JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Polygenic Overlap Between Kidney Function and Large Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiological studies show strong associations between kidney dysfunction and risk of ischemic stroke (IS), the mechanisms of which are incompletely understood. We investigated whether these associations may reflect shared heritability because of a common polygenic basis and whether this differed for IS subtypes.
Related JoVE Video
Lionfish, Pterois volitans Linnaeus 1758, the complete mitochondrial DNA of an invasive species.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The lionfish, Pterois volitans, native from the Indo-Pacific, has been found in Atlantic and Caribbean waters and is considered as an invasive species. Here we sequence its mitogenome (Genbank accession number KJ739816), which has a total length of 16,500?bp, and the arrangement consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 22 transfer RNA similar to other Pteroinae subfamily (family Scorpaenidae). This mitogenome will be useful for phylogenetic and population genetic studies of this invasive species.
Related JoVE Video
Subclinical Atherosclerosis Measures for Cardiovascular Prediction in CKD.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Whether inclusion of the coronary artery calcium score improves cardiovascular risk prediction in individuals with CKD, a population with unique calcium-phosphate homeostasis, is unknown. Among 6553 participants ages 45-84 years without prior cardiovascular disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, coronary artery calcium score was assessed for cardiovascular risk prediction beyond the Framingham predictors in those with (n=1284) and without CKD and contrasted with carotid intima-media thickness and ankle-brachial index (two other measures of subclinical atherosclerosis). During a median follow-up of 8.4 years, 650 cardiovascular events (coronary heart disease, stroke, heart failure, and peripheral artery disease) occurred (236 events in subjects with CKD). In Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for Framingham predictors, each subclinical measure was independently associated with cardiovascular outcomes, with larger adjusted hazard ratios (HRs; per 1 SD) for coronary artery calcium score than carotid intima-media thickness or ankle-brachial index in subjects without and with CKD (HR, 1.69; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.45 to 1.97 versus HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.25 and HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.08 to 1.32, respectively). Compared with inclusion of carotid intima-media thickness or ankle-brachial index, inclusion of the coronary artery calcium score led to greater increases in C statistic for predicting cardiovascular disease and net reclassification improvement. Coronary artery calcium score performed best for the prediction of coronary heart disease and heart failure, regardless of CKD status. In conclusion, each measure improved cardiovascular risk prediction in subjects with CKD, with the greatest improvement observed with coronary artery calcium score.
Related JoVE Video
The complete mitochondrial DNA of the bay snook, Petenia splendida, a native Mexican cichlid.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The mitogenome of the tenguayaca, Petenia splendida (GenBank accession number KJ914664) has a total length of 16,518?bp, and the arrangement consist of 15 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. Gene order was equal to the mitogenomes of other new world cichlids.
Related JoVE Video
The Effect of Brain Death in Rat Steatotic and Non-Steatotic Liver Transplantation With Previous Ischemic Preconditioning.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most liver grafts undergoing transplantation derive from brain dead donors, which may also show hepatic steatosis, being both characteristics risk factors in liver transplantation. Ischemic preconditioning showed benefits when applied in non-brain dead clinical situations like hepatectomies, whereas it has been less promising in transplantation from brain dead patients. This study examined how brain death affects preconditioned steatotic and non-steatotic liver grafts undergoing transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of acculturation on cardiovascular risk factors among elderly Mexican Americans.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Higher levels of acculturation among Latinos have been shown to be associated with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in some studies of middle-age persons. The association of acculturation and prevalence of CV risk factors in elderly Latinos is less well established.
Related JoVE Video
Systolic and diastolic blood pressure, incident cardiovascular events, and death in elderly persons: the role of functional limitation in the Cardiovascular Health Study.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Whether limitation in the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) or gait speed can identify elders in whom the association of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with cardiovascular events (CVDs) and death differs is unclear. We evaluated whether limitation in ADL or gait speed modifies the association of systolic blood pressure or DBP with incident CVD (n=2358) and death (n=3547) in the Cardiovascular Health Study. Mean age was 78±5 and 21% reported limitation in ?1 ADL. There were 778 CVD and 1289 deaths over 9 years. Among persons without and those with ADL limitation, systolic blood pressure was associated with incident CVD: hazard ratio [HR] (per 10-mm Hg increase) 1.08 (95% confidence interval, 1.03, 1.13) and 1.06 (0.97, 1.17), respectively. ADL modified the association of DBP with incident CVD. Among those without ADL limitation, DBP was weakly associated with incident CVD, HR 1.04 (0.79, 1.37) for DBP >80, compared with <65 mm Hg. Among those with ADL limitation, DBP was inversely associated with CVD: HR 0.65 (0.44, 0.96) for DBP 66 to 80 mm Hg and HR 0.49 (0.25, 0.94) for DBP >80, compared with DBP ?65. Among people with ADL limitation, a DBP of 66 to 80 had the lowest risk of death, HR 0.72 (0.57, 0.91), compared with a DBP of ?65. Associations did not vary by 15-feet walking speed. ADL can identify elders in whom diastolic hypotension is associated with higher cardiovascular risk and death. Functional status, rather than chronologic age alone, should inform design of hypertension trials in elders.
Related JoVE Video
A chronic kidney disease risk score to determine tenofovir safety in a prospective cohort of HIV-positive male veterans.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a widely used antiretroviral for HIV infection that has been associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Our objective was to derive a scoring system to predict 5-year risk of developing CKD in HIV-infected individuals and to estimate difference in risk associated with tenofovir use.
Related JoVE Video
The complete mitochondrial DNA of endemic Eastern Pacific coral (Porites panamensis).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The mitogenome of the endemic coral Porites panamensis (Genbank accession number KJ546638) has a total length of 18,628?bp, and the arrangement consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 2 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. Gene order was equal to other scleractinian coral mitogenomes.
Related JoVE Video
Uric acid levels, kidney function, and cardiovascular mortality in US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1988-1994 and 1999-2002.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hyperuricemia often coexist, and both conditions are increasing in prevalence in the United States. However, their shared role in cardiovascular risk remains highly debated.
Related JoVE Video
The complete mitochondrial DNA of the tropical gar (Atractosteus tropicus).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The mitogenome of the tropical gar, Atractosteus tropicus, (GeneBank accession number KJ531198) has a total length of 16,280?bp, and the arrangement consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 22 transfer RNA similar to other Lepisosteidae family mitogenomes.
Related JoVE Video
Trends in hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control among US adults 80 years and older, 1988-2010.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich)
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The authors examined trends in systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in 1988-1994 (n=1164), 1999-2004 (n=1,026), and 2005-2010 (n=1048) among US adults 80 years and older in serial National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Hypertension was defined as SBP ?140 mm Hg, DBP ?90 mm Hg, or use of antihypertensive medication. Awareness and treatment were defined by self-report and control as SBP/DBP<140/90 mm Hg. Mean SBP decreased from 147.3 mm Hg to 140.1 mm Hg and mean DBP from 70.2 mm Hg to 59.4 mm Hg between 1988-1994 and 2005-2010. The prevalence, awareness, and treatment of hypertension each increased over time. Controlled hypertension increased from 30.4% in 1988-1994 to 53.1% in 2005-2010. The proportion of patients taking ?3 classes of antihypertensive medication increased from 7.0% to 30.9% between 1988-1994 and 2005-2010. Increases in awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and antihypertensive polypharmacy have been observed among very old US adults.
Related JoVE Video
Relative risks of chronic kidney disease for mortality and end-stage renal disease across races are similar.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Some suggest race-specific cutpoints for kidney measures to define and stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), but evidence for race-specific clinical impact is limited. To address this issue, we compared hazard ratios of estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) and albuminuria across races using meta-regression in 1.1 million adults (75% Asians, 21% Whites, and 4% Blacks) from 45 cohorts. Results came mainly from 25 general population cohorts comprising 0.9 million individuals. The associations of lower eGFR and higher albuminuria with mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were largely similar across races. For example, in Asians, Whites, and Blacks, the adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for eGFR 45-59 versus 90-104?ml/min per 1.73?m(2) were 1.3 (1.2-1.3), 1.1 (1.0-1.2), and 1.3 (1.1-1.7) for all-cause mortality, 1.6 (1.5-1.7), 1.4 (1.2-1.7), and 1.4 (0.7-2.9) for cardiovascular mortality, and 27.6 (11.1-68.7), 11.2 (6.0-20.9), and 4.1 (2.2-7.5) for ESRD, respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio 30-299?mg/g or dipstick 1+ versus an albumin-to-creatinine ratio under 10 or dipstick negative were 1.6 (1.4-1.8), 1.7 (1.5-1.9), and 1.8 (1.7-2.1) for all-cause mortality, 1.7 (1.4-2.0), 1.8 (1.5-2.1), and 2.8 (2.2-3.6) for cardiovascular mortality, and 7.4 (2.0-27.6), 4.0 (2.8-5.9), and 5.6 (3.4-9.2) for ESRD, respectively. Thus, the relative mortality or ESRD risks of lower eGFR and higher albuminuria were largely similar among three major races, supporting similar clinical approach to CKD definition and staging, across races.
Related JoVE Video
Association of urinary injury biomarkers with mortality and cardiovascular events.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kidney damage is a common sequela of several chronic pathologic conditions. Whether biomarkers of kidney damage are prognostic for more severe outcomes is unknown. We measured three urinary biomarkers (kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1], IL-18, and albumin) in 3010 individuals enrolled in the Health, Aging and Body Composition (Health ABC) study and used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the associations of urinary KIM-1/creatinine (cr), IL-18/cr, and albumin/cr (ACR) with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multivariable models adjusted for demographics, traditional CVD risk factors, and eGFR. Mean age of participants was 74 years, 49% of participants were men, and 41% of participants were black. During the median 12.4 years of follow-up, 1450 deaths and 797 CVD outcomes occurred. Compared with the lowest quartile, successive quartiles had the following adjusted hazard ratios (HRs; 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]) for mortality: KIM-1/cr: (1.21; 1.03 to 1.41), (1.13; 0.96 to 1.34), and (1.28; 1.08 to 1.52); IL-18/cr: (1.02; 0.88 to 1.19), (1.16; 0.99 to 1.35), and (1.06; 0.90 to 1.25); ACR: (1.08; 0.91 to 1.27), (1.24; 1.06 to 1.46), and (1.63; 1.39 to 1.91). In similar analyses, only ACR quartiles associated with CVD: (1.19; 0.95 to 1.48), (1.35; 1.08 to 1.67), and (1.54; 1.24 to 1.91). Urinary KIM-1 had a modest association with all-cause mortality but did not associate with CVD, and urinary IL-18 did not associate with either outcome. In contrast, albuminuria strongly associated with all-cause mortality and CVD. Future studies should evaluate reasons for these differences in the prognostic importance of individual kidney injury markers.
Related JoVE Video
KDOQI US commentary on the 2012 KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the evaluation and management of CKD.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The National Kidney Foundation-Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (NKF-KDOQI) guideline for evaluation, classification, and stratification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) was published in 2002. The KDOQI guideline was well accepted by the medical and public health communities, but concerns and criticisms arose as new evidence became available since the publication of the original guidelines. KDIGO (Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) recently published an updated guideline to clarify the definition and classification of CKD and to update recommendations for the evaluation and management of individuals with CKD based on new evidence published since 2002. The primary recommendations were to retain the current definition of CKD based on decreased glomerular filtration rate or markers of kidney damage for 3 months or more and to include the cause of kidney disease and level of albuminuria, as well as level of glomerular filtration rate, for CKD classification. NKF-KDOQI convened a work group to write a commentary on the KDIGO guideline in order to assist US practitioners in interpreting the KDIGO guideline and determining its applicability within their own practices. Overall, the commentary work group agreed with most of the recommendations contained in the KDIGO guidelines, particularly the recommendations regarding the definition and classification of CKD. However, there were some concerns about incorporating the cause of disease into CKD classification, in addition to certain recommendations for evaluation and management.
Related JoVE Video
Urinary kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) and interleukin 18 (IL-18) as risk markers for heart failure in older adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kidney damage and reduced kidney function are potent risk factors for heart failure, but existing studies are limited to assessing albuminuria or estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We evaluated the associations of levels of urinary biomarkers of kidney tubular injury (interleukin 18 [IL-18] and kidney injury molecule 1 [KIM-1]) with future risk of heart failure.
Related JoVE Video
The associations between metabolic variables and NT-proBNP are blunted at pathological ranges: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Under physiological conditions brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is inversely associated with metabolic risk factors, but under pathological conditions these associations may tend to plateau.
Related JoVE Video
A novel modular bioreactor to in vitro study the hepatic sinusoid.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe a unique, versatile bioreactor consisting of two plates and a modified commercial porous membrane suitable for in vitro analysis of the liver sinusoid. The modular bioreactor allows i) excellent control of the cell seeding process; ii) cell culture under controlled shear stress stimulus, and; iii) individual analysis of each cell type upon completion of the experiment. The advantages of the bioreactor detailed here are derived from the modification of a commercial porous membrane with an elastomeric wall specifically moulded in order to define the cell culture area, to act as a gasket that will fit into the bioreactor, and to provide improved mechanical robustness. The device presented herein has been designed to simulate the in vivo organization of a liver sinusoid and tested by co-culturing endothelial cells (EC) and hepatic stellate cells (HSC). The results show both an optimal morphology of the endothelial cells as well as an improvement in the phenotype of stellate cells, most probably due to paracrine factors released from endothelial cells. This device is proposed as a versatile, easy-to-use co-culture system that can be applied to biomedical research of vascular systems, including the liver.
Related JoVE Video
Determinants of hemodialysis-induced segmental wall motion abnormalities.
Hemodial Int
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients who demonstrate worsening of cardiac wall motion (WM) during hemodialysis have higher 1-year mortality. We sought to identify risk factors for dialysis-induced WM abnormalities. Additionally, we examined the effects of hemodialysis on other parameters of cardiac function. Forty patients underwent echocardiography directly before dialysis and during the last hour of dialysis (79 dialysis sessions). Candidate predictors for intradialytic worsening of WM included age, a history of heart failure (HF) or coronary artery disease, changes in blood pressure or heart rate, high sensitivity cardiac troponin T and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide. Among 40 patients, WM worsened segmentally in eight patients (20%), worsened globally in one patient (3%), and improved segmentally in four patients (10%). Diastolic function worsened in 44% of patients, and left ventricular ejection fraction was largely unchanged during dialysis. The case of globally worsened WM occurred in the setting of intradialytic hypertension in a patient without HF. Surprisingly, history of coronary artery disease, hemodynamics, and serologic factors were not associated with worsened segmental WM during dialysis. After adjustment for history of coronary artery disease and other cardiac risk factors, patients with a history of HF had a threefold higher risk of worsening segmental WM during dialysis (RR 3.1, 95% CI [1.1, 9], p?=?0.04). In conclusion, patients with a history of clinical HF were at higher risk of intradialytic worsening of segmental WM. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanism of this association and whether cardioprotective medications could ameliorate this adverse cardiac effect of hemodialysis.
Related JoVE Video
Role of soluble endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule biomarker in albuminuria and kidney function changes in patients with coronary artery disease: the heart and soul study.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endothelial dysfunction is a possible mechanism to explain the association between atherosclerosis and kidney disease. This study evaluated circulating soluble endothelial cell-selective adhesion molecule (sESAM), a marker of endothelial dysfunction, as a risk factor for kidney function decline and albuminuria.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluating the Framingham hypertension risk prediction model in young adults: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A prediction model was developed in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) to evaluate the short-term risk of hypertension. Our goal was to determine the predictive ability of the FHS hypertension model in a cohort of young adults advancing into middle age and compare it with the predictive ability of prehypertension and individual components of the FHS model. We studied 4388 participants, aged 18 to 30 years without hypertension at baseline, enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study, who participated in 2 consecutive examinations occurring 5 years apart between the baseline (1985-1986) and year 25 examination (2010-2011). Weibull regression was used to assess the association of the FHS model overall, individual components of the FHS model, and prehypertension with incident hypertension. During the 25-year follow-up period, 1179 participants developed incident hypertension. The FHS hypertension model (c-index=0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.83-0.85) performed well in discriminating those who did and did not develop hypertension and was better than prehypertension alone (c-index=0.71; 95% confidence interval, 0.70-0.73). The predicted risk from the FHS hypertension model was systematically lower than the observed hypertension incidence initially (?(2)=249.4; P<0.001) but demonstrated a good fit after recalibration (?(2)=14.6; P=0.067). In summary, the FHS model performed better than prehypertension and may be a useful tool for identifying young adults with a high risk for developing hypertension.
Related JoVE Video
Body Mass Index and Early Kidney Function Decline in Young Adults: A Longitudinal Analysis of the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) Study.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is critically important for reducing the burden of chronic kidney disease. We sought to examine the association of body mass index (BMI) with kidney function decline in a cohort of young adults with preserved glomerular filtration at baseline.
Related JoVE Video
Estimated kidney function based on serum cystatin C and risk of subsequent coronary artery calcium in young and middle-aged adults with preserved kidney function: results from the CARDIA study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Whether kidney dysfunction is associated with coronary artery calcium (CAC) in young and middle-aged adults who have a cystatin C-derived estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcys) greater than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) is unknown. In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) cohort (recruited in 1985 and 1986 in Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California), we examined 1) the association of eGFRcys at years 10 and 15 and detectable CAC over the subsequent 5 years and 2) the association of change in eGFRcys and subsequent CAC, comparing those with stable eGFRcys to those whose eGFRcys increased (>3% annually over 5 years), declined moderately (3%-5%), or declined rapidly (>5%). Generalized estimating equation Poisson models were used, with adjustment for age, sex, race, educational level, income, family history of coronary artery disease, diabetes, body mass index, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and tobacco use. Among 3,070 participants (mean age 35.6 (standard deviation, 4.1) years and mean eGFRcys 106.7 (standard deviation, 18.5) mL/min/1.73 m(2)), 529 had detectable CAC. Baseline eGFRcys was not associated with CAC. Moderate eGFRcys decline was associated with a 33% greater relative risk of subsequent CAC (95% confidence interval: 5, 68; P = 0.02), whereas rapid decline was associated with a 51% higher relative risk (95% confidence interval: 10, 208; P = 0.01) in adjusted models. In conclusion, among young and middle-aged adults with eGFRcys greater than 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), annual decline in eGFRcys is an independent risk factor for subsequent CAC.
Related JoVE Video
Association of segmental wall motion abnormalities occurring during hemodialysis with post-dialysis fatigue.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Post-dialysis fatigue (PDF) is a common, debilitating symptom that remains poorly understood. Cardiac wall motion abnormalities (WMAs) may worsen during dialysis, but it is unknown whether WMA are associated with PDF.
Related JoVE Video
Blood pressure components and decline in kidney function in community-living older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although hypertension contributes to kidney dysfunction in the general population, the contributions of elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and pulse pressure (PP) to kidney function decline in community-dwelling older adults are unknown.
Related JoVE Video
The effects of glucose and lipids in steatotic and non-steatotic livers in conditions of partial hepatectomy under ischaemia-reperfusion.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Steatosis is a risk factor in partial hepatectomy (PH) under ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R), which is commonly applied in clinical practice to reduce bleeding. Nutritional support strategies, as well as the role of peripheral adipose tissue as energy source for liver regeneration, remain poorly investigated.
Related JoVE Video
Occult chronic kidney disease among persons with hypertension in the United States: data from the national health and nutrition surveys 1988-1994 and 1999-2002.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hypertension guidelines recommend screening for chronic kidney disease (CKD) using serum creatinine and urine dipstick; this strategy may lead to misclassification. Persons with occult CKD [i.e. missed by creatinine but detected by cystatin C or albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR)] have higher risks for death, cardiovascular events, and end-stage renal disease.
Related JoVE Video
Hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injury: effects on the liver sinusoidal milieu.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is an important cause of liver damage occurring during surgical procedures including hepatic resection and liver transplantation, and represents the main underlying cause of graft dysfunction post-transplantation. Cellular and biochemical processes occurring during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion are diverse and complex, and include the deregulation of the healthy phenotype of all liver cellular components. Nevertheless, a significant part of these processes are still unknown or unclear. The present review aims at summarizing the current knowledge in liver ischemia-reperfusion, but specifically focusing on liver cell phenotype and paracrine interaction deregulations. Moreover, the most updated therapeutic strategies including pharmacological, genetic and surgical interventions, as well as some of the scientific controversies in the field will be described. Finally, the importance of considering the subclinical situation of liver grafts when translating basic knowledge to the bedside is discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiovascular risk score, cognitive decline, and dementia in older Mexican Americans: the role of sex and education.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk with cognitive decline and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment but not dementia (CIND) and the role of education as a modifier of these effects.
Related JoVE Video
Resistin and visfatin in steatotic and non-steatotic livers in the setting of partial hepatectomy under ischemia-reperfusion.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examined whether the regulation of resistin and visfatin could reduce damage and improve regeneration in both steatotic and non-steatotic livers undergoing partial hepatectomy under ischemia-reperfusion, a procedure commonly applied in clinical practice to reduce bleeding.
Related JoVE Video
Adiponectin and resistin protect steatotic livers undergoing transplantation.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Numerous steatotic livers are discarded for transplantation because of their poor tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion. Controversial roles for adiponectin and related adipocytokines visfatin and resistin have been described in different liver pathologies, nevertheless it is unknown their possible implication in ischemia-reperfusion injury associated with liver transplantation. Our study aimed at characterizing the role of the adiponectin-derived molecular pathway in transplantation with steatotic and non-steatotic liver grafts.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for ESRD in individuals with preserved estimated GFR with and without albuminuria: results from the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP).
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Given the increasing costs and poor outcomes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), we sought to identify risk factors for ESRD in people with preserved estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), with or without albuminuria, who were at high risk of ESRD.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of urine creatinine concentrations on the relation of albumin-creatinine ratio with cardiovascular disease events: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Higher urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) events, an association that is stronger than that between spot urine albumin on its own and CVD. Urine creatinine excretion is correlated with muscle mass, and low muscle mass also is associated with CVD. Whether low urine creatinine concentration in the denominator of the ACR contributes to the association of ACR with CVD is uncertain.
Related JoVE Video
No independent association of serum phosphorus with risk for death or progression to end-stage renal disease in a large screen for chronic kidney disease.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Whether higher serum phosphorus levels are associated with a higher risk for death and/or progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is not well established, and whether the association is confounded by access and barriers to care is unknown. To answer these questions, data of 10,672 individuals identified to have CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) from those participating in a community-based screening program were analyzed. Over a median follow-up of 2.3 years, there was no association between quartiles of serum phosphorus and all-cause mortality (adjusted hazards ratio for serum phosphorus over 3.3 to 3.7, over 3.7 to 4.1, and over 4.1 mg/dl, respectively: 1.22 (0.95-1.56), 1.00 (0.76-1.32), and 1.00 (0.75-1.33); reference, serum phosphorus of 3.3 mg/dl and below). Individuals in the highest quartile for serum phosphorus had a significantly higher risk for progression to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (unadjusted hazards ratio, 6.72 (4.16-10.85)); however, the risk became nonsignificant on adjustment for potential confounders. There was no appreciable change in hazards ratio with inclusion of variables related to access and barriers to care. Additional analyses in subgroups based on 12 different variables yielded similar negative associations. Thus, in the largest cohort of individuals with early-stage CKD to date, we could not validate an independent association of serum phosphorus with risk for death or progression to ESRD.
Related JoVE Video
Update on cystatin C: incorporation into clinical practice.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kidney function monitoring using creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate estimation is a routine part of clinical practice. Emerging evidence has shown that cystatin C may improve classification of glomerular filtration rate for defining chronic kidney disease in certain clinical populations and assist in understanding the complications of chronic kidney disease. In this review and update, we summarize the overall literature on cystatin C, critically evaluate recent high-impact studies, highlight the role of cystatin C in recent kidney disease guidelines, and suggest a practical approach for clinicians to incorporate cystatin C into practice. We conclude by addressing frequently asked questions related to implementing cystatin C use in a clinical setting.
Related JoVE Video
Simvastatin maintains function and viability of steatotic rat livers procured for transplantation.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Liver grafts obtained from healthy rat donors develop acute microcirculatory dysfunction due to cold-storage and warm-reperfusion injuries. These detrimental effects are avoided adding simvastatin to the cold-storage solution. Considering the importance of increasing organ donor pool for transplantation, we characterized whether simvastatin pretreatment can protect steatotic grafts from cold-storage and warm-reperfusion injuries.
Related JoVE Video
Trajectories of kidney function decline in young black and white adults with preserved GFR: results from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Strong racial discrepancies in end-stage renal disease exist. Whether there are race differences in kidney function loss in younger healthy persons is not well established.
Related JoVE Video
Parathyroid hormone and arterial dysfunction in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High circulating concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) have been associated with increased risks of hypertension, left ventricular hypertrophy, congestive heart failure and cardiovascular mortality. Impaired arterial function is a potential mechanism for these associations. We tested whether serum PTH concentration is associated with measures of arterial function.
Related JoVE Video
The Association between Parathyroid Hormone Levels and Hemoglobin in Diabetic and Nondiabetic Participants in the National Kidney Foundations Kidney Early Evaluation Program.
Cardiorenal Med
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Both anemia and secondary hyperparathyroidism are reflections of hormonal failure in chronic kidney disease (CKD). While the association of elevated levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and anemia has been studied among those with advanced CKD, less is known about this association in mild-to-moderate CKD.
Related JoVE Video
Racial differences in the incidence of chronic kidney disease.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The incidence of ESRD is higher in African Americans than in whites, despite reports of a similar or lower prevalence of CKD.
Related JoVE Video
Antihypertensive medication use and change in kidney function in elderly adults: a marginal structural model analysis.
Int J Biostat
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The evidence for the effectiveness of antihypertensive medication use for slowing decline in kidney function in older persons is sparse. We addressed this research question by the application of novel methods in a marginal structural model.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of C-reactive protein levels in less versus more acculturated Hispanic adults in the United States (from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2008).
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Greater acculturation has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease in Hispanics. C-reactive protein (CRP), a marker of inflammation, is known to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Whether acculturation is associated with CRP levels in Hispanics has not been established. We examined the association between acculturation and CRP in 11,858 Hispanic-American adults participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2008. Acculturation was measured by the Short Acculturation Scale (SAS), a validated language-based scale. We used multivariate linear regression to examine the independent association between acculturation and CRP after adjusting for clinical and demographic covariates and appropriate sampling weights. We back-transformed the beta coefficients into relative differences (RDs). Higher acculturation was independently associated with higher CRP levels in Hispanics. Compared to those less acculturated, the RD in CRP levels was 52% higher (p = 0.003) for more acculturated Hispanics. Other significant predictors of CRP in Hispanics included a higher body mass index (RD 139% higher per 5 kg/m(2)), female gender (RD 36% higher), education level (RD 19% higher levels for at least a high school education, p <0.001), being insured (RD 27% higher CRP level, p = 0.006), having hypertension (RD 40% higher CRP levels, p <0.001), and statin use (RD 22% lower CRP levels, p = 0.002). In conclusion, higher acculturation was associated with increased CRP levels in Hispanics in a nationally representative population survey. Inflammation may play an important role in explaining the association between acculturation and increased cardiovascular risk.
Related JoVE Video
Kidney function decline in the elderly: impact of lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2).
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Whether lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A(2) (Lp-PLA(2)) levels are associated with kidney function decline has not been well studied.
Related JoVE Video
Association of small artery elasticity with incident cardiovascular disease in older adults: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Functional biomarkers like large artery elasticity (LAE) and small artery elasticity (SAE) may predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) events beyond blood pressure. The authors examined the prognostic value of LAE and SAE for clinical CVD events among 6,235 Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis participants who were initially aged 45-84 years and without symptomatic CVD. LAE and SAE were derived from diastolic pulse contour analysis. During a median 5.8 years of follow-up between 2000 and 2008, 454 adjudicated CVD events occurred, including 256 cases of coronary heart disease (CHD), 93 strokes, and 126 heart failures (multiple diagnoses were possible). After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, sex, clinic, height, heart rate, body mass index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive and cholesterol-lowering medications, smoking, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, diabetes, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, the hazard ratio for any CVD per standard-deviation increase in SAE was 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.61, 0.83; P < 0.0001). The lowest (stiffest) SAE quartile had a hazard ratio of 2.28 (95% confidence interval: 1.55, 3.36) versus the highest (most elastic) quartile. The net reclassification index, conditional on base risk, was 0.11. SAE was significantly associated with future CHD, stroke, and heart failure. After adjustment, LAE was not significantly related to CVD. In asymptomatic participants free of overt CVD, lower SAE added prognostic information for CVD, CHD, stroke, and heart failure events.
Related JoVE Video
Racial and ethnic differences in kidney function decline among persons without chronic kidney disease.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Whether the rate of kidney function decline before the onset of CKD differs among racial and ethnic groups remains unclear. Here, we evaluated kidney function decline and incident CKD among white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) during 5 years of follow-up. We estimated GFR using both cystatin C (eGFRcys) and creatinine (eGFRcreat). The definition of incident CKD required eGFRcys <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) and a decline in eGFRcys ?1 ml/min per year. Among participants with eGFRcreat >60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) at baseline, blacks had a significantly higher rate of kidney function decline than whites (0.31 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)/yr faster on average, P=0.001), even after adjusting for multiple potential confounders. Among Hispanics, Dominicans and Puerto Ricans had faster rates of decline than whites (0.55 and 0.47 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)/yr faster, respectively). Mexicans, South Americans, or other Hispanics had similar rates of decline compared to whites. We did not detect significant differences in the rates of kidney function decline among Chinese and white participants. Among those with normal or near-normal kidney function at baseline, blacks and Hispanics had the highest rates of incident CKD during follow-up. Adjustment for comorbidities attenuated some of these differences. In conclusion, the average rate of kidney function decline before the onset of CKD differs among racial and ethnic groups. Traditional risk factors do not explain these differences fully, highlighting the need to explore these disparities.
Related JoVE Video
Cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate in rat steatotic liver transplantation.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Numerous steatotic livers are discarded as unsuitable for transplantation (TR) because of their poor tolerance of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Cyclic adenosine 3,5-monophosphate (cAMP)-elevating agents protect against I/R injury both in nonsteatotic livers that have been removed from non-heart-beating donors and subjected to warm ischemia or cold ischemia (CIS) and in perfused, isolated livers. Ischemic preconditioning (PC), which is based on brief periods of I/R, protects steatotic liver grafts, but the mechanism that is responsible is poorly understood. This study examines the role of cAMP in the vulnerability shown by steatotic livers to TR-associated I/R injury and the benefits of PC in this situation. Steatotic livers with or without PC were transplanted into Zucker rats. The hepatic levels of cAMP were measured and altered pharmacologically. Our results indicate that the cAMP levels in the nonsteatotic liver grafts were similar to those found in a sham group. However, high cAMP levels were observed in steatotic liver grafts. The blockage of cAMP generation by adenylate cyclase inhibitor pre-treatment or PC had the following results: reduced hepatic injury and increased survival of steatotic graft recipients; greater preservation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and reduced lactate accumulation throughout CI. This blockade of cAMP by a nitric oxide-dependent mechanism protected steatotic liver grafts against oxidative stress and microvascular disorders after reperfusion. In conclusion, cAMP blocking-based strategies could protect patients against the inherent risk of steatotic liver failure after TR.
Related JoVE Video
Does adiponectin benefit steatotic liver transplantation?
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Strategies for improving the viability of steatotic donor livers could increase the number of organs suitable for transplantation. There is evidence that adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific adipokine, acts as an anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory hormone. Here we review the signaling pathways of adiponectin and the possible therapies based on adiponectin regulation that have been examined or applied clinically. Recent studies on the role of adiponectin in steatotic livers subjected to ischemia/reperfusion are discussed. The data suggest that further investigations are required to determine whether adiponectin is a potential therapeutic target in liver transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Association of self-reported race/ethnicity and genetic ancestry with arterial elasticity: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
J Am Soc Hypertens
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
African Americans have a disproportionate burden of hypertension compared with white, whereas data on Hispanics is less well-defined. Mechanisms underlying these differences are unclear, but could be in part because of ancestral background and vascular function. We studied 660 African Americans and 635 Hispanics from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) with complete data on genetic ancestry, pulse pressure (PP), and large and small arterial elasticity (LAE, SAE). LAE and SAE were obtained using the HDI PulseWave CR-2000 Research CardioVascular Profiling Instrument. Among African Americans, higher European ancestry was marginally associated with higher LAE (P = .05) and lower PP (P = .05); results for LAE were attenuated after adjustment for potential mediators (P = .30). Among Hispanics, higher Native American ancestry was associated with higher SAE (P = .0006); higher African ancestry was marginally associated with lower SAE (P = .07). Ancestry was not significantly associated with LAE or PP in Hispanics. Among African Americans, higher European ancestry may be associated with less large artery damage, as measured by LAE and PP, although these associations warrant further study. Among Hispanics, ancestry is strongly associated with SAE. Future studies should consider genetic ancestry when studying hypertension in race/ethnic minorities, particularly among Hispanics.
Related JoVE Video
Retinol-binding protein 4 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? in steatotic liver transplantation.
J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Numerous steatotic livers are discarded for transplantation because of their poor tolerance of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R). The injurious effects of retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) in various pathologies are well documented. RBP4 levels are reduced by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonists. Strategies aimed at increasing PPAR? protect steatotic livers under warm ischemia. Ischemic preconditioning (PC) based on brief periods of I/R protects steatotic liver grafts against I/R injury, but the responsible mechanism is poorly understood. We examined the roles of RBP4 and PPAR? in I/R injury associated with steatotic liver transplantation and the benefits of PC in such situations. We report that RBP4 and PPAR? expression levels in nonsteatotic livers were similar to those found in the sham group. However, reduced RBP4 and increased PPAR? levels were observed in steatotic livers. Treatment with either RBP4 or a PPAR? antagonist was effective only in steatotic livers. PC, which increased RBP4 levels, and RBP4 treatment both reduced PPAR? levels and hepatic injury in steatotic livers. When PPAR? was activated, neither RBP4 treatment nor PC (despite RBP4 induction) protected steatotic livers. In conclusion, steatotic liver grafts are more predisposed to down-regulate RBP4 and overexpress PPAR?. RBP4 treatment and PC, through RBP4 induction, reduced PPAR? levels in steatotic liver grafts, thus protecting them from the PPAR? detrimental effects.
Related JoVE Video
Markers of mineral metabolism are not associated with aortic pulse wave velocity in community-living elderly persons: the Health Aging and Body Composition study.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Disorders in mineral metabolism are associated with risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in patients with kidney disease as well as in the general population. This risk is thought to be mediated, in part, through the mechanism of stiffening of the arteries.
Related JoVE Video
CUBN is a gene locus for albuminuria.
Carsten A Böger, Ming-Huei Chen, Adrienne Tin, Matthias Olden, Anna Köttgen, Ian H de Boer, Christian Fuchsberger, Conall M O'Seaghdha, Cristian Pattaro, Alexander Teumer, Ching-Ti Liu, Nicole L Glazer, Man Li, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Toshiko Tanaka, Carmen A Peralta, Zoltan Kutalik, Jian'an Luan, Jing Hua Zhao, Shih-Jen Hwang, Ermeg Akylbekova, Holly Kramer, Pim van der Harst, Albert V Smith, Kurt Lohman, Mariza de Andrade, Caroline Hayward, Barbara Kollerits, Anke Tönjes, Thor Aspelund, Erik Ingelsson, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Lenore J Launer, Tamara B Harris, Alan R Shuldiner, Braxton D Mitchell, Dan E Arking, Nora Franceschini, Eric Boerwinkle, Josephine Egan, Dena Hernandez, Muredach Reilly, Raymond R Townsend, Thomas Lumley, David S Siscovick, Bruce M Psaty, Bryan Kestenbaum, Talin Haritunians, Sven Bergmann, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Vincent Mooser, Dawn Waterworth, Andrew D Johnson, Jose C Florez, James B Meigs, Xiaoning Lu, Stephen T Turner, Elizabeth J Atkinson, Tennille S Leak, Knut Aasarød, Frank Skorpen, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Thomas Illig, Jens Baumert, Wolfgang Koenig, Bernhard K Krämer, Olivier Devuyst, Josyf C Mychaleckyj, Cosetta Minelli, Stephan J L Bakker, Lyudmyla Kedenko, Bernhard Paulweber, Stefan Coassin, Karlhans Endlich, Heyo K Kroemer, Reiner Biffar, Sylvia Stracke, Henry Völzke, Michael Stumvoll, Reedik Mägi, Harry Campbell, Veronique Vitart, Nicholas D Hastie, Vilmundur Gudnason, Sharon L R Kardia, Yongmei Liu, Ozren Polašek, Gary Curhan, Florian Kronenberg, Inga Prokopenko, Igor Rudan, Johan Arnlöv, Stein Hallan, Gerjan Navis, , Afshin Parsa, Luigi Ferrucci, Josef Coresh, Michael G Shlipak, Shelley B Bull, Nicholas J Paterson, H-Erich Wichmann, Nicholas J Wareham, Ruth J F Loos, Jerome I Rotter, Peter P Pramstaller, L Adrienne Cupples, Jacques S Beckmann, Qiong Yang, Iris M Heid, Rainer Rettig, Albert W Dreisbach, Murielle Bochud, Caroline S Fox, W H L Kao.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Identification of genetic risk factors for albuminuria may alter strategies for early prevention of CKD progression, particularly among patients with diabetes. Little is known about the influence of common genetic variants on albuminuria in both general and diabetic populations. We performed a meta-analysis of data from 63,153 individuals of European ancestry with genotype information from genome-wide association studies (CKDGen Consortium) and from a large candidate gene study (CARe Consortium) to identify susceptibility loci for the quantitative trait urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and the clinical diagnosis microalbuminuria. We identified an association between a missense variant (I2984V) in the CUBN gene, which encodes cubilin, and both UACR (P = 1.1 × 10(-11)) and microalbuminuria (P = 0.001). We observed similar associations among 6981 African Americans in the CARe Consortium. The associations between this variant and both UACR and microalbuminuria were significant in individuals of European ancestry regardless of diabetes status. Finally, this variant associated with a 41% increased risk for the development of persistent microalbuminuria during 20 years of follow-up among 1304 participants with type 1 diabetes in the prospective DCCT/EDIC Study. In summary, we identified a missense CUBN variant that associates with levels of albuminuria in both the general population and in individuals with diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Cystatin C and albuminuria as risk factors for development of CKD stage 3: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA).
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The growing burden and morbidity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) warrant effective strategies for identifying those at increased risk. We examined the association of cystatin C level and albuminuria with the development of CKD stage 3.
Related JoVE Video
[Splenic lymphoma presenting as acute pancreatitis in an 84 year-old patient. A case report].
Rev Esp Geriatr Gerontol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A case is presented of an 84 year-old woman who was admitted to the Emergency Department due to an episode of non-calculous acute pancreatitis. In the aetiological study, the presence of a splenic lymphoma was documented, which had a compressive effect on the pancreas. After resolving the symptoms, she was scheduled for a splenectomy with a good technical result. At six months after admission the patient was in an excellent clinical and functional condition. This case highlights the unusual clinical presentation of this haematological disease, and the need to evaluate all the available therapeutic options in selected elderly patients.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic association for renal traits among participants of African ancestry reveals new loci for renal function.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing global public health concern, particularly among populations of African ancestry. We performed an interrogation of known renal loci, genome-wide association (GWA), and IBC candidate-gene SNP association analyses in African Americans from the CARe Renal Consortium. In up to 8,110 participants, we performed meta-analyses of GWA and IBC array data for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), CKD (eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR), and microalbuminuria (UACR >30 mg/g) and interrogated the 250 kb flanking region around 24 SNPs previously identified in European Ancestry renal GWAS analyses. Findings were replicated in up to 4,358 African Americans. To assess function, individually identified genes were knocked down in zebrafish embryos by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides. Expression of kidney-specific genes was assessed by in situ hybridization, and glomerular filtration was evaluated by dextran clearance. Overall, 23 of 24 previously identified SNPs had direction-consistent associations with eGFR in African Americans, 2 of which achieved nominal significance (UMOD, PIP5K1B). Interrogation of the flanking regions uncovered 24 new index SNPs in African Americans, 12 of which were replicated (UMOD, ANXA9, GCKR, TFDP2, DAB2, VEGFA, ATXN2, GATM, SLC22A2, TMEM60, SLC6A13, and BCAS3). In addition, we identified 3 suggestive loci at DOK6 (p-value?=?5.3×10(-7)) and FNDC1 (p-value?=?3.0×10(-7)) for UACR, and KCNQ1 with eGFR (p?=?3.6×10(-6)). Morpholino knockdown of kcnq1 in the zebrafish resulted in abnormal kidney development and filtration capacity. We identified several SNPs in association with eGFR in African Ancestry individuals, as well as 3 suggestive loci for UACR and eGFR. Functional genetic studies support a role for kcnq1 in glomerular development in zebrafish.
Related JoVE Video
Kidney function and multiple hemostatic markers: cross sectional associations in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2, chronic kidney disease (CKD) is strongly and independently associated with cardiovascular and overall mortality. We hypothesized that reduced kidney function would be characterized by abnormalities of hemostasis.
Related JoVE Video
Cystatin C identifies chronic kidney disease patients at higher risk for complications.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although cystatin C is a stronger predictor of clinical outcomes associated with CKD than creatinine, the clinical role for cystatin C is unclear. We included 11,909 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) and assessed risks for death, cardiovascular events, heart failure, and ESRD among persons categorized into mutually exclusive groups on the basis of the biomarkers that supported a diagnosis of CKD (eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)): creatinine only, cystatin C only, both, or neither. We used CKD-EPI equations to estimate GFR from these biomarkers. In MESA, 9% had CKD by the creatinine-based equation only, 2% had CKD by the cystatin C-based equation only, and 4% had CKD by both equations; in CHS, these percentages were 12, 4, and 13%, respectively. Compared with those without CKD, the adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for mortality in MESA were: 0.80 (95% CI 0.50 to 1.26) for CKD by creatinine only; 3.23 (95% CI 1.84 to 5.67) for CKD by cystatin C only; and 1.93 (95% CI 1.27 to 2.92) for CKD by both; in CHS, the adjusted HR were 1.09 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.21), 1.78 (95% CI 1.53 to 2.08), and 1.74 (95% CI 1.58 to 1.93), respectively. The pattern was similar for cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart failure, and kidney failure outcomes. In conclusion, among adults diagnosed with CKD using the creatinine-based CKD-EPI equation, the adverse prognosis is limited to the subset who also have CKD according to the cystatin C-based equation. Cystatin C may have a role in identifying persons with CKD who have the highest risk for complications.
Related JoVE Video
European ancestry as a risk factor for atrial fibrillation in African Americans.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite a higher burden of standard atrial fibrillation (AF) risk factors, African Americans have a lower risk of AF than whites. It is unknown whether the higher risk is due to genetic or environmental factors. Because African Americans have varying degrees of European ancestry, we sought to test the hypothesis that European ancestry is an independent risk factor for AF.
Related JoVE Video
Racial differences in the association of pentraxin-3 with kidney dysfunction: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pentraxin-3 (PTX3), an inflammatory marker thought to be related to vascular inflammation, is elevated in advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD). Whether PTX3 is associated with mild to moderate kidney dysfunction is unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Genetic ancestry and lower extremity peripheral artery disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Vasc Med
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Using self-report of race/ethnicity, African Americans consistently have a higher prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) compared to other ethnic groups. We aimed to determine the associations between estimated genetic admixture and PAD among African and Hispanic Americans. We studied the association between genetic ancestry and PAD among 1417 African and Hispanic American participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who were genotyped for ancestry informative markers (AIMs). PAD was defined as an ankle-brachial index (ABI) < 0.90. The overall prevalence of PAD among the 712 self-identified African American subjects was 15.2% and 4.6% among the 705 self-identified Hispanic Americans. A one standard deviation increment in European ancestry was associated with non-significant reductions in the odds for PAD among African (OR: 0.96 [95% CI: 0.78-1.18]) and Hispanic Americans (0.84 [0.58-1.23]), while the same increment in Native American ancestry was significantly associated with a lower odds of PAD in Hispanic Americans (0.56 [0.36-0.96]). Adjustment for demographic variables, field center, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and inflammatory markers strengthened the odds for European ancestry among African (0.85 [0.66-1.10]) and Hispanic Americans (0.68 [0.41-1.11]). The magnitude of the association for Native American ancestry among Hispanic Americans did not materially change (0.56 [0.29-1.09]). In conclusion, a higher percent Native American ancestry in Hispanics is associated with a lower odds of PAD while in both Hispanics and African Americans, greater European ancestry does not appear to be associated with lower odds for PAD.
Related JoVE Video
Improved rat steatotic and nonsteatotic liver preservation by the addition of epidermal growth factor and insulin-like growth factor-I to University of Wisconsin solution.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examined the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) supplementation to University of Wisconsin solution (UW) in steatotic and nonsteatotic livers during cold storage. Hepatic injury and function were evaluated in livers preserved for 24 hours at 4 degrees C in UW and in UW with EGF and IGF-I (separately or in combination) and then perfused ex vivo for 2 hours at 37 degrees C. AKT was inhibited pharmacologically. In addition, hepatic injury and survival were evaluated in recipients who underwent transplantation with steatotic and nonsteatotic livers preserved for 6 hours in UW and UW with EGF and IGF-I (separately or in combination). The results, based on isolated perfused liver, indicated that the addition of EGF and IGF-I (separately or in combination) to UW reduced hepatic injury and improved function in both liver types. A combination of EGF and IGF-I resulted in hepatic injury and function parameters in both liver types similar to those obtained by EGF and IGF-I separately. EGF increased IGF-I, and both additives up-regulated AKT in both liver types. This was associated with glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3(beta)) inhibition in nonsteatotic livers and PPAR gamma overexpression in steatotic livers. When AKT was inhibited, the effects of EGF and IGF-I on GSK3(beta), PPAR gamma, hepatic injury and function disappeared. The benefits of EGF and IGF-I as additives in UW solution were also clearly seen in the liver transplantation model, because the presence of EGF and IGF-I (separately or in combination) in UW solution reduced hepatic injury and improved survival in recipients who underwent transplantation with steatotic and nonsteatotic liver grafts. In conclusion, EGF and IGF-I may constitute new additives to UW solution in steatotic and nonsteatotic liver preservation, whereas a combination of both seems unnecessary.
Related JoVE Video
Race differences in prevalence of chronic kidney disease among young adults using creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate-estimating equations.
Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite a higher incidence of end-stage renal disease (stage 5), blacks have been shown to have the same or lower prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD stages 3 and 4). Current creatinine-based glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-estimating equations may misclassify young, healthy blacks.
Related JoVE Video
Differences in albuminuria between Hispanics and whites: an evaluation by genetic ancestry and country of origin: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reports show higher prevalence of albuminuria among Hispanics compared with whites. Differences by country of origin or genetic background are unknown.
Related JoVE Video
Associations between genetic variants in the ACE, AGT, AGTR1 and AGTR2 genes and renal function in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Some studies suggest that polymorphisms in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT), angiotensin II type I receptor (AGTR1) and angiotensin II type II receptor (AGTR2) genes may contribute to renal function variation.
Related JoVE Video
A high ankle brachial index is associated with greater left ventricular mass MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis).
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study sought to determine the association of high ankle brachial index (ABI) measurements with left ventricular (LV) mass, and to compare its strength with that of low ABI with LV mass.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.