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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Hand Leading and Hand Taking Gestures in Autism and Typically Developing Children.
J Autism Dev Disord
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Children with autism use hand taking and hand leading gestures to interact with others. This is traditionally considered to be an example of atypical behaviour illustrating the lack of intersubjective understanding in autism. However the assumption that these gestures are atypical is based upon scarce empirical evidence. In this paper I present detailed observations in children with autism and typically developing children, suggesting that hand-leading gestures may be an adaptive form of interaction in typically developing children neglected by mainstream developmental psychology. I conclude that, although there may be features differentiating how these gestures are used in autism and typical children, systematic research on them is needed to clarify their nature and significance for both typical and atypical development.
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One-dimensional and two-dimensional anilate-based magnets with inserted spin-crossover complexes.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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The syntheses, structures, and magnetic properties of a family of bimetallic anilate-based compounds with inserted spin-crossover cationic complexes are reported. The structures of 1-4 present a two-dimensional anionic network formed by Mn(II) and Cr(III) ions linked through anilate ligands with inserted [Fe(III)(sal2-trien)](+) (1), [Fe(III)(4-OH-sal2-trien)](+) (2), [Fe(III)(sal2-epe)](+) (3), or [Fe(III)(5-Cl-sal2-trien)](+) (4) complexes. The structure of 5 is formed by anionic [Mn(II)Cl2Cr(III)(Cl2An)3](3-) chains surrounded by [Fe(II)(tren(imid)3)](2+), Cl(-), and solvent molecules. The magnetic properties indicate that 1-4 undergo a long-range ferrimagnetic ordering at ca. 10 K. On the other hand, the inserted Fe(III) cations remain in the low-spin (in 4) or high-spin state (in 1, 2, and 3). In the case of 5, half of the inserted Fe(II) cations undergo a complete and gradual spin crossover from 280 to 90 K that coexists with a magnetic ordering below 2.5 K.
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Dose-Response Relationship in Phase I Clinical Trials: A European Drug Development Network (EDDN) Collaboration Study.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Because a dose-response relationship is characteristic of conventional chemotherapy, this concept is widely used for the development of novel cytotoxic (CTX) drugs. However, the need to reach the MTD to obtain optimal benefit with molecularly targeted agents (MTA) is controversial. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between dose and efficacy in a large cohort of phase I patients with solid tumors.
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On the road to MM'X polymers: redox properties of heterometallic Ni···Pt paddlewheel complexes.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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On the quest of heterometallic mixed-valence MM'X chains, we have prepared two stable discrete bimetallic compounds: the reduced (PPN)[ClNi(?-OSCPh)4Pt] (PPN = bis(triphenylphosphine)iminium; OSCPh = benzothiocarboxylato) and the oxidized [(H2O)Ni(?-OSCPh)4PtCl] species. The role of the aqua and chlorido axial ligands is crucial to facilitate oxidation of the {Ni(?-OSCPh)4Pt} core. Experimental and theoretical analyses indicate that a NiPt-Cl/Cl-NiPt isomerization process occurs in the oxidized species. The electronic structure of the reduced system shows two unpaired electrons, one located in a d(x(2)-y(2)) orbital of the Ni(II) ion and a second in the antibonding d(z(2)-dz(2)) combination from the Ni(II) and Pt(II) centers. Oxidation occurs by removing one electron from this second multicenter molecular orbital. Although the mixed-valence character of the oxidized species makes the isolation of MM'X chains very attractive, such polymeric structure is prevented by the low Pt-Cl···Ni interaction energy and the high tendency of Ni centers to coordinate water molecules. Thus, this work offers valuable insights and hints to engage the production of heterometallic mixed-valence MM'X chains, which still is a challenging task.
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Switching and redox isomerism in first-row transition metal complexes containing redox active Schiff base ligands.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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The reversible redox isomerisms in first row transition metal complexes of the type ML2 were studied. The six ML2 complexes (M = Mn(III) (), Fe(II) (), Co(III) (), Ni(II) (), Cu(II) () and Zn(II) ()) were synthesized with a redox active Schiff base ligand [2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenylamino)-4-chlorophenol] (H3L) presenting different oxidation states from -2 to 0 (L(2-), L(-) and L(0)). EPR spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements indicate the presence of complexes of the type [Mn(III)(L(2-))(L(-))] () with S = 1/2, [Fe(II)(L(-))2] () with S = 2, [Co(III)(L(2-))(L(-))] () with S = 1/2, [Ni(II)(L(-))2] () with S = 1, [Cu(II)(L(-))2] () with S = 1/2 and [Zn(II)(L(-))2] () with S = 0 at high temperatures. Temperature and solvents influence the electronic structures of the species and give several valence tautomers. At low temperatures these complexes present thermally induced metal-to-ligand (, , ) or ligand-to-ligand (in , ) electron transfer (partial or total), resulting in compounds of the type [Mn(IV)(L(2-))2] () with S = 1/2, [Fe(III)(L(-))(L(2-))] () with S = 1, [Ni(III)(L(2-))(L(-))] () with S = 0, [Cu(II)(L(2-))(L(0))] () with S = 1/2 and [Zn(II)(L(2-))(L(0))] () with S = 1. This electron transfer is in agreement with the general trend in the redox potentials of the first row transition metal ions from Mn(ii) to Zn(ii), and it allows us to prepare and stabilize reversibly switchable tautomeric forms in transition metal complexes with redox-active ligands.
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Clinical and epidemiological characteristics and risk factors for mortality in patients with candidemia in hospitals from Bogotá, Colombia.
Braz J Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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bloodstream infection by Candida species has a high mortality in Latin American countries. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients with documented bloodstream infections caused by Candida species in third level hospitals and determine the risk factors for in-hospital-mortality.
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Effects of dairy husbandry practices and farm types on raw milk quality collected by different categories of dairy processors in the Peruvian Andes.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
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In developing countries, milk quality is often mismanaged in relation to husbandry practices, collection logistics, and the production of small batches. This paper investigates how the management of milk quality from farm to dairy processor impacts on both chemical and hygienic indicators, in a context characterized by farm scale diversity, the co-existence of formal and informal markets, and high milk demand. It is based on an analysis of the chemical and hygienic quality of milk samples collected over a 12-month period from 20 farms and three dairy processors. Data from the farmers' husbandry practices and the logistics of milk collection were also collected. A large range of quality profiles and farming practices were observed. This diversity is explained by rainfall and temperature pattern, farm size which affects hygienic quality, and lack of efficient logistics between farms and dairy processors. The findings indicate that in a context of high demand for milk and poor private and public regulations, milk quality is impacted upon by poor stakeholders' management practices.
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Solid state structure and solution thermodynamics of three-centered hydrogen bonds (O???H???O) using N-(2-benzoyl-phenyl) oxalyl derivatives as model compounds.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Intramolecular hydrogen bond (HB) formation was analyzed in the model compounds N-(2-benzoylphenyl)acetamide, N-(2-benzoylphenyl)oxalamate and N1,N2-bis(2-benzoylphenyl)oxalamide. The formation of three-center hydrogen bonds in oxalyl derivatives was demonstrated in the solid state by the X-ray diffraction analysis of the geometric parameters associated with the molecular structures. The solvent effect on the chemical shift of H6 [?H6(DMSO-d6)-?H6(CDCl3)] and ??(??)/?T measurements, in DMSO-d6 as solvent, have been used to establish the energetics associated with intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Two center intramolecular HB is not allowed in N-(2-benzoylphenyl)acetamide either in the solid state or in DMSO-d6 solution because of the unfavorable steric effects of the o-benzoyl group. The estimated ?Hº and ?Sº values for the hydrogen bonding disruption by DMSO-d6 of 28.3(0.1) kJ·mol-1 and 69.1(0.4) J·mol-1·K-1 for oxalamide, are in agreement with intramolecular three-center hydrogen bonding in solution. In the solid, the benzoyl group contributes to develop 1-D and 2-D crystal networks, through C-H???A (A = O, ?) and dipolar C=O???A (A = CO, ?) interactions, in oxalyl derivatives. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example where three-center hydrogen bond is claimed to overcome steric constraints.
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Insights into the oxygen-based ligand of the low pH component of the Cu(2+)-amyloid-? complex.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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In spite of significant experimental effort dedicated to the study of Cu(2+) binding to the amyloid beta (A?) peptide, involved in Alzheimer's disease, the nature of the oxygen-based ligand in the low pH component of the Cu(2+)-A?(1-16) complex is still under debate. This study reports density-functional-theory-based calculations that explore the potential energy surface of Cu(2+) complexes including N and O ligands at the N-terminus of the A? peptide, with a focus on evaluating the role of Asp1 carboxylate in copper coordination. Model conformers including 3, 6, and 17 amino acids have been used to systematically study several aspects of the Cu(2+)-coordination such as the Asp1 side chain conformation, local peptide backbone geometry, electrostatic and/or hydrogen bond interactions, and number and availability of Cu(2+) ligands. Our results show that the Asp1 peptide carbonyl binds to Cu(2+) only if the coordination number is less than four. In contrast, if four ligands are available, the most stable structures include the Asp1 carboxylate in equatorial position instead of the Asp1 carbonyl group. The two lowest energy Cu(2+)-A?(1-17) models involve Asp1 COO(-), the N-terminus, and His6 and His14 as equatorial ligands, with either a carbonyl or a water molecule in the axial position. These models are in good agreement with experimental data reported for component I of the Cu(2+)-A?(1-16) complex, including EXAFS- and X-ray-derived Cu(2+)-ligand distances, Cu(2+) EPR parameters, and (14)N and (13)C superhyperfine couplings. Our results suggest that at low pH, Cu(2+)-A? species with Asp1 carboxylate equatorial coordination coexist with species coordinating the Asp1 carbonyl. Understanding the bonding mechanism in these species is relevant to gain a deeper insight on the molecular processes involving copper-amyloid-? complexes, such as aggregation and redox activity.
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New insights into the chemistry of di- and trimetallic iron dithiolene derivatives. Structural, Mössbauer, magnetic, electrochemical and theoretical studies.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Reaction of Fe3(CO)12 with 1,2-dithiolene HSC6H2Cl2SH affords a mixture of complexes [Fe2(CO)6(?-SC6H2Cl2S)] 1, [Fe2(SC6H2Cl2S)4] 2 and [Fe3(CO)7(?3-SC6H2Cl2S)2] 3. In the course of the reaction the trimetallic cluster 3 is first formed and then converted into the known dinuclear compound 1 to afford finally the neutral diiron tetrakis(dithiolato) derivative 2. Compounds 2 and 3 have been studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray crystallography and theoretical calculations. In compound 2 the metal atoms are in an intermediate-spin Fe(III) state (S(Fe) = 3/2) and each metal is bonded to a bridging dithiolene ligand and a non-bridging thienyl radical (S = 1/2). Magnetic measurements show a strong antiferromagnetic coupling in complex 2. Cyclic voltammetry experiments show that the mixed valence trinuclear cluster 3 undergoes a fully reversible one electron reduction. Additionally, compound 3 behaves as an electrocatalyst in the reduction process of protons to hydrogen.
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Synaptic upregulation and superadditive interaction of dopamine D2- and mu-opioid receptors after peripheral nerve injury.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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A sound strategy for improving the clinical efficacy of opioids involves exploiting positive interactions with drugs directed at other targets in pain pathways. The current study investigated the role of dopamine receptor D2 (D2R) in modulation of spinal dorsal horn excitability to noxious input, and interactions therein with ?-opioid receptor (MOR) in an animal model of neuropathic pain induced by spinal nerve ligation (SNL). C-fiber-evoked field potentials in the spinal dorsal horn were depressed concentration dependently by spinal superfusion with the D2R agonist quinpirole both in nerve-injured and sham-operated (control) rats. However, quinpirole-induced depression was significant at 10?mol/L after SNL but only at 100?mol/L in control rats. This quinpirole effect was completely abolished by MOR antagonist CTOP at subclinical concentration (1?mol/L) in nerve-injured rats, but was unaltered in sham-operated rats. Nine days after SNL, D2R was upregulated to both presynaptic and postsynaptic locations in dorsal horn neurons, as revealed by double confocal immunofluorescence stainings for synaptophysin and PSD-95. In addition, D2R/MOR co-localization was increased after SNL. Co-administration of 1?mol/L quinpirole, insufficient per se to alter evoked potentials, dramatically enhanced inhibition of evoked potentials by MOR agonist DAMGO, reducing the IC50 value of DAMGO by 2 orders of magnitude. The present data provide evidence of profound functional and subcellular changes in D2R-mediated modulation of noxious input after nerve injury, including positive interactions with spinal MOR. These results suggest D2R co-stimulation as a potential avenue to improve MOR analgesia in sustained pain states involving peripheral nerve injury.
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Synthesis, crystal structure and magnetic properties of two alternating double ?1,1 and ?1,3 azido bridged Cu(ii) and Ni(ii) chains.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Two new alternating ?1,1- and ?1,3-azido bridged chains, [Cu(N3)2(mtn)]n (1) and [Ni(N3)2(mtn)]n (2) where mtn = N-methyl-1,3-propanediamine, have been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. In both complexes, each metal atom is coordinated to six nitrogen atoms from four azide anions and one N-methyl-1,3-propanediamine molecule in a distorted octahedral geometry. In 1, the basal-apical double ?1,1-azido bridged Cu(ii)-dimers are connected through two asymmetric ?1,3-N3 bridges to form a 1D chain in which one of the azide acts as a ?1,1,3 bridge while the other one is terminal. The structure of 2 is very similar but one of the azide ions acts as ?1,1 and the other as ?1,3 to form an alternating chain. Magnetic data of both compounds were fitted to an alternating ferro/antiferromagnetic chain model (g = 2.120, JF = +15.6 cm(-1), JAF = -2.6 cm(-1) and a paramagnetic impurity of ca. 0.4% for 1 and g = 2.180, JF = +23 cm(-1) and JAF = -33 cm(-1) for 2).
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Transanal endoscopic surgery in rectal cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Total mesorectal excision (TME) is the standard treatment for rectal cancer, but complications are frequent and rates of morbidity, mortality and genitourinary alterations are high. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) allows preservation of the anal sphincters and, via its vision system through a rectoscope, allows access to rectal tumors located as far as 20 cm from the anal verge. The capacity of local surgery to cure rectal cancer depends on the risk of lymph node invasion. This means that correct preoperative staging of the rectal tumor is necessary. Currently, local surgery is indicated for rectal adenomas and adenocarcinomas invading the submucosa, but not beyond (T1). Here we describe the standard technique for TEM, the different types of equipment used, and the technical limitations of this approach. TEM to remove rectal adenoma should be performed in the same way as if the lesion were an adenocarcinoma, due to the high percentage of infiltrating adenocarcinomas in these lesions. In spite of the generally good results with T1, some authors have published surprisingly high recurrence rates; this is due to the existence of two types of lesions, tumors with good and poor prognosis, divided according to histological and surgical factors. The standard treatment for rectal adenocarcinoma T2N0M0 is TME without adjuvant therapy. In this type of adenocarcinoma, local surgery obtains the best results when complete pathological response has been achieved with previous chemoradiotherapy. The results with chemoradiotherapy and TEM are encouraging, but the scientific evidence remains limited at present.
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Structural diversity and physical properties of paramagnetic molecular conductors based on bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF) and the tris(chloranilato)ferrate(III) complex.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Electrocrystallization of bis(ethylenedithio)tetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF) in the presence of the tris(chloranilato)ferrate(III) [Fe(Cl2An)3](3-) paramagnetic chiral anion in different stoichiometric ratios and solvent mixtures afforded three different hybrid systems formulated as [BEDT-TTF]3[Fe(Cl2An)3]·3CH2Cl2·H2O (1), ?-[BEDT-TTF]5[Fe(Cl2An)3]·4H2O (2), and ??-[BEDT-TTF]18[Fe(Cl2An)3]3·3CH2Cl2·6H2O (3). Compound 1 presents an unusual structure without the typical alternating organic and inorganic layers, whereas compounds 2 and 3 show a segregated organic-inorganic crystal structure where layers formed by ? and ? enantiomers of the paramagnetic complex, together with dicationic BEDT-TTF dimers, alternate with layers where the donor molecules are arranged in the ? (2) and ?? (3) packing motifs. Compound 1 behaves as a semiconductor with a much lower conductivity due to the not-layered structure and strong dimerization between the fully oxidized donors, whereas 2 and 3 show semiconducting behaviors with high room-temperature conductivities of ca. 2 S cm(-1) and 8 S cm(-1), respectively. The magnetic properties are dominated by the paramagnetic S = 5/2 [Fe(Cl2An)3](3-) anions whose high-spin character is confirmed by electron paramagnetic resonance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. The correlation between crystal structure and conductivity behavior was studied by means of tight-binding band structure calculations, which support the observed conducting properties.
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Alcohol consumption as an incremental factor in health care costs for traffic accident victims: Evidence in a medium sized Colombian city.
Accid Anal Prev
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Identify the possibility that alcohol consumption represents an incremental factor in healthcare costs of patients involved in traffic accidents.
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The effect of tomato juice supplementation on biomarkers and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in rats with induced hepatic steatosis.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Tomato products are a dietary source of natural antioxidants, especially lycopene, which accumulates in the liver, where it exerts biological effects. Taking into consideration this fact, the aim of the present study was to ascertain the effect of tomato consumption on biomarkers and gene expression related to lipid metabolism in rats with induced steatosis.
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A spin-crossover complex based on a 2,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine (1-bpp) ligand functionalized with a carboxylate group.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Combining Fe(ii) with the carboxylate-functionalized 2,6-bis(pyrazol-1-yl)pyridine (bppCOOH) ligand results in the spin-crossover compound [Fe(bppCOOH)2](ClO4)2 which shows an abrupt spin transition with a T1/2 of ca. 380 K and a TLIESST of 60 K due to the presence of a hydrogen-bonded linear network of complexes.
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Emerging new anticancer therapies in 2013.
Curr Opin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Year 2013 has been rich in presentations and publications about new emerging anticancer agents, both in peer-review journals and in international meetings such as American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), European Cancer Congress (European Cancer Organization - ECCO/European Society of Medical Oncology - ESMO), American Association for Cancer Research Meeting (AACR), Molecular Target and Cancer Therapeutics AACR-NCI-EORTC International Conference and Targeted Anticancer Therapies Meeting (TAT). Our purpose is to give an update in 2013's most important advances in new anticancer therapies.
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Predictive factors of allosensitization in renal transplant patients switched from calcineurin to mTOR inhibitors.
Transpl. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Conversion of kidney-transplant recipients from calcineurin inhibitors to mTOR inhibitors has been suggested to be a risk factor for increased alloimmune response. We have analyzed the development of new HLA-antibodies (HLA-Abs) early after conversion in 184 patients converted in stable phase at our hospital and compared with a control group of nonconverted comparable 63 transplants. Using single-antigen solid-phase immunoassay analysis, a preconversion and a 3-6 months postconversion sera were prospectively analyzed in every patient for the appearance of new HLA-Abs. Renal function at 2 years postconversion and cumulative graft survival were compared between groups. In 16 patients, new HLA-Abs (3-DSA and 13-NonDSA), not present at the moment of conversion, were detected (8.7% vs. 3.1% in the control group). The type of mTORi used, type of CNI preconversion, the presence of steroids, time of conversion, or indication for conversion did not have influence on this effect but the presence of HLA-Abs before conversion highly correlated with the appearance of new specificities. Patients with de novo HLA-Abs showed a trend to worst graft function and survival. In conclusion, conversion to mTORi can be followed by early appearance of de novo HLA-Abs, especially in patients with HLA-Abs preconversion, and this complication should be screened early after conversion.
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The anti-seizure drugs vinpocetine and carbamazepine, but not valproic acid, reduce inflammatory IL-1? and TNF-? expression in rat hippocampus.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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In the present study, the effects of the two classical anti-epileptic drugs, carbamazepine and valproic acid, and the non-classical anti-seizure drug vinpocetine were investigated on the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and TNF-? in the hippocampus of rats by PCR or western blot after the administration of one or seven doses. Next, the effects of the anti-seizure drugs were investigated on the rise in cytokine expression induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) inoculation in vivo. To validate our methods, the changes induced by the pro-convulsive agents 4-aminopyridine, pentylenetetrazole and pilocarpine were also tested. Finally, the effect of the anti-seizure drugs on seizures and on the concomitant rise in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression induced by 4-aminopyridine was explored. Results show that vinpocetine and carbamazepine reduced the expression of IL-1? and TNF-? from basal conditions, and the increase in both pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by LPS. In contrast, valproic acid failed to reduce both the expression of the cytokines from basal conditions and the rise in IL-1? and TNF-? expression induced by LPS. Tonic-clonic seizures induced either by 4-aminopyridine, pentylenetetrazole or pilocarpine increased the expression of IL-1? and TNF-? markedly. 4-aminopyridine-induced changes were reduced by all the tested anti-seizure drugs, although valproic acid was less effective. We conclude that the anti-seizure drugs, vinpocetine and carbamazepine, whose mechanisms of action involve a decrease in ion channels permeability, also reduce cerebral inflammation. The mechanism of action of anti-seizure drugs like vinpocetine and carbamazepine involves a decrease in Na(+) channels permeability. We here propose that this mechanism of action also involves a decrease in cerebral inflammation.
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Analysis of neural dynamics in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease using wavelet turbulence.
J Neural Eng
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Current diagnostic guidelines encourage further research for the development of novel Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers, especially in its prodromal form (i.e. mild cognitive impairment, MCI). Magnetoencephalography (MEG) can provide essential information about AD brain dynamics; however, only a few studies have addressed the characterization of MEG in incipient AD.
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Safety and efficacy of olanzapine in the long-term treatment of Japanese patients with bipolar I disorder, depression: an integrated analysis.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Safety and efficacy of long-term olanzapine treatment in Japanese patients with bipolar depression were assessed.
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Supramolecular 2D/3D isomerism in a compound containing heterometallic Cu(II)2Co(II) nodes and dicyanamide bridges.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Three new heterometallic copper(II)-cobalt(II) complexes [(CuL(2))2Co{dca}2]·H2O(1), [(CuL(1))2Co{dca}2]n (2a), and [(CuL(1))2Co{dca}2]n (2b) [dca(-) = dicyanamide = N(CN)2(-)] have been synthesized by reacting the "metallo-ligand" [CuL(1)] or [CuL(2)] with cobalt(II) perchlorate and sodium dicyanamide in methanol-water medium (where H2L(1) = N,N'-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine and H2L(2) = N,N'-bis(?-methylsalicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine). The three complexes have been structurally and magnetically characterized. Complex 1 is a discrete trinuclear species in which two metallo-ligands coordinate to a cobalt(II) ion through the phenoxido oxygen atoms along with two terminally coordinated dicyanamide ions. On the other hand, complexes 2a and 2b are one of the very scarce examples of supramolecular isomers since they present the same [(CuL(1))2Co{dca}2] trinuclear units (very similar to the trinuclear core in 1) and differ only in their superstructures. Thus, although each Cu2Co trimer in 2a and 2b is connected to four other Cu2Co trimers through four ?1,5-dca(-) bridges, 2a presents a square two-dimensional structure (each Cu2Co trimer is connected to four in-plane Cu2Co trimers); whereas, 2b shows a triangular three-dimensional lattice (each Cu2Co trimer is connected to three in-plane and one out-of-plane trimers). Variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements show the presence of moderate antiferromagnetic exchange interactions (ferrimagnetic) in all the cases mediated through the double phenoxido bridges that have been fitted with an anisotropic model including spin-orbit coupling in the central Co(II) ion.
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Targeting tumor-associated macrophages with anti-CSF-1R antibody reveals a strategy for cancer therapy.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Macrophage infiltration has been identified as an independent poor prognostic factor in several cancer types. The major survival factor for these macrophages is macrophage colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1). We generated a monoclonal antibody (RG7155) that inhibits CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R) activation. In vitro RG7155 treatment results in cell death of CSF-1-differentiated macrophages. In animal models, CSF-1R inhibition strongly reduces F4/80(+) tumor-associated macrophages accompanied by an increase of the CD8(+)/CD4(+) T cell ratio. Administration of RG7155 to patients led to striking reductions of CSF-1R(+)CD163(+) macrophages in tumor tissues, which translated into clinical objective responses in diffuse-type giant cell tumor (Dt-GCT) patients.
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Pomaglumetad Methionil (LY2140023 Monohydrate) and Aripiprazole in Patients with Schizophrenia: A Phase 3, Multicenter, Double-Blind Comparison.
Schizophr Res Treatment
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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We tested the hypothesis that long-term treatment with pomaglumetad methionil would demonstrate significantly less weight gain than aripiprazole in patients with schizophrenia. In this 24-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, Phase 3 study, 678 schizophrenia patients were randomized to either pomaglumetad methionil (n = 516) or aripiprazole (n = 162). Treatment groups were also compared on efficacy and various safety measures, including serious adverse events (SAEs), discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs), treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs), extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), and suicide-related thoughts and behaviors. The pomaglumetad methionil group showed significantly greater weight loss at Week 24 (Visit 12) compared with the aripiprazole group (-2.8?±?0.4 versus 0.4?±?0.6; P < 0.001). However, change in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores for aripiprazole was significantly greater than for pomaglumetad methionil (-15.58?±?1.58 versus -12.03?±?0.99; P = 0.045). The incidences of SAEs (8.2% versus 3.1%; P = 0.032) and discontinuation due to AEs (16.2% versus 8.7%; P = 0.020) were significantly higher for pomaglumetad methionil compared with aripiprazole. No statistically significant differences in the incidence of TEAEs, EPS, or suicidal ideation or behavior were noted between treatment groups. In conclusion, long-term treatment with pomaglumetad methionil resulted in significantly less weight gain than aripiprazole. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01328093.
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Coupling of serotonergic input to NMDA receptor-phosphorylation following peripheral nerve injury via rapid, synaptic up-regulation of ND2.
Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Evidence implicates serotonergic input to spinal dorsal horn neurons in shifting the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) into a high functional output profile after spinal nerve ligation (SNL). We investigated the involvement of adaptor protein NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) in NMDAR-phosphorylation and spinal hyperexcitability secondary to peripheral nerve injury. Immunofluorescence for ND2 was found in dorsal horn neurons immunopositive for NMDAR subunit NR1. Co-localization of ND2 with postsynaptic marker PSD-95 was significantly increased 60min after SNL (Rr 0.77 vs Rr 0.06 in sham controls; z=-242.85; p<0.01 at Fisher's exact test). Western blot analyses confirmed ND2 up-regulation both in cytoplasmic (S2) and synaptic (P3) compartments (p<0.01 at the Student's t test). SNL was followed by increased co-localization of ND2 with the phosphorylated form (serine 896) of NR1 (pNMDA). Spinal superfusion with ND2 inhibitor rotenone prevented up-regulation of ND2 (Rr 0.06 after rotenone vs Rr 0.78 in vehicle-treated controls, z=-253.22, p<0.01) and pNR1 in P3. C fiber-evoked dorsal horn field potentials were increased 60min after SNL by superfusion with NMDA agonist cis-ACPD at 100nM (p<0.01 at the Bonferroni test), however cis-ACPD was effective only at 10?M following prior administration of rotenone. Rotenone also abolished enhancement of evoked potentials induced by simultaneous stimulation of NMDA and 5-HR2B receptors in uninjured rats. Increased postsynaptic up-regulation of ND2/pNMDAR 60min after SNL was prevented by prior administration of selective 5-HT2B antagonist SB204741. These results support a pivotal role for ND2 in coupling serotonergic input to NMDAR-activation during neuropathic pain.
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[Cinacalcet in the management of normocalcaemic secondary hyperparathyroidism after kidney transplantation: one-year follow-up multicentre study].
Nefrologia
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The effect of cinacalcet in patients with persistent secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) after kidney transplantation (RT) has mainly been reported in patients with secondary hypercalcaemia.
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Alternative treatments for oral bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws: a pilot study comparing fibrin rich in growth factors and teriparatide.
Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The aim of this study is to describe and compare the evolution of recurrent bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) in patients treated with plasma rich in growth factors or teriparatide.
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[Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a hip prosthesis, a case report and literature review].
Rev Chilena Infectol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Infection is the most serious complication of arthroplasty. It's a rare event usually caused by Staphylococcus spp. Prosthetic tuberculosis is rarely reported. We report the case of a 41 year-old patient who underwent a hip replacement for osteoarthritis and after multiple procedures an infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis was documented. We review the literature of previously reported cases.
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Behavior of shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on whole and sliced jalapeño and serrano peppers.
Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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The behavior of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157-STEC) on whole and slices of jalapeño and serrano peppers as well as in blended sauce at 25 ± 2 °C and 3 ± 2 °C was investigated. Chili peppers were collected from markets of Pachuca city, Hidalgo, Mexico. On whole serrano and jalapeño stored at 25 ± 2 °C or 3 ± 2 °C, no growth was observed for EPEC, ETEC, EIEC and non-O157-STEC rifampicin resistant strains. After twelve days at 25 ± 2 °C, on serrano peppers all diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEP) strains had decreased by a total of approximately 3.7 log, whereas on jalapeño peppers the strains had decreased by approximately 2.8 log, and at 3 ± 2 °C they decreased to approximately 2.5 and 2.2 log respectively, on serrano and jalapeño. All E. coli pathotypes grew onto sliced chili peppers and in blended sauce: after 24 h at 25 ± 2 °C, all pathotypes had grown to approximately 3 and 4 log CFU on pepper slices and sauce, respectively. At 3 ± 2 °C the bacterial growth was inhibited.
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Presence of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enterotoxigenic E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and Salmonella in fresh beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) juice from public markets in Mexico.
J. Sci. Food Agric.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Unpasteurized juice has been associated with foodborne illness outbreaks for many years. Beetroot is a vegetable grown all over the world in temperate areas. In Mexico beetroot is consumed cooked in salads or raw as fresh unpasteurized juices. No data about the microbiological quality or safety of unpasteurized beetroot juices are available. Indicator bacteria, diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEP) and Salmonella frequencies were determined for fresh unpasteurized beetroot juice from restaurants.
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Sertraline Reduces IL-1? and TNF-? mRNA Expression and Overcomes Their Rise Induced by Seizures in the Rat Hippocampus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We recently discovered that the antidepressant sertraline is an effective inhibitor of hippocampus presynaptic Na+ channel permeability in vitro and of tonic-clonic seizures in animals in vivo. Several studies indicate that the pro-inflammatory cytokines in the central nervous system are increased in epilepsy and depression. On the other hand inhibition of Na+ channels has been shown to decrease pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglia. Therefore, the possibility that sertraline could overcome the rise in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression induced by seizures has been investigated. For this purpose, IL-1? and TNF-? mRNA expression was determined by RT-PCR in the hippocampus of rats administered once, or for seven consecutive days with sertraline at a low dose (0.75 mg/kg). The effect of sertraline at doses within the range of 0.75 to 25 mg/kg on the increase in IL-1? and TNF-? mRNA expression accompanying generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and increase in the pro-inflammatory cytokines expression induced by lipopolysaccharide was also investigated. We found that under basal conditions, a single 0.75 mg/kg sertraline dose decreased IL-1? mRNA expression, and also TNF-? expression after repeated doses. The increase in IL-1? and TNF-? expression induced by the convulsive agents and by the inoculation of lipopolysaccharide in the hippocampus was markedly reduced by sertraline also. Present results indicate that a reduction of brain inflammatory processes may contribute to the anti-seizure sertraline action, and that sertraline can be safely and successfully used at low doses to treat depression in epileptic patients.
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Reduced predictable information in brain signals in autism spectrum disorder.
Front Neuroinform
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common developmental disorder characterized by communication difficulties and impaired social interaction. Recent results suggest altered brain dynamics as a potential cause of symptoms in ASD. Here, we aim to describe potential information-processing consequences of these alterations by measuring active information storage (AIS)-a key quantity in the theory of distributed computation in biological networks. AIS is defined as the mutual information between the past state of a process and its next measurement. It measures the amount of stored information that is used for computation of the next time step of a process. AIS is high for rich but predictable dynamics. We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals in 10 ASD patients and 14 matched control subjects in a visual task. After a beamformer source analysis, 12 task-relevant sources were obtained. For these sources, stationary baseline activity was analyzed using AIS. Our results showed a decrease of AIS values in the hippocampus of ASD patients in comparison with controls, meaning that brain signals in ASD were either less predictable, reduced in their dynamic richness or both. Our study suggests the usefulness of AIS to detect an abnormal type of dynamics in ASD. The observed changes in AIS are compatible with Bayesian theories of reduced use or precision of priors in ASD.
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Spin Crossover Iron(II) Coordination Polymer Chains: Syntheses, Structures, and Magnetic Characterizations of [Fe(aqin)2(?2-M(CN)4)] (M = Ni(II), Pt(II), aqin = Quinolin-8-amine).
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2013
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New Fe(II) coordination polymeric neutral chains of formula [Fe(aqin)2(?2-M(CN)4)] (M = Ni(II) (1) and Pt(II) (2)) (aqin = Quinolin-8-amine) have been synthesized and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and magnetic measurements. The crystal structure determinations of 1-2 reveal in both cases a one-dimensional structure in which the planar [M(CN)4](2-) (M = Ni(II) (1) and Pt(II) (2)) anion acts as a ?2-bridging ligand, and the two aqin molecules as chelating coligands. Examination of the intermolecular contacts in the two compounds reveals that the main contacts are ascribed to hydrogen bonding interactions involving the amine groups of the aqin chelating ligands and the nitrogen atoms of the two non bridging CN groups of the [M(CN)4](2-) (M = Ni(II) (1) and Pt(II) (2)) anion. The average values of the six Fe-N distances observed respectively at room temperature (293 K) and low temperature (120 K), that is, 2.142(3) and 2.035(2) Å for 1, and 2.178(3) and 1.990(2) Å for 2, and the thermal variation of the cell parameters (performed on 2) are indicative of the presence of an abrupt HS-LS spin crossover (SCO) transition in both compounds. The thermal dependence of the product of the molar magnetic susceptibility times the temperature (?mT), in cooling and warming modes, confirms the SCO behavior at about 145 and 133 K in 1 and 2, respectively, and reveals the presence of a small thermal hysteresis of about 2 K for each compound.
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Isolation of Two Different Ni2Zn Complexes with an Unprecedented Cocrystal Formed by One of Them and a "Coordination Positional Isomer" of the Other.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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A new homometallic trinuclear Ni(II) complex [(NiL)2Ni(NCS)2] (1) and three heterometallic trinuclear Ni(II)-Zn(II)-Ni(II) complexes [(NiL)2Zn(NCS)2] (2), [(NiL)2Zn(NCS)2(CH3OH)2]·2CH3OH (3) and {[(NiL)2Zn(NCS)2(CH3OH)2]} {[(NiL)2Zn(NCS)2]} (4) have been synthesized by using the "complex as ligand" approach with the "metalloligand" [NiL] (H2L = N,N-bis(salicylidene)-1,3-propanediamine) and thiocyanate in different ratios. All the complexes have been structurally and magnetically characterized. In the isomorphous complexes 1 and 2, the two terminal square planar Ni atoms and the central octahedral nickel atom (in 1) or zinc atom (in 2) are arranged in a bent structure where two cis ?N-SCN(-) thiocyanate ions are coordinated to the central atom. The chemical composition of 3 is very similar to that of 2 but, in 3, the central Zn atom is tetrahedral and the ?N-SCN(-) thiocyanate ions occupy an axial position of each terminal nickel atom (which now are octahedral with the sixth position occupied by a methanol molecule). Complex 4 consists of two closely related trinuclear units 4A and 4B. In 4A, the coordination environments of the metals are identical to those of 3 whereas 4B is a "coordination position isomer" of complex 2 with the central square pyramidal Zn and one of the terminal square pyramidal Ni atoms coordinated by two ?N-SCN(-) thiocyanate ions. Complex 4 is a unique example of a cocrystal formed by two similar trinuclear units (4A and 4B) where 4A is identical to an existing complex (3) and 4B is a "coordination position isomer" of another existing complex (2).
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Custom Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Protect against a Free Radical Mediated Autoimmune Degenerative Disease in the Brain.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2013
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Cerium oxide nanoparticles are potent antioxidants, based on their ability to either donate or receive electrons as they alternate between the +3 and +4 valence states. The dual oxidation state of ceria has made it an ideal catalyst in industrial applications, and more recently, nanocerias efficacy in neutralizing biologically generated free radicals has been explored in biological applications. Here, we report the in vivo characteristics of custom-synthesized cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) in an animal model of immunological and free-radical mediated oxidative injury leading to neurodegenerative disease. The CeNPs are 2.9 nm in diameter, monodispersed and have a -23.5 mV zeta potential when stabilized with citrate/EDTA. This stabilizer coating resists being washed off in physiological salt solutions, and the CeNPs remain monodispersed for long durations in high ionic strength saline. The plasma half-life of the CeNPs is ?4.0 h, far longer than previously described, stabilized ceria nanoparticles. When administered intravenously to mice, the CeNPs were well tolerated and taken up by the liver and spleen much less than previous nanoceria formulations. The CeNPs were also able to penetrate the brain, reduce reactive oxygen species levels, and alleviate clinical symptoms and motor deficits in mice with a murine model of multiple sclerosis. Thus, CeNPs may be useful in mitigating tissue damage arising from free radical accumulation in biological systems.
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Tumor Growth Rate Is an Early Indicator of Antitumor Drug Activity in Phase I Clinical Trials.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) evaluation does not take into account the pretreatment tumor kinetics and may provide incomplete information about experimental drug activity. Tumor growth rate (TGR) allows for a dynamic and quantitative assessment of the tumor kinetics. How TGR varies along the introduction of experimental therapeutics and is associated with outcome in phase I patients remains unknown.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Medical records from all patients (N = 253) prospectively treated in 20 phase I trials were analyzed. TGR was computed during the pretreatment period (reference) and the experimental period. Associations between TGR, standard prognostic scores [Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) score], and outcome [progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)] were computed (multivariate analysis).RESULTS: We observed a reduction of TGR between the reference versus experimental periods (38% vs. 4.4%; P < 0.00001). Although most patients were classified as stable disease (65%) or progressive disease (25%) by RECIST at the first evaluation, 82% and 65% of them exhibited a decrease in TGR, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, only the decrease of TGR was associated with PFS (P = 0.004), whereas the RMH score was the only variable associated with OS (P = 0.0008). Only the investigated regimens delivered were associated with a decrease of TGR (P < 0.00001, multivariate analysis). Computing TGR profiles across different clinical trials reveals specific patterns of antitumor activity.CONCLUSIONS: Exploring TGR in phase I patients is simple and provides clinically relevant information: (i) an early and subtle assessment of signs of antitumor activity; (ii) independent association with PFS; and (iii) it reveals drug-specific profiles, suggesting potential utility for guiding the further development of the investigational drugs. Clin Cancer Res; 1-7. ©2013 AACR.
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Resembling breast milk: influence of polyamine-supplemented formula on neonatal BALB/cOlaHsd mouse microbiota.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Infant microbiota is influenced by numerous factors, such as delivery mode, environment, prematurity and diet (breast milk or formula). In addition to its nutritional value, breast milk contains bioactive substances that drive microbial colonisation and support immune system development, which are usually not present in infant formulas. Among these substances, polyamines have been described to be essential for intestinal and immune functions in newborns. However, their effect on the establishment of microbiota remains unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to ascertain whether an infant formula supplemented with polyamines has an impact on microbial colonisation by modifying it to resemble that in breast-fed neonatal BALB/c mice. In a 4 d intervention, a total of sixty pups (14 d old) were randomly assigned to the following groups: (1) breast-fed group; (2) non-enriched infant formula-fed group; (3) three different groups fed an infant formula enriched with increasing concentrations of polyamines (mixture of putrescine, spermidine and spermine), following the proportions found in human milk. Microbial composition in the contents of the oral cavity, stomach and small and large intestines was analysed by quantitative PCR targeted at fourteen bacterial genera and species. Significantly different (P< 0·05) microbial colonisation patterns were observed in the entire gastrointestinal tract of the breast-fed and formula-fed mice. In addition, our findings demonstrate that supplementation of polyamines regulates the amounts of total bacteria, Akkermansia muciniphila, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides-Prevotella and Clostridium groups to levels found in the breast-fed group. Such an effect requires further investigation in human infants, as supplementation of an infant formula with polyamines might contribute to healthy gastrointestinal tract development.
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Perception of pointing from biological motion point-light displays in typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorder.
J Autism Dev Disord
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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We examined whether the movement involved in a pointing gesture, depicted using point-light displays, is sufficient to cue attention in typically developing children (TD) and children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (aged 8-11 years). Using a Posner-type paradigm, a centrally located display indicated the location of a forthcoming target on 80% of trials and the opposite location on 20% of trials. TD children, but not children with ASD, were faster to identify a validly cued target than an invalidly cued target. A scrambled version of the point-light pointing gesture, retaining individual dot speed and direction of movement but not the configuration, produced no validity effect in either group. A video of a pointing gesture produced validity effects in both groups.
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Characterization of the spontaneous electroencephalographic activity in Alzheimers disease using disequilibria and graph theory.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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The aim of this research was to study the changes that Alzheimers disease (AD) elicits in the organization of brain networks. For this task, the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity from 32 AD patients and 25 healthy controls was analyzed. In a first step, a disequilibrium measure, the Euclidean distance (ED), was used to estimate the similarity between the spectral content of each pair of electrodes. In a second step, the similarity matrices were used to generate the corresponding graphs, from which two parameters were computed to characterize the network structure: the mean clustering coefficient and the mean path length. Results revealed significant changes (p<0.05) in ED values, as well as in the mean clustering coefficient and the mean path length, though they depend on the specific frequency band. Our findings suggest that AD is accompanied by a significant frequency-dependent alteration of brain network organization.
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Entropy analysis of MEG background activity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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The aim of this study was to analyze the magnetoencephalography (MEG) background activity in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) using fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn), an entropy measure that quantifies signal irregularity. Five minutes of recording were acquired with a 148-channel whole-head magnetometer in 14 ADHD patients and 14 control children. Our results showed that MEG activity was more regular in ADHD patients than in controls. Additionally, there were statistically significant differences (p < 0.01, Students t-test with Bonferronis correction) in the five analyzed brain regions: anterior, central, posterior, left lateral, and right lateral. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, the highest values of accuracy (82.14%) and area under the ROC curve (0.9005) were achieved in anterior area. Our results support the hypothesis that ADHD is characterized by a delay of cortical maturation in the prefrontal cortex.
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Spectral changes in spontaneous MEG activity across the lifespan.
J Neural Eng
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Objective. The aim of this study is to explore the spectral patterns of spontaneous magnetoencephalography (MEG) activity across the lifespan. Approach. Relative power (RP) in six frequency bands (delta, theta, alpha, beta-1, beta-2 and gamma) was calculated in a sample of 220 healthy subjects with ages ranging from 7 to 84 years. Main results. A significant RP decrease in low-frequency bands (i.e. delta and theta) and a significant increase in high bands (mainly beta-1 and beta-2) were found from childhood to adolescence. This trend was observed until the sixth decade of life, though only slight changes were found. Additionally, healthy aging was characterized by a power increase in low-frequency bands. Our results show that spectral changes across the lifespan may follow a quadratic relationship in delta, theta, alpha, beta-2 and gamma bands with peak ages being reached around the fifth or sixth decade of life. Significance. Our findings provide original insights into the definition of the normal behavior of age-related MEG spectral patterns. Furthermore, our study can be useful for the forthcoming MEG research focused on the description of the abnormalities of different brain diseases in comparison to cognitive decline in normal aging.
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Monolacunary Keggin polyoxometalates connected to ten 4d or 4f metal atoms.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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The rational self-assembly of mono-lacunary Keggin clusters with 4d and 4f metal salts via a conventional method has yielded two novel polyoxometalate-based 4d-4f heterometallic compounds containing lacunary Keggin anions connected to ten metal atoms: {[Ag{Ag2(H2O)4}{Ln(H2O)6}2H ? {SiW11Ln(H2O)4O39}2]·nH2O (Ln = Ce and n = 7 for 1, Ln = Pr and n = 3 for 2). Their structures were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. A structural feature in 1 and 2 is that each [SiW11O39](8-) cluster (SiW11) is connected to ten metals (five Ag(+) and five Ln(3+) cations), representing the highest number of connected metal atoms to any mono-lacunary Keggin anion to date. This large connectivity leads to a structure with a purely inorganic 3D framework with two kinds of channels along the [100] and [010] directions. The magnetic properties of both compounds show the expected magnetic moments (0.8 and 1.6 amu K mol(-1) per Ce(3+) and Pr(3+) ion, respectively) and confirm the presence of isolated Ce(3+) and Pr(3+) ions.
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Semiconductive and magnetic one-dimensional coordination polymers of Cu(II) with modified nucleobases.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Four new copper(II) coordination complexes, obtained by reaction of CuX2 (X = acetate or chloride) with thymine-1-acetic acid and uracil-1-propionic acid as ligands, of formulas [Cu(TAcO)2(H2O)4]·4H2O (1), [Cu(TAcO)2(H2O)2]n (2), [Cu3(TAcO)4(H2O)2(OH)2]n·4H2O (3), and [Cu3(UPrO)2Cl2(OH)2(H2O)2]n (4) (TAcOH = thymine-1-acetic acid, UPrOH = uracil-1-propionic acid) are described. While 1 is a discrete complex, 2-4 are one-dimensional coordination polymers. Complexes 2-4 present dc conductivity values between 10(-6) and 10(-9) S/cm(-1). The magnetic behavior of complex 2 is typical for almost isolated Cu(II) metal centers. Moderate-weak antiferromagnetic interactions have been found in complex 3, whereas a combination of strong and weak antiferromagnetic interactions have been found in complex 4. Quantum computational calculations have been done to estimate the individual "J" magnetic coupling constant for each superexchange pathway in complexes 3 and 4. Compounds 2-4 are the first known examples of semiconductor and magnetic coordination polymers containing nucleobases.
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Presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Enteroinvasive E. coli, Enteropathogenic E. coli, and Enterotoxigenic E. coli on tomatoes from public markets in Mexico.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes (DEP) are important foodborne pathogens in various countries, including Mexico. However, no data exist on the presence of DEP on fresh tomatoes (Solanum lycopericum) from Mexico. The frequency of fecal coliforms (FC), E. coli, and DEP were determined for two tomato varieties. One hundred samples of a saladette tomato variety and 100 samples of a red round tomato variety were collected from public markets in Pachuca, Mexico. Each tomato sample consisted of four whole tomatoes. For the 100 saladette samples, coliform bacterial, FC, E. coli, and DEP were identified in 100, 70, 60, and 10% of samples, respectively. For the 100 red round samples, coliform bacterial, FC, E. coli, and DEP were identified in 100, 75, 65, and 11% of samples, respectively. Identified DEP included Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), and enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC). STEC were isolated from 6% of saladette samples and 5% of red round samples. ETEC were isolated from 3% of saladette samples and 4% of red round samples. EPEC were isolated from 2% of saladette samples and 3% of red round samples, and EIEC were isolated from 1% of saladette samples. Both STEC and ETEC were identified in two saladette samples and 1 red round sample. E. coli O157:H7 was not detected in any STEC-positive samples.
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Open-label, multicentre expansion cohort to evaluate imgatuzumab in pre-treated patients with KRAS-mutant advanced colorectal carcinoma.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Imgatuzumab (GA201) is a novel anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) antibody glycoengineered for enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC). We investigated the efficacy of imgatuzumab in patients with EGFR-positive, KRAS-mutant advanced colorectal cancer.
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Novel mixed-valence Cu compounds formed by Cu(II) dimers with double oximato bridges: in situ formation of anionic layer [Cu2(SCN)3]n(n-).
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Two new N3O donor ketoxime Schiff bases (HL(1) and HL(2)) have been synthesized by condensing N,N-dimethylethylenediamine with diacetylmonoxime and benzilmonoxime, respectively in a 1:1 ratio. Reaction of Cu(ClO4)2·6H2O with HL(1) resulted in a discrete oximato-bridged dinuclear Cu(II) complex [Cu2(L(1))2(H2O)2](ClO4)2 (1). The same reaction in presence of NaSCN affords the complex {[Cu(II)2(L(1))2][Cu(I)4(?(1,3)-SCN)4(?(1,1,3)-SCN)2]}n (2), where partial Cu(II)?Cu(I) reduction is observed. In 2, arrays of [Cu(II)2(L(1))2](2+) cationic units are inserted in between 2D {[Cu(I)4(SCN)6](2-)}n layers and connected via ?(1,1,3)-SCN(-) links, thus forming a 3D network. On the other hand, reaction of Cu(CH3COO)2 and HL(2) in the presence of NaSCN gave rise to a mixed-valence pentanuclear cluster {[Cu(II)2(L(2))2(NCS)]2[Cu(I)(SCN)(?(1,1)-SCN)(?(1,3)-SCN)]} (3) where Cu(II) is also partly reduced to Cu(I). In compound 3, two cationic [Cu(II)2(L(2))2(NCS)](+) units are bridged by the anionic [Cu(I)(SCN)3](2-) unit through long Cu-SCN linkages. The ligands and the complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, UV/Vis and IR spectroscopy. The complexes are further characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction and variable temperature magnetic (VTM) studies. Finally a complete magneto-structural correlation has been established between compounds 1-3 and all the characterized Cu dimers with a double NO bridge.
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Osteoporosis and adynamic bone in chronic kidney disease.
J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Among the chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disease (CKD-MBD) disorders, osteoporosis and adynamic bone are highly prevalent, and they have been consistently associated with low bone mass, bone fractures, vascular calcifications and greater mortality in general and CKD populations. Despite the fact that osteoporosis and adynamic bone have similar clinical outcomes, they have different pathogeneses and clinical management. In osteoporosis, there is a lack of balance between bone formation and bone resorption, and less new bone is formed to replace bone losses. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization as "a disease characterized by low bone mineral density and micro architectural deterioration leading to low bone strength and increased risk of fractures." In the general population, there is a good correlation between dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements and bone fractures, but this is not the case with CKD patients. Despite the fact that we have a great number of active antiosteoporotic drugs, the experience in CKD patients is limited. Adynamic bone is suspected based on biochemical parameters, mainly parathyroid hormone (PTH) and bone alkaline phosphatase, but it needs to be proven using a bone biopsy, where a low or zero bone formation rate and a reduction or absence of osteoblasts and osteoclasts should be found. The clinical management of adynamic bone has important limitations and currently does not allow taking many active measures. Treatment is mainly based on the prevention of risk factors known to induce PTH oversuppression, such as aluminium and calcium load and very high doses of vitamin D receptor activators. Due to the limitations in the treatment of both conditions, prevention plays a key role in the management of these disorders.
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Behavior of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli, and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on alfalfa sprouts.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2013
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Data about the behavior of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (non-O157 STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) on seeds and alfalfa sprouts are not available. The behavior of STEC, EIEC, ETEC, and EPEC was determined during germination and sprouting of alfalfa seeds at 20 ± 2°C and 30 ± 2°C and on alfalfa sprouts at 3 ± 2°C. When alfalfa seeds were inoculated with STEC, EIEC, ETEC, or EPEC strains, all these diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) grew during germination and sprouting of seeds, reaching counts of approximately 5 and 6 log CFU/g after 1 day at 20 ± 2°C and 30 ± 2°C, respectively. However, when the sprouts were inoculated after 1 day of seed germination and stored at 20 ± 2°C or 30 ± 2°C, no growth was observed for any DEP during sprouting at 20 ± 2°C or 30 ± 2°C for 9 days. Refrigeration reduced significantly (P < 0.0.5) the number of viable DEPs on sprouts after 20 days in storage; nevertheless, these decreases have no practical significance for the safety of the sprouts.
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Insertion of a Single-Molecule Magnet inside a Ferromagnetic Lattice Based on a 3D Bimetallic Oxalate Network: Towards Molecular Analogues of Permanent Magnets.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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The insertion of the single-molecule magnet (SMM) [Mn(III) (salen)(H2 O)]2 (2+) (salen(2-) =N,N-ethylenebis-(salicylideneiminate)) into a ferromagnetic bimetallic oxalate network affords the hybrid compound [Mn(III) (salen)(H2 O)]2 [Mn(II) Cr(III) (ox)3 ]2 ?(CH3 OH)?(CH3 CN)2 (1). This cationic Mn2 cluster templates the growth of crystals formed by an unusual achiral 3D oxalate network. The magnetic properties of this hybrid magnet are compared with those of the analogous compounds [Mn(III) (salen)(H2 O)]2 [Zn(II) Cr(III) (ox)3 ]2 ?(CH3 OH)?(CH3 CN)2 (2) and [In(III) (sal2 -trien)][Mn(II) Cr(III) (ox)3 ]?(H2 O)0.25 ?(CH3 OH)0.25 ?(CH3 CN)0.25 (3), which are used as reference compounds. In 2 it has been shown that the magnetic isolation of the Mn2 clusters provided by their insertion into a paramagnetic oxalate network of Cr(III) affords a SMM behavior, albeit with blocking temperatures well below 500?mK even for frequencies as high as 160?kHz. In 3 the onset of ferromagnetism in the bimetallic Mn(II) Cr(III) network is observed at Tc =5?K. Finally, in the hybrid compound 1 the interaction between the two magnetic networks leads to the antiparallel arrangement of their respective magnetizations, that is, to a ferrimagnetic phase. This coupling induces also important changes on the magnetic properties of 1 with respect to those of the reference compounds 2 and 3. In particular, compound 1 shows a large magnetization hysteresis below 1?K, which is in sharp contrast with the near-reversible magnetizations that the SMMs and the oxalate ferromagnetic lattice show under the same conditions.
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Reversible switching of the electronic ground state in a pentacoordinated Cu(II) complex.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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An easy reversible switching of the electronic ground state in a pentacoordinated copper(II) complex is reported for the first time. The simple protonation of a carboxylic group in a Cu(II) complex with a {dx(2)-y(2)}(1) electronic configuration leads to a flip of the ground electronic configuration from {dx(2)-y(2)}(1) to {dz(2)}(1) in the metal ion.
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Cross-Approximate Entropy parallel computation on GPUs for biomedical signal analysis. Application to MEG recordings.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Cross-Approximate Entropy (Cross-ApEn) is a useful measure to quantify the statistical dissimilarity of two time series. In spite of the advantage of Cross-ApEn over its one-dimensional counterpart (Approximate Entropy), only a few studies have applied it to biomedical signals, mainly due to its high computational cost. In this paper, we propose a fast GPU-based implementation of the Cross-ApEn that makes feasible its use over a large amount of multidimensional data. The scheme followed is fully scalable, thus maximizes the use of the GPU despite of the number of neural signals being processed. The approach consists in processing many trials or epochs simultaneously, with independence of its origin. In the case of MEG data, these trials can proceed from different input channels or subjects. The proposed implementation achieves an average speedup greater than 250× against a CPU parallel version running on a processor containing six cores. A dataset of 30 subjects containing 148 MEG channels (49 epochs of 1024 samples per channel) can be analyzed using our development in about 30min. The same processing takes 5 days on six cores and 15 days when running on a single core. The speedup is much larger if compared to a basic sequential Matlab(®) implementation, that would need 58 days per subject. To our knowledge, this is the first contribution of Cross-ApEn measure computation using GPUs. This study demonstrates that this hardware is, to the day, the best option for the signal processing of biomedical data with Cross-ApEn.
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Behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli, non-O157-shiga toxin-producing E. coli, enteroinvasive E. coli, enteropathogenic E. coli and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains on mung bean seeds and sprout.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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The behavior of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), non-O157 shiga toxin-producing E. coli (non-O157-STEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) and enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C and during germination and sprouting of mung bean seeds at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C and on mung bean sprouts at 3±2 °C was determined. When mung bean seeds were inoculated with EAEC, non-O157 STEC, EIEC, EPEC or ETEC strains, all these diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes (DEPs) survived at least 90 days on mung bean seeds at 25±2 °C. All DEPs grew during germination and sprouting of seeds, reaching counts of approximately 5 Log and 7 Log CFU/g after 2 days at 20±2 ° and 30±2 °C, respectively. However, when the sprouts were inoculated after 1 day of seeds germination and stored at 20±2 ° or 30±2 °C, no growth was observed for any DEPs during sprouting at 20±2 °C per 9 d; however, a significant increase in the concentration of DEPs of approximately 0.7 log CFU/g was observed during sprouting at 30±2 °C after 1 day of sprout contamination. Refrigeration reduced the number of viable DEPs strains on sprouts after 10 days in storage; nevertheless, these decreases have no practical significance in the safety of the sprouts.
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Clinical benefit for patients with non-small cell lung cancer enrolled in phase I trials.
Onkologie
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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To analyze the clinical features and outcomes of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated in phase I trials.
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Frequency and correlation of some enteric indicator bacteria and Salmonella in ready-to-eat raw vegetable salads from Mexican restaurants.
J. Food Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Data about Salmonella presence in ready-to-eat raw vegetable salads (REVS) consumed in restaurants or sold as REVS in México is not available. The objective of the study was to measure the frequency of coliform bacteria (CB), fecal coliform (FC), Escherichia coli, and Salmonella in REVS from different types of restaurants and determine the correlations of CB, FC, and E. coli versus Salmonella from frequencies and concentration data. The REVS were purchased from 3 types of restaurants: national chain restaurants (A1 , A2 ); local restaurants (B1 , B2 ); and small restaurants in local markets (C1 , C2 , C3 ). Two restaurants for each A and B, and 3 for C, were included. Forty REVS were purchased at each A and B restaurant, and 20 at each C restaurant. CB were tested by plate count using violet red bile agar, FC and E. coli were detected by the most probable number method and E. coli confirmed using IMViC test; conventional method of culture was used for Salmonella. Of 220 analyzed samples, 100% had CB, 95.5% had FC, 83.2% had E. coli, and 6.8% had Salmonella. E. coli frequency was equal to or exceeded 75% in all the cases: 75% (A1 , C1 , C2 ), 80% (B2 ), 85% (B1 , C3 ), and 100% (A2 ). Salmonella frequency was equal to or exceeded 2.5% in all cases: 2.5% (A1 ), 5% (B2 , C2 ), 7.5% (B1 ), and 10% (A2 , C1 , C3 ). No correlation was observed between FC or E. coli versus Salmonella in the analyzed salads. All the tested salads were of poor quality microbiologically, and microbiological quality did not differ between the restaurants types.
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Electrical bistability around room temperature in an unprecedented one-dimensional coordination magnetic polymer.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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The synthesis, crystal structure, and physical properties of an unprecedented one-dimensional (1D) coordination polymer containing [Fe2(S2C6H2Cl2)4](2-) entities bridged by dicationic [K2(?-H2O)2(THF)4](2+) units are described. The magnetic properties show that the title compound presents pairwise Fe-Fe antiferromagnetic interactions that can be well reproduced with a S = 1/2 dimer model with an exchange coupling, J = -23 cm(-1). The electrical conductivity measurements show that the title compound is a semiconductor with an activation energy of about 290 meV and two different transitions, both with large hysteresis of about 60 and 30 K at 260-320 K and 350-380 K, respectively. These two transitions are assumed to be due to slight structural changes in the cation-anion interactions. Differential Scanning Calorimetry confirms the presence of both transitions. This compound represents the first sample of a coordination polymer showing electrical bistability.
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Coordination chemistry of 6-thioguanine derivatives with cobalt: toward formation of electrical conductive one-dimensional coordination polymers.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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In this work we have synthetized and characterized by X-ray diffraction five cobalt complexes with 6-thioguanine (6-ThioGH), 6-thioguanosine (6-ThioGuoH), or 2-deoxy-6-thioguanosine (2-d-6-ThioGuoH) ligands. In all cases, these ligands coordinate to cobalt via N7 and S6 forming a chelate ring. However, independently of reagents ratio, 6-ThioGH provided monodimensional cobalt(II) coordination polymers, in which the 6-ThioG(-) acts as bridging ligand. However, for 2-d-6-ThioGuoH and 6-ThioGuoH, the structure directing effect of the sugar residue gives rise to mononuclear cobalt complexes which form extensive H-bond interactions to generate 3D supramolecular networks. Furthermore, with 2-d-6-ThioGuoH the cobalt ion remains in the divalent state, whereas with 6-ThioGuoH oxidation occurs and Co(III) is found. The electrical and magnetic properties of the coordination polymers isolated have been studied and the results discussed with the aid of DFT calculations, in the context of molecular wires.
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Escherichia coli O157 in ground beef from local retail markets in Pachuca, Mexico.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Escherichia coli O157 strains have been recognized as pathogenic bacteria, of which raw beef is a known vehicle. An evaluation was done of the presence of E. coli O157 in ground beef from local retail markets in Pachuca, Hidalgo State, Mexico. A total of 120 ground beef samples (500 g) were tested for E. coli O157 by simultaneous application of the U. S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)s Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook culture procedure 5.05, and two commercial kits, Reveal for E. coli O157:H7 and Visual Immunoprecipitate Assay (VIP) Gold for enterohemorrhagic E. coli. Two incubation times (8 and 20 h) were used with the commercial kits. Presence of stx1, stx2, and eaeA loci was determined by multiplex PCR. Of 360 subsamples (120 per procedure), 12 samples were found to be E. coli O157 positive by the FSIS culture method. With VIP, 73 subsamples were presumptive positive after 8 h of enrichment, and 60 were presumptive positive after 20 h of enrichment. Of these, only 6 (8 h) and 8 (20 h) subsamples were confirmed true positives with the FSIS method. With Reveal, 60 subsamples were presumptive positive after 8 h of enrichment and 50 were presumptive positive after 20 h of enrichment. Of these, only 6 (8 h) and 8 (20 h) subsamples were confirmed as true positives with the FSIS method. A total of 57 E. coli O157:H7 and 21 E. coli O157 strains were isolated. None of the O157 or O157:H7 strains had stx1 or stx2 loci, and only one had the eaeA locus. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of E. coli O157 in commercial ground beef from Mexico, and the first report of isolation of a large number of stx-negative E. coli O157 and E. coli O157:H7 strains in Mexico.
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[High risk infective endocarditis embolism during pregnancy: Medical or surgical management?].
Arch Cardiol Mex
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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A 22-year-old pregnant woman was seen at 14 weeks of pregnancy for infective endocarditis with a vegetation of 15mm and wide mobility, which affected the native mitral valve accompanied by severe valvular insufficiency. Antibiotic treatment was given for 4 weeks despite the embolism risk. Due to persistence of vegetation size and after considering the fetal and maternal risk, the surgical procedure was favored. We decided to perform valvuloplasty and removal of lesion at 18 weeks of pregnancy. Fetal protection techniques were used and a bioprosthesis was placed before attempting a repair. The postoperative follow-up was satisfactory, achieving a successful birth by cesarean section at 30 weeks.
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Pomaglumetad methionil: no significant difference as an adjunctive treatment for patients with prominent negative symptoms of schizophrenia compared to placebo.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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This study tested whether treatment with pomaglumetad methionil (LY2140023 monohydrate), a metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 agonist compared with placebo (PBO), when added to a fixed-dose second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) demonstrated significantly greater reduction of negative symptoms, as assessed by the 16-item Negative Symptom Assessment scale (NSA-16), in patients with schizophrenia. This parallel-group, 16-week study enrolled adults with schizophrenia who were receiving standard of care (SOC) therapy, which included ?3months treatment with one of four SGAs: aripiprazole, olanzapine, risperidone, or quetiapine. Patients received either 20mg of twice daily LY2140023 monohydrate (LY2140023) or concurrent PBO SGA. The primary efficacy measure was change from baseline to final visit in NSA-16 total score. Secondary measures included additional measures of efficacy, cognition, and assessments of safety. Of 352 patients screened, 167 were randomly assigned to treatment, and 110 patients completed the study. Patients treated with LY2140023 and SOC failed to demonstrate a statistically significant improvement over patients treated with PBO and SOC on NSA-16 total score at endpoint or at any point during the study (all p>0.131). Changes in secondary efficacy measures were not significantly different between groups at endpoint. With the exception of vomiting which was greater in the LY2140023 group, there were no statistically significant differences in safety and tolerability measures. This study found no benefit of adjunctive LY2140023 versus PBO for negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia receiving treatment with SOC. LY2140023 was generally well-tolerated in these patients.
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Efficacy and safety of olanzapine for treatment of patients with bipolar depression: Japanese subpopulation analysis of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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The efficacy and safety of olanzapine monotherapy are evaluated in Japanese patients from a large, global study of bipolar depression.
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[Role of high-throughput sequencing in oncology].
Bull Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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New sequencing technologies are one of the most important technical advances in biology in the last 10 years. These technologies allow sequencing millions of DNA fragments in parallel, covering billions of bases in a short period of time. These techniques allowed discovering millions of variants, which functional and clinical value rest yet to be confirmed. This technology allows us to search new constitutional and somatic mutations in various samples in a short time. The complexity of data interpretation and size of data as well as the important investment needed to implement make these technologies to be present only in big institutions. The objective of this article is to present the different techniques, their associated technologies and to discuss their current applications.
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Intrinsic electrical conductivity of nanostructured metal-organic polymer chains.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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One-dimensional conductive polymers are attractive materials because of their potential in flexible and transparent electronics. Despite years of research, on the macro- and nano-scale, structural disorder represents the major hurdle in achieving high conductivities. Here we report measurements of highly ordered metal-organic nanoribbons, whose intrinsic (defect-free) conductivity is found to be 10(4) S m(-1), three orders of magnitude higher than that of our macroscopic crystals. This magnitude is preserved for distances as large as 300 nm. Above this length, the presence of structural defects (~ 0.5%) gives rise to an inter-fibre-mediated charge transport similar to that of macroscopic crystals. We provide the first direct experimental evidence of the gapless electronic structure predicted for these compounds. Our results postulate metal-organic molecular wires as good metallic interconnectors in nanodevices.
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Tetramethyl-bis(ethylenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene (TM-BEDT-TTF) revisited: crystal structures, chiroptical properties, theoretical calculations, and a complete series of conducting radical cation salts.
Chirality
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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The (S,S,S,S) and (R,R,R,R) enantiomers of tetramethyl-bis(ethylenedithio)-tetrathiafulvalene (TM-BEDT-TTF) show equatorial conformation for the four methyl groups in the solid state, according to the single-crystal X-ray analyses. Theoretical calculations at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD) DFT levels indicate higher gas phase stability for the axial conformer than the equatorial one by 1.25 kcal ? mole?¹ and allow the assignment of the UV-vis and circular dichroism transitions. A complete series of radical cation salts of 1:1 stoichiometry with the triiodide anion I?? was obtained by electrocrystallization of both enantiopure and racemic forms of the donor. In the packing the donors are organized in dimers that further interact through S ? ? ? S intermolecular contacts and the triiodide anions lie parallel to pairs of oxidized donors. The conductivity of the racemate, which adopts the same, but disordered, structural type, is considerably lower, with much higher activation energy.
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No association between perception of family functioning and treatment modality for chronic renal disease secondary to diabetes mellitus.
Actas Esp Psiquiatr
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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This work was undertaken with the aim of studying the association between perception of family functioning and mode of medical treatment in Mexicans between 40 and 65 years whose suffer from chronic kidney disease.
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No Direct Association among Respiratory Function, Disease Control and Family Functioning in a Sample of Mexican Children with Intermittent Asthma.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Asthma has been linked to family disfunctioning and poor control of the disease.This study was conducted to analyze the interactions between the level of intermittent asthma control, family functioning and respiratory function and between quality of life of asthmatic patients and their caregivers.7 to 15 years old children with intermittent asthma were included. Asthma Control Test Questionnaire, Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) test, and flowmetry were applied to children and Pediatric Asthma Caregiver´s Quatily of Life Questionnaire (PAQCLQ) and the Family Functioning Perception Test (FF-SIL) were applied to their parents.The most affected areas of family functioning in dysfunctional families were adaptability and permeability. A medium to high strength of association was founded between the emotional function of parents and the emotional function of children, R2=0.552. The most remarkable associations were among parents limitation of activities and parents emotional function (r=0.837), parents limitation of activities and childs emotional function (r=0.722), parents emotional role and limitation of activities (r=0.837), parents emotional role and emotional functioning of children with asthma (r=0.743) and the limitation of activities of children with asthma and the emotional function of children with asthma (r=0.870).No direct associations were founded among respiratory function, disease control and family functioning in Mexican children with intermittent asthma and emotional function of parents and children were associated in both groups.
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Cystatin C and albuminuria as predictors of long-term allograft outcomes in kidney transplant recipients.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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Although cystatin C (Cys) and albuminuria (Alb) are predictors of end-stage renal disease in the general population, there are limited data about the performance of these markers alone or combined with respect to the prediction of the kidney transplant outcome. We assessed the ability of one-yr creatinine (Cr), MDRD equation, Cys, Hoek equation, Alb, the logarithm of albuminuria (LogAlb), and two products of these variables for predicting death-censored graft loss (DCGL) in 127 kidney transplant recipients. Mean follow-up time was 5.6 ± 1.7 yr. During this time, 18 patients developed DCGL. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for DCGL ranged from 71.1% to 85.4%, with Cys*LogAlb being the best predictor. Cys-based variables and variables combining LogAlb and renal function estimates have better discrimination ability than Cr-based variables alone. After multivariate analysis, quartiles of all one-yr variables (except of Cr and MDRD) were independent predictors for DCGL. Predictors combining Alb and a Cr- or Cys-based estimate of renal function performed better than those markers alone to predict DCGL. Cys-based predictors performed better than Cr-based predictors. Using a double-marker in kidney transplantation, it is possible to identify the highest risk group in which to prioritize specialty care.
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Solvent-induced delamination of a multifunctional two dimensional coordination polymer.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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A coordination polymer is fully exfoliated by solvent-assisted interaction only. The soft-delamination process results from the structure of the starting material, which shows a layered structure with weak layer-to-layer interactions and cavities with the ability to locate several solvents in an unselective way. These results represent a significant step forward towards the production of structurally designed one-molecule thick 2D materials with tailored physico-chemical properties.
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Coordination polymers containing manganese(II)-azido layers connected by dipyridyl-tetrazine and 4,4-azobis(pyridine) linkers.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Two new polynuclear manganese(II) complexes [Mn(dptz)(N(3))(2)](n) (1) and [Mn(azpy)(N(3))(2)](n) (2) (where dptz = dipyridyl-tetrazine and azpy = 4,4-azobis(pyridine)) have been synthesized by self-assembly of the ligand azide, together with dptz and azpy as secondary spacers. The compounds are characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses and variable-temperature magnetic measurements. The structural analyses reveal that in complex 1, which is the first reported Mn(II) complex with the ligand dptz, two ?(1,3) bridging azides connect neighboring manganese ions in a zigzag manner to generate a neutral two-dimensional (2D) sheet which is further connected by the dptz ligands to form a three-dimensional (3D) framework. By contrast, complex 2 contains dimeric [Mn(2)(?(1,1)-N(3))(2)](2+) fragments linked to four identical motifs by means of four single ?(1,3)-N(3) bridges, that generates a neutral 2D Mn(II)-azide sheet which is further interconnected by azpy ligands to neighboring manganese ions forming an unprecedented 3D network. Variable-temperature (2-300 K) magnetic susceptibility measurements show the presence of predominantly antiferromagnetic coupling for both complexes that has been reproduced with a regular antiferromagnetic S = 5/2 chain (J) with interchain interactions (j) modeled with the molecular field approximation with J = -7.1 cm(-1) and j = -0.8 cm(-1) for 1 and J = -4.2 cm(-1) and j = 0.1 cm(-1) for 2.
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