geospat Health
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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Anaemia is known to have an impact on child development and mortality and is a severe public health problem in most countries in sub-Saharan Africa. We investigated the consistency between ecological and individual-level approaches to anaemia mapping by building spatial anaemia models for children aged ?15 years using different modelling approaches. We aimed to (i) quantify the role of malnutrition, malaria, Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) in anaemia endemicity; and (ii) develop a high resolution predictive risk map of anaemia for the municipality of Dande in northern Angola. We used parasitological survey data for children aged ?15 years to build Bayesian geostatistical models of malaria (PfPR?15), S. haematobium, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and predict small-scale spatial variations in these infections. Malnutrition, PfPR?15, and S. haematobium infections were significantly associated with anaemia risk. An estimated 12.5%, 15.6% and 9.8% of anaemia cases could be averted by treating malnutrition, malaria and S. haematobium, respectively. Spatial clusters of high risk of anaemia (>86%) were identified. Using an individual-level approach to anaemia mapping at a small spatial scale, we found that anaemia in children aged ?15 years is highly heterogeneous and that malnutrition and parasitic infections are important contributors to the spatial variation in anaemia risk. The results presented in this study can help inform the integration of the current provincial malaria control programme with ancillary micronutrient supplementation and control of neglected tropical diseases such as urogenital schistosomiasis and STH infections.
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Chemical composition and cytotoxicity evaluation of essential oil from leaves of Casearia sylvestris, its main compound ?-zingiberene and derivatives.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Casearia sylvestris (Salicaceae), popularly known as "guaçatonga", is a plant widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases, including cancer. The present work deals with the chemical composition as well as the cytotoxic evaluation of its essential oil, its main constituent and derivatives. Thus, the crude essential oil from leaves of C. sylvestris was obtained using a Clevenger type apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS. This analysis afforded the identification of 23 substances, 13 of which corresponded to 98.73% of the total oil composition, with sesquiterpene a-zingiberene accounting for 50% of the oil. The essential oil was evaluated for cytotoxic activity against several tumor cell lines, giving IC50 values ranging from 12 to 153 mg/mL. Pure a-zingiberene, isolated from essential oil, was also evaluated against the tumor cell lines showing activity for HeLa, U-87, Siha and HL60 cell lines, but with IC50 values higher than those determined for the crude essential oil. Aiming to evaluate the effect of the double bonds of a-zingiberene on the cytotoxic activity, partially hydrogenated a-zingiberene (PHZ) and fully hydrogenated a-zingiberene (THZ) derivatives were obtained. For the partially hydrogenated derivative only cytotoxic activity to the B16F10-Nex2 cell line (IC50 65 mg/mL) was detected, while totally hydrogenated derivative showed cytotoxic activity for almost all cell lines, with B16F10-Nex2 and MCF-7 as exceptions and with IC50 values ranging from 34 to 65 mg/mL. These results indicate that cytotoxic activity is related with the state of oxidation of compound.
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Susceptibility of limestone petrographic features to salt weathering: a scanning electron microscopy study.
Microsc. Microanal.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Salt weathering is a major erosive process affecting porous materials in buildings. There have been attempts to relate erosive mass loss to physical characteristics of materials, but in the case of natural stone it is necessary to consider the effect of petrographic features that are a source of heterogeneity. In this paper, we use scanning electron microscopy before and after salt weathering tests in cubic specimens of three limestone types (two grainstones and a travertine) in an attempt to built conceptual models that relate petrographic features and salt weathering susceptibility (represented by mass loss). In the grainstones, the most relevant feature in controlling salt weathering processes is the interface between micrite aggregates and sparry cement that constitute weakness surfaces and barriers to fluid migration. Given the small size of the heterogeneities in relation to the test sample dimension and their spatial distribution, the macroscopic erosive patterns are globally homogeneously distributed, affecting edges and corners. In the travertine specimens, there are macroheterogeneities related to the presence of detritic-rich portions that cause heterogeneous erosive patterns in the specimens. Petrological modeling helps to understand results of salt weathering tests, supporting field studies for natural stone selection.
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Peritonitis in patients on peritoneal dialysis: analysis of a single Brazilian center based on the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis.
J Bras Nefrol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Peritonitis remains the major complication in patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD), peritonitis rates vary in the literature, reflecting differences between countries, study design and populations.
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Prevalence and risk factors for insomnia among Portuguese adolescents.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Epidemiologic studies have shown that insomnia is the most prevalent sleep disorder at all ages, associated with sociodemographic and environmental factors and lifestyle. The aim of this study was to quantify the prevalence of insomnia and analyze its determinants among Portuguese adolescents. In a cross-sectional study, we evaluated 6,919 students from the 7th to the 12th grade from 26 secondary schools, during 2012. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Insomnia was defined based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV criteria. Prevalences were expressed in proportions with 95 % confidence intervals (CI), and the magnitude of association between variables was detailed using odds ratio (OR). The prevalence of symptoms of insomnia was 21.4 %, and the prevalence of insomnia was 8.3 %. After adjustment for gender and age, insomnia was associated with female gender (adjusted OR = 1.82; CI 95 %: 1.56-2.13), age ? 16 years (adjusted OR = 1.17; CI 95 %: 1.01-1.35), coffee and alcohol consumption (adjusted OR = 1.40; CI 95 %: 1.20-1.63 and adjusted OR = 1.21; CI 95 %: 1.03-1.41, respectively), and depressive symptoms (adjusted OR = 3.59; CI 95 %: 3.04-4.24).
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Acute schistosomiasis diagnosis: a new tool for the diagnosis of schistosomiasis in a group of travelers recently infected in a new focus of Schistosoma mansoni.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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The diagnosis of schistosomiasis mansoni on early stages of infection is important to prevent late morbidity. A simple, cheap, sensitive and specific assay for routine diagnosis of schistosome infection based on the detection of specific IgG for schistosomula tegument antigens (ELISA-SmTeg) was developed by our group.
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Chemical constituents and cytotoxic evaluation of essential oils from leaves of Porcelia macrocarpa (Annonaceae).
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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This work reports the chemical composition and cytotoxic evaluation of the essential oils from three different samples of the leaves of Porcelia macrocarpa R. E. Fries (Annonaceae). The crude oils, obtained by hydrodistillation procedures, were chemically analyzed by GC/MS. The obtained data indicated the predominance of sesquiterpenes (89.8 +/- 0.7%), the main compounds being germacrene D (47 +/-+/- 1%) and bicyclogermacrene (37 +/- 1%). These oils also contained the monoterpene verbanyl acetate (0.5 +/- 0.06%) and the diterpene phytol (1.2 +/- 0.3%). The crude oils obtained from leaves were pooled and tested in vitro against six cancer cell lineages--murine melanoma (B16F10-Nex2), human glioblastome (U87), human cervical carcinoma (HeLa), human leukemia (HL-60), human colon carcinoma (HCT), human breast adenocarcinoma (SKBr), and human melanoma (A2058), as well as against a non-tumorigenic human cell line (HFF). Since the essential oil reduced more than 50% of the viability of several tumor cells at 100 microg/mL, indicating the presence of active compounds, the crude material was subjected to fractionation over a SiO2/AgNO3 column. This procedure afforded different fractions composed of pure as well as different mixtures of bicyclogermacrene and germacrene D, which were tested against the same tumor cell lines, indicating a significant cytotoxic potential against HL-60 cells. These results suggested that the crudeoils and their components, mainly germacrene D, could be used as prototypes for the development of new anti-cancer agents for the treatment of human leukemia.
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A top-down synthesis route to ultrasmall multifunctional Gd-based silica nanoparticles for theranostic applications.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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New, ultrasmall nanoparticles with sizes below 5?nm have been obtained. These small rigid platforms (SRP) are composed of a polysiloxane matrix with DOTAGA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1-glutaric anhydride-4,7,10-triacetic acid)-Gd(3+) chelates on their surface. They have been synthesised by an original top-down process: 1)?formation of a gadolinium oxide Gd2O3 core, 2)?encapsulation in a polysiloxane shell grafted with DOTAGA ligands, 3)?dissolution of the gadolinium oxide core due to chelation of Gd(3+) by DOTAGA ligands and 4)?polysiloxane fragmentation. These nanoparticles have been fully characterised using photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to demonstrate the dissolution of the oxide core and by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), mass spectrometry, fluorescence spectroscopy, (29)Si solid-state NMR, (1)H?NMR and diffusion ordered spectroscopy (DOSY) to determine the nanoparticle composition. Relaxivity measurements gave a longitudinal relaxivity r1 of 11.9?s(-1) ?mM(-1) per Gd at 60?MHz. Finally, potentiometric titrations showed that Gd(3+) is strongly chelated to DOTAGA (complexation constant log?110 =24.78) and cellular tests confirmed the that nanoconstructs had a very low toxicity. Moreover, SRPs are excreted from the body by renal clearance. Their efficiency as contrast agents for MRI has been proved and they are promising candidates as sensitising agents for image-guided radiotherapy.
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Anemia and functional capacity in elderly Brazilian hospitalized patients.
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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This study evaluated the association between anemia and physical functional capacity in a cross-sectional population-based sample of 709 hospitalized elderly patients aged 60 years and over admitted to the Madre Teresa Hospital, Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Mann-Whitney or "t" test, and chi-square or Fisher exact test were used for quantitative and categorical variables, respectively, and hierarchical binary logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors. The presence of anemia was found in 30% of participants and was significantly associated with decreased functionality according to the two measures which were used - ADL (activities of daily living) and IADL (instrumental activities of daily living). Anemia was also independently associated with older age. The results of this study demonstrate a strong association between the presence of anemia and lower levels of functional capacity. Further investigations are needed to assess the impact of anemia treatment on the functionality and independence of older people.
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The urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) dipstick: a valid substitute for microscopy for mapping and point-of-care diagnosis of intestinal schistosomiasis.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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The World Health Organization now recommends the provision of praziquantel treatment to preschool-aged children infected with schistosomiasis. For intestinal schistosomiasis the current operational field diagnostic standard is examination of a thick Kato-Katz smear by microscopy prepared from a single stool specimen, and although pragmatic, this methodology has well-known shortcomings. Here, as a potential alternative, the performance of the urine circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) dipstick test was assessed in terms of disease-mapping and point-of-care diagnosis for intestinal schistosomiasis in preschool-aged children. Our manuscript reports on findings at baseline and at the end of a one-year longitudinal treatment study.
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Occurrence of mycobacteria in bovine milk samples from both individual and collective bulk tanks at farms and informal markets in the southeast region of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Mycobacterium spp. is one of the most important species of zoonotic pathogens that can be transmitted from cattle to humans. The presence of these opportunistic, pathogenic bacteria in bovine milk has emerged as a public-health concern, especially among individuals who consume raw milk and related dairy products. To address this concern, the Brazilian control and eradication program focusing on bovine tuberculosis, was established in 2001. However, bovine tuberculosis continues to afflict approximately 1,3 percent of the cattle in Brazil. In the present study, 300 samples of milk from bovine herds, obtained from both individual and collective bulk tanks and informal points of sale, were cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen and Stonebrink media. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests and restriction-enzyme pattern analysis were then performed on the colonies exhibiting phenotypes suggestive of Mycobacterium spp., which were characterized as acid-fast bacilli.
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FTY720 induces apoptosis in B16F10-NEX2 murine melanoma cells, limits metastatic development in vivo, and modulates the immune system.
Clinics (Sao Paulo)
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Available chemotherapy presents poor control over the development of metastatic melanoma. FTY720 is a compound already approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis. It has also been observed that FTY720 inhibits tumor growth in vivo (experimental models) and in vitro (animal and human tumor cells). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of FTY720 on a metastatic melanoma model and in tumor cell lines.
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Serological study of vaccinia virus reservoirs in areas with and without official reports of outbreaks in cattle and humans in São Paulo, Brazil.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Vaccinia virus (VACV), the etiological agent of an exanthematic disease, has been associated with several bovine outbreaks in Brazil since the end of the global vaccination campaign against smallpox. It was previously believed that the vaccine virus used for the WHO global campaign had adapted to an unknown wild reservoir and was sporadically re-emerging in outbreaks in cattle and milkers. At present, it is known that Brazilian VACV is phylogenetically different from the vaccinia virus vaccinal strain, but its origin remains unknown. This study assessed the seroprevalence of orthopoxviruses in domestic and wild animals and farmers from 47 farms in three cities in the southwest region of the state of São Paulo with or without official reports of outbreaks in cattle or humans. Our data indicate a low seroprevalence of antibodies in wild animals and raise interesting questions about the real potential of wild rodents and marsupials as VACV reservoirs, suggesting other routes through which VACV can be spread.
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Forensic electrochemistry: sensing the molecule of murder atropine.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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We present the electroanalytical sensing of atropine using disposable and economic screen printed graphite sensors. The electroanalytical determination of atropine is found to be possible over the concentration range of 5 ?M to 50 ?M with a detection limit of 3.9 ?M (based on 3-sigma) found to be possible. We demonstrate proof-of-concept that this approach provides a rapid and inexpensive sensing strategy for determining the molecule of murder atropine in diet Coca-Cola samples.
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Enterotoxin genes in coagulase-negative and coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from bovine milk.
J. Dairy Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the main staphylococcal species causing bovine mastitis in 10 Brazilian dairy herds and study their capability to produce enterotoxins. Herds were selected based on size and use of milking technology, and farms were visited once during the study. All mammary glands of all lactating cows were screened using the California Mastitis Test (CMT) and a strip cup. A single aseptic milk sample (20 mL) was collected from all CMT-positive quarters. Identification of Staphylococcus spp. was performed using conventional microbiology, and PCR was used to determine the presence of enterotoxin-encoding genes (sea, seb, sec, and sed). Of the 1,318 CMT-positive milk samples, Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from 263 (19.9%). Of these isolates, 135 (51%) were coagulase-positive staphylococci (CPS) and 128 (49%) were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). Eighteen different species of CNS were isolated, among which S. warneri, S. epidermidis and S. hyicus were the most frequent. The distribution of Staphylococcus species was different among herds: S. epidermidis was found in 8 herds, S. warneri was found in 7 herds, and S. hyicus in 6 herds. Some of the CNS species (S. saprophyticus ssp. saprophyticus, S. auricularis, S. capitis, and S. chromogenes) were isolated in only one of the farms. Genes related to production of enterotoxins were found in 66% (n=85) of all CNS and in 35% of the CPS isolates. For both CNS and CPS isolates, the most frequently identified enterotoxin genes were sea, seb, and sec; the prevalence of sea differed between CPS (9.5%) and CNS (35.1%) isolates. Staphylococcus warneri isolates showed a greater percentage of sea than seb, sec, or sed, whereas S. hyicus isolates showed a greater percentage of sea than sec. Over 60% of CNS belonged to 3 major species, which carried 62.2 to 81.3% of the enterotoxin genes. The high prevalence highlights the potential for food poisoning caused by these species. For possible high-risk situations for food poisoning, such as milk produced with total bacterial counts greater than regulatory levels and stored under inappropriate temperatures, monitoring contamination with CNS could be important to protect human health. Because the prevalence of CNS intramammary infections in dairy herds is usually high, and these species can be found in great numbers in bulk milk, identification of risk factors for production of staphylococcal enterotoxins should be considered in future studies.
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Association of proteinuria threshold in pre-eclampsia with maternal and perinatal outcomes: a nested case control cohort of high risk women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To evaluate occurrence of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes with different thresholds of proteinuria (300-499 mg and ?500 mg/24 hours) in pre-eclamptic women, comparing outcomes against women with chronic and gestational hypertension.
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[Cryptorchidism in adolescence].
Acta Med Port
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2011
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An early investigation and management op cryptorchidism are essential for the diagnosis of associated pathologies, because intra-abdominal testis are associated with infertility and neoplasic risk. The authors describe a case of late presentation of cryptorchidism associated with genetic disorder.
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A new phage-display tumor-homing peptide fused to antiangiogenic peptide generates a novel bioactive molecule with antimelanoma activity.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
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Phage-display peptide libraries have been widely used to identify specific peptides targeting in vivo tumor cells and the tumor vasculature and playing an important role in the discovery of antitumor bioactive peptides. In the present work, we identified a new melanoma-homing peptide, (-CVNHPAFAC-), using a C7C phage-display library directed to the developing tumor in syngeneic mice. Phage were able to preferentially target melanoma in vivo, with an affinity about 50-fold greater than that with normal tissue, and the respective synthesized peptide displaced the corresponding phage from the tumor. A preferential binding to endothelial cells rather than to melanoma cells was seen in cell ELISA, suggesting that the peptide is directed to the melanoma vasculature. Furthermore, the peptide was able to bind to human sonic hedgehog, a protein involved in the development of many types of human cancers. Using a new peptide approach therapy, we coupled the cyclic peptide to another peptide, HTMYYHHYQHHL-NH(2), a known antagonist of VEGFR-2 receptor, using the GYG linker. The full peptide CVNHPAFACGYGHTMYYHHYQHHL-NH(2) was effective in delaying tumor growth (P < 0.05) and increasing animal survival when injected systemically, whereas a scramble-homing peptide containing the same antagonist did not have any effect. This is the first report on the synthesis of a tumor-homing peptide coupled to antiangiogenic peptide as a new anticancer therapeutics.
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?-Pinene isolated from Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae) induces apoptosis and confers antimetastatic protection in a melanoma model.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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Malignant melanoma is one the most aggressive types of cancer and its incidence has gradually increased in the last years, accounting for about 75% of skin cancer deaths. This poor prognosis results from the tumor resistance to conventional drugs mainly by deregulation of apoptotic pathways. The aim of this work was to investigate the cell death mechanism induced by ?-pinene and its therapeutic application. Our results demonstrated that ?-pinene was able to induce apoptosis evidenced by early disruption of the mitochondrial potential, production of reactive oxygen species, increase in caspase-3 activity, heterochromatin aggregation, DNA fragmentation and exposure of phosphatidyl serine on the cell surface. Most importantly, this molecule was very effective in the treatment of experimental metastatic melanoma reducing the number of lung tumor nodules. This is the first report on the apoptotic and antimetastatic activity of isolated ?-pinene.
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Workplace stress in nursing workers from an emergency hospital: Job Stress Scale analysis.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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This study identifies workplace stress according to the Job Stress Scale and associates it with socio-demographic and occupational variables of nursing workers from an emergency hospital. This is a cross-sectional study and data were collected through a questionnaire applied to 388 nursing professionals. Descriptive statistics were applied; univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The results indicate there is a significant association with being a nursing technician or auxiliary, working in the position for more than 15 years, and having low social support, with 3.84, 2.25 and 4.79 times more chances of being placed in the high strain job quadrant. The study reveals that aspects related to the workplace should be monitored by competent agencies in order to improve the quality of life of nursing workers.
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C7a, a biphosphinic cyclopalladated compound, efficiently controls the development of a patient-derived xenograft model of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma.
Viruses
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is a highly aggressive disease that occurs in individuals infected with the human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Patients with aggressive ATLL have a poor prognosis because the leukemic cells are resistant to conventional chemotherapy. We have investigated the therapeutic efficacy of a biphosphinic cyclopalladated complex {Pd(2) [S(-)C(2), N-dmpa](2) (?-dppe)Cl(2)}, termed C7a, in a patient-derived xenograft model of ATLL, and investigated the mechanism of C7a action in HTLV-1-positive and negative transformed T cell lines in vitro. In vivo survival studies in immunocompromised mice inoculated with human RV-ATL cells and intraperitoneally treated with C7a led to significantly increased survival of the treated mice. We investigated the mechanism of C7a activity in vitro and found that it induced mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, caspase activation, nuclear condensation and DNA degradation. These results suggest that C7a triggers apoptotic cell death in both HTLV-1 infected and uninfected human transformed T-cell lines. Significantly, C7a was not cytotoxic to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors and HTLV-1-infected individuals. C7a inhibited more than 60% of the ex vivo spontaneous proliferation of PBMC from HTLV-1-infected individuals. These results support a potential therapeutic role for C7a in both ATLL and HTLV-1-negative T-cell lymphomas.
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Predictive validity of a questionnaire to identify older adults at risk for hospitalization.
Rev Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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To test the predictive validity of the Probability of Repeated Hospital Admissions questionnaire among older adults.
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Low response to intradermal hepatitis B vaccination in incident hemodialysis patients.
J Bras Nefrol
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Hepatitis B (HB) may progress to cirrhosis and liver carcinoma. Its prevalence is estimated at 3.2 % in hemodialysis (HD) patients. HB vaccine when applied intramuscularly (IM) in end-stage renal disease patients often does not induce appropriate antibody titers. However, there has been suggestion for intradermal (ID) to be a more effective inoculation method.
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[Opportunistic screening for breast cancer among young women in Maranhão State, Brazil].
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Although breast cancer is infrequent in women under 40 years of age, it deserves attention, since diagnosis requires a high rate of clinical suspicion. Thus, preventive practices should be emphasized in childbearing-age women, with opportunistic screening as a relevant strategy. This study focused on breast cancer prevention practices adopted by young women in Maranhão State, Brazil. This was a population-based descriptive study conducted from June 2007 to January 2008. The majority of the women had low income (42.1%) and fewer than eight years of schooling (62.6%). Some 30% reported breast self-examination. Among women older than 35, 71.6% had never had a mammogram. The most common preventive measure was clinical examination (35.2%), which had increased by 11.5% in the previous ten years. Such information on opportunistic breast cancer screening in Maranhão should help produce specific public health policies for the State.
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Role of SOCS-1 Gene on Melanoma Cell Growth and Tumor Development.
Transl Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, and its incidence has increased dramatically over the years. The murine B16F10 melanoma in syngeneic C57Bl/6 mice has been used as a highly aggressive model to investigate tumor development. Presently, we demonstrate in the B16F10-Nex2 subclone that silencing of SOCS-1, a negative regulator of Jak/Stat pathway, leads to reversal of the tumorigenic phenotype and inhibition of melanoma cell metastasis. SOCS-1 silencing with short hairpin RNA affected tumor growth and cell cycle regulation with arrest at the S phase with large-sized nuclei, reduced cell motility, and decreased melanoma cell invasion through Matrigel. A clonogenic assay showed that SOCS-1 acted as a modulator of resistance to anoikis. In addition, downregulation of SOCS-1 decreased the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (mainly the phosphorylated-R), Ins-R?, and fibroblast growth factor receptor. In vivo, silencing of SOCS-1 inhibited subcutaneous tumor growth and metastatic development in the lungs. Because SOCS-1 is expressed in most melanoma cell lines and bears a relation with tumor invasion, thickness, and stage of disease, the present results on the effects of SOCS-1 silencing in melanoma suggest that this regulating protein can be a target of cancer therapy.
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Prevention of hypertension in patients with pre-hypertension: protocol for the PREVER-prevention trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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Blood pressure (BP) within pre-hypertensive levels confers higher cardiovascular risk and is an intermediate stage for full hypertension, which develops in an annual rate of 7 out of 100 individuals with 40 to 50 years of age. Non-drug interventions to prevent hypertension have had low effectiveness. In individuals with previous cardiovascular disease or diabetes, the use of BP-lowering agents reduces the incidence of major cardiovascular events. In the absence of higher baseline risk, the use of BP agents reduces the incidence of hypertension. The PREVER-prevention trial aims to investigate the efficacy, safety and feasibility of a population-based intervention to prevent the incidence of hypertension and the development of target-organ damage.
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Study of the profile of the neurotrophin BDNF in new leprosy cases before, during and after multidrug therapy.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin involved in the survival of neurons and growth and differentiation of dendrites and axons. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate plasma levels of BDNF of leprosy patients at different stages of multidrug therapy (MDT) in comparison with non-infected individuals. Plasma levels of BDNF were measured by ELISA in 30 healthy controls and 37 leprosy patients at diagnosis, during and after MDT. Plasma levels of BDNF tended to be higher in control subjects in comparison with leprosy patients, but this difference does not reach statistical significance. Interestingly, BDNF levels changed following MDT, achieving statistical difference only at the 2(nd) dose of MDT. These results indicate that BDNF may not be a surrogate marker of leprosy infection and/or related neuropathy. Further research is needed to investigate the meaning of BDNF level changes following leprosy treatment.
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A comparison between diuretics and angiotensin-receptor blocker agents in patients with stage I hypertension (PREVER-treatment trial): study protocol for a randomized double-blind controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Brazil, and hypertension is its major risk factor. The benefit of its drug treatment to prevent major cardiovascular events was consistently demonstrated. Angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) have been the preferential drugs in the management of hypertension worldwide, despite the absence of any consistent evidence of advantage over older agents, and the concern that they may be associated with lower renal protection and risk for cancer. Diuretics are as efficacious as other agents, are well tolerated, have longer duration of action and low cost, but have been scarcely compared with ARBs. A study comparing diuretic and ARB is therefore warranted.
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Schistosoma mansoni Infections in young children: when are schistosome antigens in urine, eggs in stool and antibodies to eggs first detectable?
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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in uganda, control of intestinal schistosomiasis with preventive chemotherapy is typically focused towards treatment of school-aged children; the needs of younger children are presently being investigated as in lakeshore communities very young children can be infected. In the context of future epidemiological monitoring, we sought to compare the detection thresholds of available diagnostic tools for Schistosoma mansoni and estimate a likely age of first infection for these children.
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Intestinal schistosomiasis in mothers and young children in Uganda: investigation of field-applicable markers of bowel morbidity.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2010
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To control intestinal schistosomiasis at a national level in sub-Saharan Africa, there is a need for field-applicable markers to measure morbidity associated with this disease. The purpose of this study was to determine whether fecal calprotectin or fecal occult blood assays could be used as morbidity indicators for intestinal schistosomiasis. The study was carried out in Uganda with a cohort of young children (n = 1,327) and their mothers (n = 726). The prevalence of egg-patent schistosomiasis was 27.2% in children and 47.6% in mothers. No association was found between schistosomiasis infection and fecal calprotectin in children (n = 83, odds ratio [OR] = 1.08, P = 0.881), although an inverse relationship (n = 58, OR = 0.17, P = 0.043) was found in mothers. Fecal occult blood was strongly associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection in children (n = 814, OR = 2.30, P < 0.0001) and mothers (n = 448, OR = 1.95, P = 0.004). Fecal occult blood appears to be useful for measuring morbidity associated with intestinal schistosomiasis and could be used in assessing the impact of control programs upon disease.
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Nutritional status evaluated by multi-frequency bioimpedance is not associated with quality of life or depressive symptoms in hemodialysis patients.
Ther Apher Dial
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2010
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Hemodialysis therapy significantly impacts on patients physical, psychological, and social performances. Such reduced quality of life depends on several factors, such as malnutrition, depression, and metabolic derangements. This study aims to evaluate the current nutritional status, quality of life and depressive symptoms, and determine the possible relationships with other risk factors for poor outcomes, in stable hemodialysis patients. This was a single-center, cross-sectional study that enrolled 59 adult patients undergoing hemodialysis. Laboratory tests that included high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (CRP), and quality of life and depressive symptom evaluation, as well as malnutrition-inflammation score, nutritional status and body composition (by direct segmental multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis) determinations were performed. Patients were classified as "underfat", "standard", "overfat", or "obese" by multi-frequency bioimpedance analysis. Seven patients were underfat, 19 standard, 19 overfat, and 14 obese. Triglyceride levels significantly differed between the underfat, standard, overfat, and obese groups (1.06 [0.98-1.98]; 1.47 [1.16-1.67]; 2.53 [1.17-3.13]; 2.12 [1.41-2.95] mmol/L, respectively; P=0.026), as did Kt/V between the underfat, overfat, and obese groups (1.49 ± 0.14; 1.23 ± 0.19; 1.19 ± 0.22; P=0.015 and P=0.006, respectively). Depressive symptoms, quality of life, and CRP and phosphate levels did not diverge among nutritional groups. Creatinine, albumin, and phosphate strongly correlated, as well as percent body fat, body mass index, and waist circumference (r=0.859 [P<0.001], and r=0.716 [P<0.001], respectively). Depressive symptoms and physical and psychological quality-of-life domains also strongly correlated (r(s) = -0.501 [P<0.001], r(s) = -0.597 [P<0.001], respectively). The majority of patients were overfat or obese and very few underfat. Inflammation was prevalent, overall. No association of nutritional status with malnutrition-inflammation, quality of life, or depressive symptoms could be established.
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Hyaluronic acid in the evaluation of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C on haemodialysis.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2010
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This study evaluated the role of HA as a marker of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C on haemodialysis.
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[Coverage characterization of pre-natal in Maranhão State, Brazil].
Rev Bras Enferm
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2010
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The purpose of the study was to characterize the coverage of prenatal care in the State of Maranhão. A population-based study, descriptive in 30 municipalities of the State of Maranhão, with 2075 women of childbearing age, with previous pregnancy, from July 2008 to Januray 2009. The results demonstrated that the units of family health accounted for 45.9% of the care of pregnant women and that 46.8% reported carrying out consultations six or more prenatal care during last pregnancy and 64.6% started prenatal in the first three months of pregnancy. The coverage of prenatal care, without regard to adequacy, was 85.6%, however, when considering the coverage of adequate prenatal as established by Brazilian Health Ministry was 43.4%. Although coverage of prenatal above 80%, less than half is considered adequate, showing a gap in primary care quality.
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Streptococcus agalactiae: a rare peritoneal infection in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2010
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Streptococcus agalactiae causes a rare and often fatal peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A 52-year-old white female with Alport and chronic kidney disease was initiated on CAPD treatment. Nineteen months later she had a S. agalactiae peritonitis identified and received initially gentamicin-cephalothin, which was changed to ceftazidime, tobramycin, and vancomycin. Recovery started after peritoneal catheter removal. After 3 weeks, severe leucopenia occurred. Granulokine and steroids were given. Six weeks later, she felt well and an abdominal video laparoscopic procedure disclosed a diffuse peritoneal fibrosis, precluding CAPD resumption. She is now doing well on hemodialysis (HD).
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Endothelial nitric oxide genotypes and haplotypes are not associated with end-stage renal disease.
DNA Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
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The identification of genetic markers associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD) may help to predict its development. Because reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and endothelial dysfunction are involved in CKD, genetic polymorphisms in the gene encoding the enzyme involved in NO synthesis (endothelial NO synthase [eNos]) may affect the susceptibility to CKD and the development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We compared genotype and haplotype distributions of three relevant eNOS polymorphisms (T(-786)C in the promoter region, Glu298Asp in exon 7, and 4b/4a in intron 4) in 110 healthy control subjects and 127 ESRD patients. Genotypes for the T(-786)C and Glu298Asp polymorphisms were determined by TaqMan(®) Allele Discrimination assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction. Genotypes for the intron 4 polymorphism were determined by polymerase chain reaction and fragment separation by electrophoresis. The software program PHASE 2.1 was used to estimate the haplotypes frequencies. We considered significant a probability value of p??0.05). We found no significant differences in haplotype distribution between groups (p?>?0.05). The lack of significant associations between eNOS polymorphisms and ESRD suggests that eNOS polymorphisms may not be relevant to the genetic component of CKD that leads to ESRD.
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Schistosomiasis control program in the state of Minas Gerais in Brazil.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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The Schistosomiasis Control Program (PCE) was implemented in Minas Gerais (MG) in 1984. In 1999, the state started the investigation and control of schistosomiasis in 470 municipalities. The aim of the present paper is to report the evolution of this Program from 1984-2007. The program included a coproscopic survey carried out in the municipalities of known endemic areas using a quantitative method. Positives were treated with praziquantel and given a program of health education. The information for this study was obtained from data collected and stored by the Health State Department. From 2003-2007, 2,643,564 stool examinations resulted in 141,284 positive tests for Schistosoma mansoni (5.3%). In the first evaluation after treatment, a decrease in the number of municipalities with prevalence over 10% was documented. In one village, selected for a more detailed evaluation, the percentage of positive tests decreased from 14.9% in the baseline survey to 5.3% after treatment. A reference centre for patients with severe schistosomiasis was created in Belo Horizonte, MG. Based on our findings, we believe that the implementation of PCE in MG is on the right path and in due time these new initiatives will provide desirable results.
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Erythrocytes L-arginine y+ transporter inhibition by N-ethylmaleimide in ice-bath.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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Erythrocytes L: -arginine uptake is conveyed by y+ and y+L membrane transport systems. Pre-incubation with N-ethylmaleimide for 10 min at 37°C inhibits the y+ system. The aim of this study was to determine the ideal pre-incubation temperature in evaluating y+ and y+L systems. Cells were pre-incubated with or without N-ethylmaleimide for 10 min at 4°C and 37°C. L: -Arginine uptake was quantified by radioisotope and standard erythrocytes membrane flux methodology. Results demonstrate that erythrocytes L: -arginine content is depleted by pre-incubation at 37°C for 10 min, thus changing the V (max) measurement. The inhibitory effect of N-ethylmaleimide pre-incubation was temperature independent and already complete after 1 min of incubation. No significant difference in kinetic parameters was detected between cells pre-incubated at 37°C or 4°C, under zero-trans conditions. In conclusion, we suggest that measurement of erythrocytes L: -arginine uptake by y+ and y+L systems could be carried out without N-ethylmaleimide pre-incubation at 37°C.
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Glomerulonephritis in schistosomiasis mansoni: a time to reappraise.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2010
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The current prevalence of glomerulonephritis in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil was evaluated.
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Two variable sodium profiles and adverse effects during hemodialysis: a randomized crossover study.
Ther Apher Dial
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2010
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Intradialytic symptomatic hypotension and muscle cramps are frequent and disturbing adverse effects involving hemodialysis patients. The use of sodium profiling has been a proposed approach to preclude such events. The aim of the study was to compare the frequency of intradialytic adverse effects and changes in anthropometric and physiological variables without profiling and with two distinct sodium profiles. A prospective study randomized 22 stable hemodialysis patients to receive either a step (11 patients) or a linear (11 patients) dialysate sodium profile for 12 consecutive sessions, following a 12-session steady sodium control period. After a wash-out period of 12 sessions, the groups were crossed over for another 12-session period. Frequency of adverse effects, interdialytic weight gain, pre- and post-dialysis blood pressure were computed. The frequency of intradialytic adverse effects was significantly different between the control and either the step or linear periods (48.5%, 33.7%, and 36.0%, respectively; P < 0.001). No significant differences in interdialytic weight gain or pre-dialysis blood pressure were detected between treatment periods. The mean post-dialysis systolic blood pressure was lower in the linear period (128 +/- 21; 127 +/- 20; 123 +/- 22 mm Hg, for the control, step and linear periods, respectively; P = 0.014). Seven patients benefited from sodium profiling, yet two became more symptomatic. Overall, both sodium profiles were associated with fewer intradialytic adverse effects. Intradialytic symptomatic hypotension occurred less often with the step profile, while a tendency to fewer cramps was associated with the linear profile. However, sodium profiling may not benefit every dialysis patient and should be individually evaluated.
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Investigating portable fluorescent microscopy (CyScope) as an alternative rapid diagnostic test for malaria in children and women of child-bearing age.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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Prompt and correct diagnosis of malaria is crucial for accurate epidemiological assessment and better case management, and while the gold standard of light microscopy is often available, it requires both expertise and time. Portable fluorescent microscopy using the CyScope offers a potentially quicker, easier and more field-applicable alternative. This article reports on the strengths, limitations of this methodology and its diagnostic performance in cross-sectional surveys on young children and women of child-bearing age.
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Prognosis for patients diagnosed with pregnancy-associated breast cancer: a paired case-control study.
Sao Paulo Med J
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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Previous studies have suggested that the occurrence of pregnancy concomitantly with a diagnosis of breast cancer may affect the evolution of the neoplasia. The present study aimed to compare pregnancy-associated breast cancer (PABC) patients with non-pregnant cancer patients (controls) in relation to the time taken to diagnose the disease, tumor characteristics and mortality.
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[Flow-mediated dilatation in the differential diagnosis of preeclampsia syndrome].
Arq. Bras. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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The preeclampsia syndrome is associated with endothelial dysfunction and the differential diagnosis between pure preeclampsia (PE) and superimposed preeclampsia (SPE) can be only be attained 12 weeks after delivery.
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An inclusive dose pole for treatment of schistosomiasis in infants and preschool children with praziquantel.
Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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In large-scale interventions for control of schistosomiasis, use of the WHO dose pole is favoured for mass drug administration of praziquantel. Application of this simple tool has enabled pragmatic tablet dosing using patient height as a proxy for bodyweight, allowing control programmes to expand into resource-poor settings. Here we briefly summarize the inception and development of the existing WHO dose pole and discuss a proposed update which now permits dosing of infants and preschool children (height<94cm). Using this pole, we suggest that mass drug administration can be better optimized, streamlining general treatment to reduce drug wastage which could lead to significant programmatic savings and allocation of treatments to younger children with minimal additional cost.
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A list of mosquito species of the Brazilian State of Pernambuco, including the first report of Haemagogus janthinomys (Diptera: Culicidae), yellow fever vector and 14 other species (Diptera: Culicidae).
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2010
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Besides mosquito species adapted to urban environments (Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus), only 15 species of Anopheles had been recorded in the State of Pernambuco.
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Comparison between clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cases of periportal fibrosis in an endemic area for schistosomiasis mansoni in Brazil.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2010
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Abdominal palpation and ultrasound findings among patients from an endemic area for schistosomiasis in Brazil who had been followed up for 27 years were compared.
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