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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mediterranean diet and non-fatal acute myocardial infarction: a case-control study from Italy.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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To add epidemiological data on the association of adherence to the Mediterranean diet with non-fatal acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a Southern European population.
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Smoking and body mass index and survival in pancreatic cancer patients.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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The objective of this study was to provide further information on the role of personal characteristics and lifestyle factors, including obesity, diabetes, and tobacco smoking, on survival from pancreatic cancer.
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Allium vegetable intake and gastric cancer: A case-control study and meta-analysis.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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To provide new epidemiological data and summarize evidence on the association between allium vegetable intake and gastric cancer risk.
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Gastric cancer and allium vegetable intake: a critical review of the experimental and epidemiologic evidence.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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There are suggestions of an anticancerogenic effect of allium vegetables and their associated organosulfur components against several cancer types, including gastric cancer, but the issue remains open to discussion and quantification. The present critical review discussed the history, the health properties, the chemistry, the anticancerogenic evidences from experimental studies, and the anticancer mechanisms of allium vegetables. We also summarized findings from epidemiological studies concerning the association between different types of allium vegetables and gastric cancer risk, published up to date. Available data, derived mainly from case-control studies, suggested a favorable role of high intakes of allium vegetables, mainly garlic and onion, in the etiology of gastric cancer. In particular, of 10 studies, 7 suggested a favorable role of high intake of total allium vegetables and gastric cancer. All 14 studies on garlic and most studies on onion (more than 80%) reported a beneficial role of these allium types against gastric cancer. However several limitations, including possible publication bias and the difficulty to establish a dose-risk relationship, suggest caution in the interpretation. Evidences on other types of allium vegetables, as well as on the influence of different gastric cancer anatomical and histological types, are less consistent.
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Impact of air pollution on respiratory diseases in children with recurrent wheezing or asthma.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Air pollution has many negative health effects on the general population, especially children, subjects with underlying chronic disease and the elderly. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of traffic-related pollution on the exacerbation of asthma and development of respiratory infections in Italian children suffering from asthma or wheezing compared with healthy subjects and to estimate the association between incremental increases in principal pollutants and the incidence of respiratory symptoms.
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Colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps in relation to allium vegetables intake: a meta-analysis of observational studies.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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To provide updated quantitative estimates of the associations between allium vegetables intake and risk of colorectal cancer and colorectal adenomatous polyps.
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Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load and risk of age-related cataract extraction: a case-control study in Italy.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Although a role of glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) in age-related cataract development is plausible, a few studies, all conducted in USA or Australia, provided results on this issue. The aim of the present study was to provide new original data from a Mediterranean population.
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Folate intake and the risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancer: A pooled analysis within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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There are suggestions of an inverse association between folate intake and serum folate levels and the risk of oral cavity and pharyngeal cancers (OPCs), but most studies are limited in sample size, with only few reporting information on the source of dietary folate. Our study aims to investigate the association between folate intake and the risk of OPC within the International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium. We analyzed pooled individual-level data from ten case-control studies participating in the INHANCE consortium, including 5,127 cases and 13,249 controls. Odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated for the associations between total folate intake (natural, fortification and supplementation) and natural folate only, and OPC risk. We found an inverse association between total folate intake and overall OPC risk (the adjusted OR for the highest vs. the lowest quintile was 0.65, 95% CI: 0.43-0.99), with a stronger association for oral cavity (OR?=?0.57, 95% CI: 0.43-0.75). A similar inverse association, though somewhat weaker, was observed for folate intake from natural sources only in oral cavity cancer (OR?=?0.64, 95% CI: 0.45-0.91). The highest OPC risk was observed in heavy alcohol drinkers with low folate intake as compared to never/light drinkers with high folate (OR?=?4.05, 95% CI: 3.43-4.79); the attributable proportion (AP) owing to interaction was 11.1% (95% CI: 1.4-20.8%). Lastly, we reported an OR of 2.73 (95% CI:2.34-3.19) for those ever tobacco users with low folate intake, compared with nevere tobacco users and high folate intake (AP of interaction =10.6%, 95% CI: 0.41-20.8%). Our project of a large pool of case-control studies supports a protective effect of total folate intake on OPC risk.
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Ventilator-associated pneumonia in an Italian pediatric intensive care unit: a prospective study.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence, risk factors and outcomes associated with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in a European pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).
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Dietary glycemic index, glycemic load, and the risk of endometrial cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Carbohydrates and the dietary glycemic index (GI) influence insulin secretion and insulin-like growth factors, and may exert relevant effects on obesity and diabetes, both of which are important risk factors for endometrial cancer. We studied the association between dietary GI and glycemic load (GL) and endometrial cancer using data from an Italian case-control study. This included 454 women with histologically confirmed endometrial cancer and 908 controls admitted to the same hospitals for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. Multivariate odds ratios were obtained after allowance for major potential confounding factors, including noncarbohydrate energy intake. We updated a meta-analysis on this issue, including a recent US cohort study, which contributed about a quarter of all cases, besides our case-control study. In the case-control study, the odds ratios of endometrial cancer for the highest versus the lowest quintile were 1.03 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67-1.58] for GI and 1.01 (95% CI: 0.64-1.61) for GL. No heterogeneity was found across the strata of diabetes and other selected covariates. The summary risk estimate of endometrial cancer for the highest versus the lowest GI level, obtained from the meta-analysis, was 1.09 (95% CI: 0.92-1.29). The corresponding risk estimate for GL was 1.19 (95% CI: 1.06-1.34). The case-control study showed no association between dietary GI and GL and the risk of endometrial cancer overall and in the strata of relevant covariates, whereas the meta-analysis supported an increased risk for high GL, but not GI.
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Clinical profile of recurrent community-acquired pneumonia in children.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2013
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The aim of this case-control study was to analyse the clinical characteristics of children with recurrent community-acquired pneumonia (rCAP) affecting different lung areas (DLAs) and compare them with those of children who have never experienced CAP in order to contribute to identifying the best approach to such patients.
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Association between radiological findings and severity of community-acquired pneumonia in children.
Ital J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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There are few published data concerning radiological findings and their relationship with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) severity. The aim if this study was to assess radiographic findings in children with CAP of different severity in order to evaluate whether some parameters are associated with severe CAP.
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Personal hair dye use and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Despite considerable research, the issue of hair dyes and bladder cancer is still open to discussion. In January 2013, we searched in PubMed/EMBASE to identify observational studies investigating the association between personal use of hair dyes and bladder cancer incidence/mortality. Pooled relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random-effects models. Fifteen case-control and two cohort studies were available for meta-analysis (8504 cases/deaths, 14,102 controls, and 617,937 persons at risk). Compared with no use, the pooled RR of bladder cancer for personal use of any type of hair dyes was 0.93 (95% CI, 0.82-1.05), with moderate heterogeneity among studies (I(2) = 34.1%, P = .07). Similar RRs were found for females (RR = 0.95) and males (RR = 0.81). Based on seven studies, the pooled RR for personal use of permanent hair dyes was 0.92 (95% CI, 0.77-1.09). Compared with no use, no association was observed for the highest categories of duration of use and lifetime frequency of use of both any type of dyes and permanent dyes. The pooled RR from four studies reporting results for use of dark-colored dyes was 1.29 (95% CI, 0.98-1.71). This meta-analysis allows to definitively exclude any appreciable excess risk of bladder cancer among personal hair dye users.
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A meta-analysis of prospective studies of coffee consumption and mortality for all causes, cancers and cardiovascular diseases.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Several prospective studies considered the relation between coffee consumption and mortality. Most studies, however, were underpowered to detect an association, since they included relatively few deaths. To obtain quantitative overall estimates, we combined all published data from prospective studies on the relation of coffee with mortality for all causes, all cancers, cardiovascular disease (CVD), coronary/ischemic heart disease (CHD/IHD) and stroke. A bibliography search, updated to January 2013, was carried out in PubMed and Embase to identify prospective observational studies providing quantitative estimates on mortality from all causes, cancer, CVD, CHD/IHD or stroke in relation to coffee consumption. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate overall relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. The pooled RRs of all cause mortality for the study-specific highest versus low (?1 cup/day) coffee drinking categories were 0.88 (95 % CI 0.84-0.93) based on all the 23 studies, and 0.87 (95 % CI 0.82-0.93) for the 19 smoking adjusting studies. The combined RRs for CVD mortality were 0.89 (95 % CI 0.77-1.02, 17 smoking adjusting studies) for the highest versus low drinking and 0.98 (95 % CI 0.95-1.00, 16 studies) for the increment of 1 cup/day. Compared with low drinking, the RRs for the highest consumption of coffee were 0.95 (95 % CI 0.78-1.15, 12 smoking adjusting studies) for CHD/IHD, 0.95 (95 % CI 0.70-1.29, 6 studies) for stroke, and 1.03 (95 % CI 0.97-1.10, 10 studies) for all cancers. This meta-analysis provides quantitative evidence that coffee intake is inversely related to all cause and, probably, CVD mortality.
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Localised thoracic sarcomas: outcome improvement over time at a single institution.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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To assess changes in survival over time in patients affected by thoracic soft tissue sarcomas treated at a single institution.
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Pet exposure and risk of atopic dermatitis at the pediatric age: a meta-analysis of birth cohort studies.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Findings on pet exposure and the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) in children are inconsistent.
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Dietary total antioxidant capacity and colorectal cancer: a large case-control study in Italy.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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A favorable role of fruit and vegetables on colorectal cancer risk has been related to the antioxidant properties of their components. We used data from an Italian case-control study including 1,953 patients with incident, histologically confirmed colorectal cancer (1,225 colon and 728 rectal cancers). Controls were 4,154 patients admitted to hospital for acute, non-neoplastic conditions. A reproducible and valid food frequency questionnaire was used to assess subjects usual diet. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was measured using Italian food composition tables in terms of ferric reducing-antioxidant power (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP). We estimated the odds ratios (ORs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) through multiple logistic regression models, including terms for potential confounding factors, and energy intake. TAC was inversely related with colorectal cancer risk: the OR for the highest versus the lowest quintile was 0.68 (95% CI, 0.57-0.82) for FRAP, 0.69 (95% CI, 0.57-0.83) for TEAC and 0.69 (95% CI, 0.57-0.83) for TRAP. Corresponding values, excluding TAC deriving from coffee, were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.61-0.93) for FRAP, 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.93) for TEAC and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.57-0.89) for TRAP. The inverse association was apparently-though not significantly-stronger for rectal than for colon cancer. This is the first case-control study indicating consistent inverse relations between dietary TAC and colorectal cancer risk.
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Antibody response of healthy children to pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza virus.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2011
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Little is known about the proportion of pediatric pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza cases who showed seroconversion, the magnitude of this seroconversion, or the factors that can affect the antibody level evoked by the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 influenza. Aims of this study were to analyse antibody responses and the factors associated with high antibody titres in a cohort of children with naturally acquired A/H1N1/2009 influenza infection confirmed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
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Immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in children and adolescents with Williams or Cornelia De Lange syndrome.
Hum Vaccin
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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In some subjects with severe neurological diseases, a reduced immune response to seasonal influenza vaccine has been demonstrated. Patients with Williams or Cornelia de Lange syndrome frequently have abnormalities in neurodevelopment. This study has evaluated the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of a monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in these subjects. Eighteen patients with Williams syndrome (ten males; mean age ± standard deviation [SD] 12.74 ± 4.49 years), 11 with Cornelia de Lange syndrome (six males; mean age 12.90 ± 4.85 years) and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (16 males; mean age 12.49 ± 4.55 years), never vaccinated against influenza, received a dose of the vaccine between 1 and 30 November 2009. Four weeks later, the seroconversion rates in the three groups were between 72% and 80% and the seroprotection rates were 100%, with a similar increase in antibody levels. Two months later, most of the subjects remained seroconverted with no statistically significant difference between the groups, and about 94% of the patients with Williams syndrome, all of those with Cornelia de Lange syndrome and all of the healthy controls were still seroprotected. Safety and tolerability were very good, with no difference between the groups. None of the patients developed documented influenza during the study period. These results show that the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of a single dose of the monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in children and adolescents with Williams or Cornelia de Lange syndrome and moderate to severe mental disabilities is very good, and similar to that of healthy subjects.
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Immunogenicity and safety of intradermal influenza vaccine in children.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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In order to compare the immunogenicity and safety of different doses of trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) administered intradermallly (ID) with those evoked by a full dose of intramuscular (IM) virosomal-adjuvanted influenza vaccine (VA-TIV), 112 previously primed healthy children aged ? 3 years were randomised to receive 9 ?g or 15 ?g of each strain of ID-TIV, or a full IM dose (15 ?g of each strain) of VA-TIV. The A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 seroconversion and seroprotection rates were ? 90% and geometric mean titres (GMTs) increased 3.2-14.9 times without any statistically significant between-group differences; however, the seroconversion and seroprotection rates against the B strain were significantly higher in the children receiving either ID-TIV dose (p<0.05) without any differences between them. GMT against B virus was significantly higher in the children receiving the highest dose (p<0.05). Local reactions were significantly more common among the children receiving either ID-TIV dose (p<0.05), but systemic reactions were relatively uncommon in all three groups. Our findings suggest that ID-TIV with 15 ?g of each viral antigen can confer a significant better protection against influenza than that obtained with the same dose of IM TIV in already primed children aged ? 3 years with an acceptable safety profile. The lower dose of ID-TIV needs further evaluation to analyze persistence of protection.
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Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea, and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled-analysis of two Italian case-control studies.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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To evaluate the association between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption and pancreatic cancer risk in a pooled analysis of two Italian case-control studies, between 1983 and 2008, we conducted two case-control studies in Northern Italy, including a total of 688 pancreatic cancer cases and 2204 hospital controls with acute, non-neoplastic diseases. We computed multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for coffee drinking (mostly espresso and mocha), adjusting for age, sex, center, year of interview, education, body mass index, tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and diabetes. Compared with coffee nondrinkers, the multivariate OR for coffee drinkers was 1.34 (95% CI: 1.01-1.77). However, there was no trend in risk with respect to dose and duration. The OR for an increment of one cup per day was 1.05 (95% CI: 0.98-1.11). There was no heterogeneity in strata of age, sex, and other covariates, including tobacco smoking. No association emerged for decaffeinated coffee (for drinkers the OR was 0.87, 95% CI: 0.60-1.26, compared with decaffeinated coffee nondrinkers) or tea (for tea drinkers the OR was 0.92, 95% CI: 0.75-1.14). The lack of relationship with dose and duration weighs against a causal association between coffee and pancreatic cancer, which is in agreement with most evidence on the issue.
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Knowledge of oxygen administration, aerosol medicine, and chest physiotherapy among pediatric healthcare workers in Italy.
J Aerosol Med Pulm Drug Deliv
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Oxygen administration, aerosol devices and drugs, or the use of chest physiotherapy are common practices in pediatrics; however, little is known about the knowledge of pediatric healthcare workers concerning the right utilization of these tools. The aim of this study was to fill this gap as a preliminary step in the implementation of appropriate educational programs.
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Pandemic influenza A/H1N1 vaccine administered sequentially or simultaneously with seasonal influenza vaccine to HIV-infected children and adolescents.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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In order to evaluate the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of the 2009 A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine administered sequentially or simultaneously with seasonal virosomal-adjuvanted influenza vaccine to HIV-infected children and adolescents, 36 HIV-infected children and adolescents, and 36 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were randomised 1:1 to receive the pandemic vaccine upon enrollment and the seasonal vaccine one month later, or to receive the pandemic and seasonal vaccines simultaneously upon enrollment. Seroconversion and seroprotection rates against the pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus were 100% two months after vaccine administration in both groups, regardless of the sequence of administration. Geometric mean titres against pandemic and seasonal antigens were significantly higher when the seasonal and pandemic vaccines were administered simultaneously than when the seasonal vaccine was administered alone. Local and systemic reactions were mild and not increased by simultaneous administration. In conclusion, the 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine is as immunogenic, safe and well tolerated in HIV-infected children and adolescents as in healthy controls. Its simultaneous administration with virosomal-adjuvanted seasonal antigens seems to increase immune response to both pandemic and seasonal viruses with the same safety profile as that of the pandemic vaccine alone. However, because this finding cannot be clearly explained by an immunological viewpoint, further studies are needed to clarify the reasons of its occurrence.
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An open-label, randomized clinical trial assessing immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine administered sequentially or simultaneously with seasonal virosomal-adjuvanted influenza vaccine to paediatric
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2010
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The aim of this study was to investigate the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of the 2009 A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted influenza vaccine, administered sequentially or simultaneously with the seasonal 2009-10 virosomal-adjuvanted influenza vaccine, to paediatric kidney transplant recipients.
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Altered cardiac rhythm in infants with bronchiolitis and respiratory syncytial virus infection.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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Although the most frequent extra-pulmonary manifestations of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection involve the cardiovascular system, no data regarding heart function in infants with bronchiolitis associated with RSV infection have yet been systematically collected. The aim of this study was to verify the real frequency of heart involvement in patients with bronchiolitis associated with RSV infection, and whether infants with mild or moderate disease also risk heart malfunction.
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Clinical importance and impact on the households of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A/H1N1 influenza virus in healthy children in Italy.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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A resistance of A/H1N1 influenza viruses to oseltamivir has recently emerged in a number of countries. However, the clinical and socioeconomic importance of this resistance has not been precisely defined. As children have the highest incidence of influenza infection and are at high risk of severe disease, the aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical importance and the impact on the households of oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A/H1N1 influenza virus in an otherwise healthy pediatric population. A total of 4,726 healthy children younger than 15 years with influenza-like illness were tested for influenza viruses by real-time polymerase chain reaction in the winters of 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 in Italy. The influenza A virus-positive samples underwent neuraminidase gene analysis using pyrosequencing to identify mutations H275Y and N294 S in A/H1N1, and E119V, R292K, and N294 S in A/H3N2. Among the A/H1N1 subtypes, the H275Y mutation was found in 2/126 samples taken in 2007-2008 (1.6%) and in all 17 samples (100%; p < 0.0001) taken in 2008-2009. No other mutation was identified in any of the A/H1N1 or A/H3N2 influenza viruses. No significant differences were found in terms of clinical importance or impact on the households between the children with oseltamivir-resistant seasonal A/H1N1 influenza virus and those with the wild-type. The spread of H275Y-mutated A/H1N1 seasonal influenza virus is a common phenomenon and the clinical importance and impact on the households of the mutated virus is similar to that of the wild-type in an otherwise healthy pediatric population.
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Immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in patients with ?-thalassemia major.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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In order to evaluate the immunogenicity, safety, and tolerability of monovalent 2009 pandemic influenza A/H1N1 MF59-adjuvanted vaccine in patients with ?-thalassemia major, 31 subjects (19 males; mean age 17.8±8.7 years) with ?-thalassemia major and 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. Four weeks after vaccination, seroconversion rates were about 80% and seroprotection rates 100% in both groups. Three months after vaccination, most of the subjects remained seroconverted and the seroprotection rates were 93.5% among the patients and 100% among the controls. Safety and tolerability were also very good, with no differences between the groups.
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Knowledge of vaccination of allergic children among Italian primary care pediatricians, hospital pediatricians and pediatric residents.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2010
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A cross-sectional survey of Italian pediatricians and pediatric residents was carried out between 15 September and 18 October 2008 in order to evaluate their knowledge concerning the administration of vaccines to children with suspected or proved allergies. Of the 750 physicians who accepted to participate (620 pediatricians and 130 residents), 630 (84.0%; 407 females; mean age 43.5 ± 11.2 years) returned completed questionnaires: 268 primary care pediatricians (42.5%), 244 hospital pediatricians (38.8%), and 118 pediatric residents (18.7%). Knowledge concerning the vaccination of children with suspected or proved allergies was far from optimal, with the poorest knowledge being shown by the pediatric residents and no difference between the primary care and hospital pediatricians. Since pediatricians are the main parents advisors regarding vaccinations, these results indicate an urgent need for educational programmes (especially for residents) and evidence-based guidelines concerning vaccinations in children with suspected or proved allergies.
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Knowledge of human papillomavirus infection and its prevention among adolescents and parents in the greater Milan area, Northern Italy.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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In order to be widely accepted by users, the implementation of a new health intervention requires them to be adequately informed about its clinical importance, benefits and risks. The aim of this study was to provide data on the knowledge of Italian adolescents and parents concerning human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and its prevention in order to allow the development of adequate training programmes.
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Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of case-control studies.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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A meta-analysis of case-control studies on coffee consumption and colorectal cancer risk was conducted. Twenty-four eligible studies published before May 2010 were identified, including a total of 14,846 cases of colorectal, colon or rectal cancer. Compared to non/occasional drinkers, the odds ratios (OR) for drinkers were 0.83 (95% CI 0.73-0.95) for colorectal, 0.93 (95% CI 0.81-1.07) for colon and 0.98 (95% CI 0.85-1.13) for rectal cancer, with significant heterogeneity among studies; the corresponding ORs for the increment of 1 cup/day were 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.98), 0.95 (95% CI 0.92-0.98), and 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99). For the highest coffee drinkers, the ORs were 0.70 (95% CI 0.60-0.81) for colorectal cancer, 0.75 (95% CI 0.64-0.88) for colon cancer and 0.87 (95% CI 0.75-1.00) for rectal cancer, when compared to non/low drinkers. The results of this meta-analysis of case-control studies suggest a moderate favorable effect of coffee consumption on colorectal cancer risk. The reduced risk was consistent across study design (hospital vs. population based), geographic area, and various confounding factors considered. It may reflect a real protection but also partly or largely be due to reverse causation, i.e. decreased coffee consumption among cases following the onset of bowel symptoms.
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Collection by trained pediatricians or parents of mid-turbinate nasal flocked swabs for the detection of influenza viruses in childhood.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
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This study evaluated the efficiency of pediatric mid-turbinate nasal flocked swabs used by parents in 203 children aged 6 months to 5 years with signs and symptoms of respiratory disease. Two nasal samples were collected from each child in a randomised sequence: one by a trained pediatrician and one by a parent. The real-time polymerase chain reaction influenza virus detection rates were similar in the samples collected using the two methods (Cohens kappa = 0.86), as were the cycle threshold values. In comparison with the pediatrician-collected samples, the sensitivity and specificity of the parental collections were respectively 89.3% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 77.8-100%) and 97.7% (95% CI: 95.5-100%), and the positive and negative predictive values were respectively 86.2% (95% CI: 73.7-95.1%) and 98.2% (95% CI: 96.4-100%). The children were significantly more satisfied with the parental collections (median values +/- standard deviation, 1.59 +/- 0.55 vs 3.51 +/- 0.36; p < 0.0001). These findings show that mid-turbinate nasal flocked swabs specifically designed for infants and children can be used by parents without reducing the influenza virus detection rate. Moreover, the direct involvement of parents significantly increases patient acceptance, thus simplifying collection and suggesting that this novel swab design should be considered for epidemiological surveys and vaccine efficacy studies.
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Metabolic syndrome, its components and risk of age-related cataract extraction: a case-control study in Italy.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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We sought to explore the relationship between age-related cataract extraction and the metabolic syndrome or its various components separately and in various combinations in an Italian case-control study.
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Survival analysis with clustered observations of orthodontic brackets.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
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Failures in the bonding of dental bracket are a big concern for orthodontists. Clinical experience suggests that some patients are more prone than others to experience failures. Therefore, it can be expected that in statistical analysis of orthodontic bracket failures, the usual assumption of independence between the observations is violated. An approach to overcome this problem is to apply the frailty model, in which the association between failure times is modelled with a random-effect term (i.e. frailty). We postulated that brackets of the same subject share the same frailty, that is, a latent common group effect, due to some unknown or unobserved covariates.The aim of this study was to investigate possible risk factors related to bracket failure using Cox proportional hazards model with a shared frailty term and to compare the results with those obtained using a basic Cox proportional hazards model.Survival data for 1677 brackets were obtained from a cohort of 54 females (mean age +/- SD: 13.3+/-4.8 yrs) and 46 males (mean age +/-SD: 13.1+/-3.8 yrs) over a eight-year period. Age, gender, vertical craniofacial morphology and anatomical location of brackets were entered into Cox models as covariates. The findings indicated that bracket failure was significantly affected by tooth position within the dental arch, with the highest failure risk in maxillary posterior region. Age, gender and vertical craniofacial morphology did not affect bracket failure. A Cox proportional hazards model with a shared frailty term represents a useful approach for modelling orthodontic bracket failures.
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Allium vegetables intake and endometrial cancer risk.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2009
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The potential role of allium vegetables on endometrial cancer risk has been scarcely investigated and the results of previous Chinese studies are not easily applicable to Western populations. Therefore, we evaluated the relationship between onion and garlic intake and endometrial cancer, using data from an Italian case-control study.
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Efficacy of injectable trivalent virosomal-adjuvanted inactivated influenza vaccine in preventing acute otitis media in children with recurrent complicated or noncomplicated acute otitis media.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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Most cases of acute otitis media (AOM) follow an upper respiratory infection due to viruses, including influenza viruses. As effective and safe influenza vaccines are available, their use has been considered among the possible measures of AOM prophylaxis.
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Allium vegetable intake and risk of acute myocardial infarction in Italy.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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Interest in potential benefits of allium vegetables has its origin in antiquity, but the details of these benefits are still open to discussion. Only two epidemiological studies considered the relation between dietary intake of allium vegetables and cardiovascular diseases.
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Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea intake, and risk of renal cell cancer.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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The relation between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea intake and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk was analyzed in a case-control study conducted in Italy between 1992 and 2004. Cases were 767 subjects with incident histologically confirmed RCC and controls were 1,534 patients in hospital for acute non neoplastic conditions. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for RCC were computed by multiple logistic regression models, conditioned on study center, sex, and age. Coffee intake (mostly espresso and mocha) was not associated with RCC risk, with an OR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.73-1.43) in drinkers of > or = 4 cups/day compared with drinkers of < 1 cup/day. The corresponding ORs were 1.34 (95% CI 0.87-2.07) in men and 0.67 (95% CI 0.38-1.18) in women, 1.91 (95% CI 0.85-4.31) in current smokers and 0.74 (95% CI 0.41-1.31) in never smokers, with no trend in risk with dose. No relation was observed with decaffeinated coffee (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 0.94-2.03 for drinkers compared with nondrinkers) and tea intake (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.59-1.05 for drinkers of > or = 1 cup/day compared with nondrinkers). No significant heterogeneity was found for coffee intake across strata of age, education, body mass index, and consumption of sugar. This study, based on a large dataset, provides further evidence that coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption are not related to RCC risk.
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A meta-analysis of coffee and tea consumption and the risk of glioma in adults.
Cancer Causes Control
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Coffee contains many compounds, including antioxidants, which could prevent cancerogenesis, and coffee has been related with lower incidence of cancer at several sites. Tea is also rich in antioxidants, mainly polyphenols. To provide a quantitative overall estimate on the relation between coffee and tea consumption and glioma, we combined all published data, using a meta-analytic approach.
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Effects of experimental occlusal interferences in individuals reporting different levels of wake-time parafunctions.
J Orofac Pain
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To test the hypothesis that the effects of an experimental occlusal interference differ between individuals reporting a high or low frequency of wake-time oral parafunctions.
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Added sugar, glycemic index and load in colon cancer risk.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
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There is a growing body of in-vivo evidences that sucrose-rich diets cause mutations in the rat colon epithelium, with several biological mechanism hypothesized, but epidemiological studies have yielded conflicting results. In order to provide a quantification of the magnitude of the risk of colon cancer for high intake of added sugar, high dietary glycemic index and glycemic load, we performed a meta-analysis based on a systematic review of the literature to date.
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Annual or biennial CT screening versus observation in heavy smokers: 5-year results of the MILD trial.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
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The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT) screening in heavy smokers is currently under evaluation worldwide. Our screening program started with a pilot study on 1035 volunteers in Milan in 2000 and was followed up in 2005 by a randomized trial comparing annual or biennial LDCT with observation, named Multicentric Italian Lung Detection. This included 4099 participants, 1723 randomized to the control group, 1186 to biennial LDCT screening, and 1190 to annual LDCT screening. Follow-up was stopped in November 2011, with 9901 person-years for the pilot study and 17 621 person-years for Multicentric Italian Lung Detection. Forty-nine lung cancers were detected by LDCT (20 in biennial and 29 in the annual arm), of which 17 were identified at baseline examination; 63% were of stage I and 84% were surgically resectable. Stage distribution and resection rates were similar in the two LDCT arms. The cumulative 5-year lung cancer incidence rate was 311/100 000 in the control group, 457 in the biennial, and 620 in the annual LDCT group (P=0.036); lung cancer mortality rates were 109, 109, and 216/100 000 (P=0.21), and total mortality rates were 310, 363, and 558/100 000, respectively (P=0.13). Total mortality in the pilot study was similar to that observed in the annual LDCT arm at 5 years. There was no evidence of a protective effect of annual or biennial LDCT screening. Furthermore, a meta-analysis of the four published randomized trials showed similar overall mortality in the LDCT arms compared with the control arm.
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The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations and prostate cancer risk in the Cancer of the Prostate in Sweden (CAPS) study.
Public Health Nutr
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The Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR) aim at preventing diet-associated diseases such as cancer in the Nordic countries. We evaluated adherence to the NNR in relation to prostate cancer (PC) in Swedish men, including potential interaction with a genetic risk score and with lifestyle factors.
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Probiotics supplementation during pregnancy or infancy for the prevention of atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysis.
Epidemiology
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The study of probiotics to prevent allergic conditions has yielded conflicting results in children. We undertook a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to investigate whether probiotic use during pregnancy and early life decreases the incidence of atopic dermatitis and immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated atopic dermatitis in infants and young children.
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Weight perception among Italian adults, 2006-2010.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
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Underweight, overweight and obesity are associated with increased mortality from several chronic diseases, including cancer. Self body weight misperceptions affect weight control. We monitored weight perception in Italy on a total of 14 135 individuals (6834 men, 7301 women), representative of the Italian adult population with available information on BMI derived by self-reported height and weight. Differences in misperception of body mass index (BMI) categories across subpopulations were analysed using unconditional multiple logistic regression models after adjustment for a number of covariates. Overall, 66.4% of individuals accurately perceived, 21.0% underestimated and 12.6% overestimated their category of BMI. In men, 27.2% underestimated and 5.0% overestimated their BMI category the corresponding estimates for women were 15.3% and 19.6%, respectively. The large majority of underweight (64.3%) and obese individuals (93.1%) overestimated and underestimated their weight, respectively. Overall, 13.5% of Italians misperceived (8.9% underestimated and 4.6% overestimated) their BMI category by more than 2 kg/m. By multivariate analysis, we observed significant differences in terms of sex, education, geographic area, marital status, smoking and drinking habit, year of survey and BMI category. In conclusion, misperception of body weight is frequent in Italy, paralleling findings from other countries with more unfavourable overweight and obesity patterns. The fact that one out of three Italian adults misperceive their weight is of great concern and indicates that media intervention campaigns aimed at explaining measurement and correct interpretation of BMI are required.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.