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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A real-time fluorescence polarization activity assay to screen for inhibitors of bacterial ribonuclease P.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an essential endonuclease that catalyzes the 5' end maturation of precursor tRNA (pre-tRNA). Bacterial RNase P is an attractive potential antibacterial target because it is essential for cell survival and has a distinct subunit composition compared to the eukaryal counterparts. To accelerate both structure-function studies and discovery of inhibitors of RNase P, we developed the first real-time RNase P activity assay using fluorescence polarization/anisotropy (FP/FA) with a 5' end fluorescein-labeled pre-tRNA(Asp) substrate. This FP/FA assay also detects binding of small molecules to pre-tRNA. Neomycin B and kanamycin B bind to pre-tRNA(Asp) with a Kd value that is comparable to their IC50 value for inhibition of RNase P, suggesting that binding of these antibiotics to the pre-tRNA substrate contributes to the inhibitory activity. This assay was optimized for high-throughput screening (HTS) to identify specific inhibitors of RNase P from a 2880 compound library. A natural product derivative, iriginol hexaacetate, was identified as a new inhibitor of Bacillus subtilis RNase P. The FP/FA methodology and inhibitors reported here will further our understanding of RNase P molecular recognition and facilitate discovery of antibacterial compounds that target RNase P.
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An unbiased approach to identify endogenous substrates of "histone" deacetylase 8.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Despite being extensively characterized structurally and biochemically, the functional role of histone deacetylase 8 (HDAC8) has remained largely obscure due in part to a lack of known cellular substrates. Herein, we describe an unbiased approach using chemical tools in conjunction with sophisticated proteomics methods to identify novel non-histone nuclear substrates of HDAC8, including the tumor suppressor ARID1A. These newly discovered substrates of HDAC8 are involved in diverse biological processes including mitosis, transcription, chromatin remodeling, and RNA splicing and may help guide therapeutic strategies that target the function of HDAC8.
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Dissecting allosteric effects of activator-coactivator complexes using a covalent small molecule ligand.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Allosteric binding events play a critical role in the formation and stability of transcriptional activator-coactivator complexes, perhaps in part due to the often intrinsically disordered nature of one or more of the constituent partners. The kinase-inducible domain interacting (KIX) domain of the master coactivator CREB binding protein/p300 is a conformationally dynamic domain that complexes with transcriptional activators at two discrete binding sites in allosteric communication. The complexation of KIX with the transcriptional activation domain of mixed-lineage leukemia protein leads to an enhancement of binding by the activation domain of CREB (phosphorylated kinase-inducible domain of CREB) to the second site. A transient kinetic analysis of the ternary complex formation aided by small molecule ligands that induce positive or negative cooperative binding reveals that positive cooperativity is largely governed by stabilization of the bound complex as indicated by a decrease in koff. Thus, this suggests the increased binding affinity for the second ligand is not due to an allosteric creation of a more favorable binding interface by the first ligand. This is consistent with data from us and from others indicating that the on rates of conformationally dynamic proteins approach the limits of diffusion. In contrast, negative cooperativity is manifested by alterations in both kon and koff, suggesting stabilization of the binary complex.
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Fluorescence lifetime imaging of physiological free Cu(II) levels in live cells with a Cu(II)-selective carbonic anhydrase-based biosensor.
Metallomics
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Copper is a required trace element that plays key roles in a number of human enzymes, such that copper deficiency or genetic defects in copper transport lead to serious or fatal disease. Rae, et al., had famously predicted that free copper ion levels in the cell cytoplasm were extremely low, typically too low to be observable. We recently developed a variant of human apocarbonic anhydrase II for sensing metal ions that exhibits 25-fold better selectivity for Cu(II) over Zn(II) than the wild type protein, enabling us to accurately measure Cu(II) in the presence of ordinary cellular (picomolar) concentrations of free zinc. We inserted a fluorescent labeled Cu(II)-specific variant of human apocarbonic anhydrase into PC-12 cells and found that the levels are indeed extremely low (in the femtomolar range). We imaged the free Cu(II) levels in living cells by means of frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime microscopy. Implications of this finding are discussed.
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An enzyme-coupled assay measuring acetate production for profiling histone deacetylase specificity.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Histone deacetylases catalyze the hydrolysis of an acetyl group from post-translationally modified acetyl-lysine residues in a wide variety of essential cellular proteins, including histones. Because these lysine modifications can alter the activity and properties of affected proteins, aberrant acetylation/deacetylation may contribute to disease states. Many fundamental questions regarding the substrate specificity and regulation of these enzymes have yet to be answered. Here, we optimize an enzyme-coupled assay to measure low micromolar concentrations of acetate, coupling acetate production to the formation of NADH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced form) that is measured by changes in either absorbance or fluorescence. Using this assay, we measured the steady-state kinetics of peptides representing the H4 histone tail and demonstrate that a C-terminally conjugated methylcoumarin enhances the catalytic efficiency of deacetylation catalyzed by cobalt(II)-bound histone deacetylase 8 [Co(II)-HDAC8] compared with peptide substrates containing a C-terminal carboxylate, amide, and tryptophan by 50-, 2.8-, and 2.3-fold, respectively. This assay can be adapted for a high-throughput screening format to identify HDAC substrates and inhibitors.
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Fibroblasts From Long-Lived Rodent Species Exclude Cadmium.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Resistance to the lethal effects of cellular stressors, including the toxic heavy metal cadmium (Cd), is characteristic of fibroblast cell lines derived from long-lived bird and rodent species, as well as cell lines from several varieties of long-lived mutant mice. To explore the mechanism of resistance to Cd, we used inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy to measure the rate of Cd uptake into primary fibroblasts of 15 rodent species. These data indicate that fibroblasts from long-lived rodent species have slower rates of Cd uptake from the extracellular medium than those from short-lived species. In addition, fibroblasts from short-lived species export more zinc after exposure to extracellular Cd than cells from long-lived species. Lastly, fibroblasts from long-lived rodent species have lower baseline concentrations of two redox-active metals, iron and copper. Our results suggest that evolution of longevity among rodents required adjustment of cellular properties to alter metal homeostasis and to reduce the toxic effects of heavy metals that accumulate over the course of a longer life span.
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HDAC8 substrates: Histones and beyond.
Biopolymers
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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The lysine deacetylase family of enzymes (HDACs) was first demonstrated to catalyze deacetylation of acetyllysine residues on histones. In subsequent years, HDACs have been shown to recognize a large pool of acetylated nonhistone proteins as substrates. Recently, thousands of acetylated proteins have been discovered, yet in most cases, the HDAC that catalyzes deacetylation in vivo has not been identified. This gap has created the need for better in vivo, in vitro, and in silico approaches for determining HDAC substrates. While HDAC8 is the best kinetically and structurally characterized HDAC, few efficient substrates have yet been substantiated in vivo. In this review, we delineate factors that may be important for determining HDAC8 substrate recognition and catalytic activity, including structure, complex formation, and post-translational modifications. This summary provides insight into the challenges of identifying in vivo substrates for HDAC8, and provides a good vantage point for understanding the variables important for predicting HDAC substrate recognition. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 99: 112-126, 2013.
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RNase P enzymes: divergent scaffolds for a conserved biological reaction.
RNA Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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Ribonuclease P (RNase P) catalyzes the maturation of the 5 end of precursor-tRNAs (pre-tRNA) and is conserved in all domains of life. However, the composition of RNase P varies from bacteria to archaea and eukarya, making RNase P one of the most diverse enzymes characterized. Most known RNase P enzymes contain a large catalytic RNA subunit that associates with one to 10 proteins. Recently, a protein-only form of RNase P was discovered in mitochondria and chloroplasts of many higher eukaryotes. This proteinaceous RNase P (PRORP) represents a new class of metallonucleases. Here we discuss our recent crystal structure of PRORP1 from Arabidopsis thaliana and speculate on the reasons for the replacement of catalytic RNA by a protein catalyst. We conclude, based on an analysis of the catalytic efficiencies of ribonucleoprotein (RNP) and PRORP enzymes, that the need for greater catalytic efficiency is most likely not the driving force behind the replacement of the RNA with a protein catalyst. The emergence of a protein-based RNase P more likely reflects the increasing complexity of the biological system, including difficulties in importation into organelles and vulnerability of organellar RNAs to cleavage.
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Discovering RNA-protein interactome by using chemical context profiling of the RNA-protein interface.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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RNA-protein (RNP) interactions generally are required for RNA function. At least 5% of human genes code for RNA-binding proteins. Whereas many approaches can identify the RNA partners for a specific protein, finding the protein partners for a specific RNA is difficult. We present a machine-learning method that scores a proteins binding potential for an RNA structure by utilizing the chemical context profiles of the interface from known RNP structures. Our approach is applicable even when only a single RNP structure is available. We examined 801 mammalian proteins and find that 37 (4.6%) potentially bind transfer RNA (tRNA). Most are enzymes involved in cellular processes unrelated to translation and were not known to interact with RNA. We experimentally tested six positive and three negative predictions for tRNA binding in vivo, and all nine predictions were correct. Our computational approach provides a powerful complement to experiments in discovering new RNPs.
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The BaeSR regulon is involved in defense against zinc toxicity in E. coli.
Metallomics
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Intracellular zinc homeostasis is regulated by an extensive network of transporters, ligands and transcription factors. The zinc detoxification functions of three transporters and a periplasmic protein regulated by the BaeSR two-component system were explored in this work by evaluating the effect of single gene knockouts in the BaeSR regulon on the cell growth rate, free zinc, total zinc and total copper after zinc shock. Two exporters, MdtABC and MdtD, and the periplasmic protein, Spy, are involved in zinc detoxification based on the growth defects at high cell density and increases in free (>1000-fold) and total zinc/copper (>2-fold) that were observed in the single knockout strains upon exposure to zinc. These proteins complement the ATP-driven zinc export mediated by ZntA in E. coli to limit zinc toxicity. These results highlight the functions of the BaeSR regulon in metal homeostasis.
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Long wavelength fluorescence ratiometric zinc biosensor.
J Fluoresc
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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A protein-based emission ratiometric fluorescence biosensor is described that exhibits sensitivity to free zinc ion in solution down to picomolar concentrations. Ratiometric measurements are widely used to assure accurate quantitation, and emission ratios are preferred for laser scanning microscopes such as confocal fluorescence microscopes. The relatively long emission wavelengths used are well suited to studies in tissues and other matrices which exhibit significant fluorescence background, and the apo-carbonic anhydrase moiety recognizes zinc ion with high and controllable specificity.
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Mixed inhibition of adenosine deaminase activity by 1,3-dinitrobenzene: a model for understanding cell-selective neurotoxicity in chemically-induced energy deprivation syndromes in brain.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2011
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Astrocytes are acutely sensitive to 1,3-dinitrobenzene (1,3-DNB) while adjacent neurons are relatively unaffected, consistent with other chemically-induced energy deprivation syndromes. Previous studies have investigated the role of astrocytes in protecting neurons from hypoxia and chemical injury via adenosine release. Adenosine is considered neuroprotective, but it is rapidly removed by extracellular deaminases such as adenosine deaminase (ADA). The present study tested the hypothesis that ADA is inhibited by 1,3-DNB as a substrate mimic, thereby preventing adenosine catabolism. ADA was inhibited by 1,3-DNB with an IC(50) of 284 ?M, Hill slope, n = 4.8 ± 0.4. Native gel electrophoresis showed that 1,3-DNB did not denature ADA. Furthermore, adding Triton X-100 (0.01-0.05%, wt/vol), Nonidet P-40 (0.0015-0.0036%, wt/vol), or bovine serum albumin (0.05 mg/ml or changing [ADA] (0.2 and 2 nM) did not substantially alter the 1,3-DNB IC(50) value. Likewise, dynamic light scattering showed no particle formation over a (1,3-DNB) range of 149-1043 ?M. Kinetics revealed mixed inhibition with 1,3-DNB binding to ADA (K(I) = 520 ± 100 ?M, n = 1 ± 0.6) and the ADA-adenosine complex (K(IS) = 262 ± 7 ?M, n = 6 ± 0.6, indicating positive cooperativity). In accord with the kinetics, docking predicted binding of 1,3-DNB to the active site and three peripheral sites. In addition, exposure of DI TNC-1 astrocytes to 10-500 ?M 1,3-DNB produced concentration-dependent increases in extracellular adenosine at 24 h. Overall, the results demonstrate that 1,3-DNB is a mixed inhibitor of ADA and may thus lead to increases in extracellular adenosine. The finding may provide insights to guide future work on chemically-induced energy deprivation.
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Genetically encoded ratiometric biosensors to measure intracellular exchangeable zinc in Escherichia coli.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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Zinc is an essential element for numerous cellular processes, therefore zinc homeostasis is regulated in living organisms. Fluorescent sensors have been developed as important tools to monitor the concentrations of readily exchangeable zinc in live cells. One type of biosensor uses carbonic anhydrase (CA) as the recognition element based on its tunable affinity, superior metal selectivity, and fluorescence signal from aryl sulfonamide ligands coupled to zinc binding. Here, we fuse carbonic anhydrase with a red fluorescent protein to create a series of genetically-encoded Fo?rster resonance energy transfer-based excitation ratiometric zinc sensors that exhibit large signal increases in response to alterations in physiological-free zinc concentrations. These sensors were applied to the prokaryotic model organism Escherichia coli to quantify the readily exchangeable zinc concentration. In minimal media, E. coli BL21(DE3) cells expressing the CA sensor, exhibit a median intracellular readily exchangeable zinc concentration of 20 pM, much less than the total cellular zinc concentration of ?0.2 mM. Furthermore, the intracellular readily exchangeable zinc concentration varies with the concentration of environmental zinc.
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Directed evolution of a pyruvate aldolase to recognize a long chain acyl substrate.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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The use of biological catalysts for industrial scale synthetic chemistry is highly attractive, given their cost effectiveness, high specificity that obviates the need for protecting group chemistry, and the environmentally benign nature of enzymatic procedures. Here we evolve the naturally occurring 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) aldolases from Thermatoga maritima and Escherichia coli, into enzymes that recognize a nonfunctionalized electrophilic substrate, 2-keto-4-hydroxyoctonoate (KHO). Using an in vivo selection based on pyruvate auxotrophy, mutations were identified that lower the K(M) value up to 100-fold in E. coli KDPG aldolase, and that enhance the efficiency of retro-aldol cleavage of KHO by increasing the value of k(cat)/K(M) up to 25-fold in T. maritima KDPG aldolase. These data indicate that numerous mutations distal from the active site contribute to enhanced uniform binding of the substrates, which is the first step in the evolution of novel catalytic activity.
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Binding and cleavage of unstructured RNA by nuclear RNase P.
RNA
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is an essential endoribonuclease for which the best-characterized function is processing the 5 leader of pre-tRNAs. Compared to bacterial RNase P, which contains a single small protein subunit and a large catalytic RNA subunit, eukaryotic nuclear RNase P is more complex, containing nine proteins and an RNA subunit in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Consistent with this, nuclear RNase P has been shown to possess unique RNA binding capabilities. To understand the unique molecular recognition of nuclear RNase P, the interaction of S. cerevisiae RNase P with single-stranded RNA was characterized. Unstructured, single-stranded RNA inhibits RNase P in a size-dependent manner, suggesting that multiple interactions are required for high affinity binding. Mixed-sequence RNAs from protein-coding regions also bind strongly to the RNase P holoenzyme. However, in contrast to poly(U) homopolymer RNA that is not cleaved, a variety of mixed-sequence RNAs have multiple preferential cleavage sites that do not correspond to identifiable consensus structures or sequences. In addition, pre-tRNA(Tyr), poly(U)(50) RNA, and mixed-sequence RNA cross-link with purified RNase P in the RNA subunit Rpr1 near the active site in "Conserved Region I," although the exact positions vary. Additional contacts between poly(U)(50) and the RNase P proteins Rpr2p and Pop4p were identified. We conclude that unstructured RNAs interact with multiple protein and RNA contacts near the RNase P RNA active site, but that cleavage depends on the nature of interaction with the active site.
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The RNR motif of B. subtilis RNase P protein interacts with both PRNA and pre-tRNA to stabilize an active conformer.
RNA
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2011
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Ribonuclease P (RNase P) catalyzes the metal-dependent 5 end maturation of precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs). In Bacteria, RNase P is composed of a catalytic RNA (PRNA) and a protein subunit (P protein) necessary for function in vivo. The P protein enhances pre-tRNA affinity, selectivity, and cleavage efficiency, as well as modulates the cation requirement for RNase P function. Bacterial P proteins share little sequence conservation although the protein structures are homologous. Here we combine site-directed mutagenesis, affinity measurements, and single turnover kinetics to demonstrate that two residues (R60 and R62) in the most highly conserved region of the P protein, the RNR motif (R60-R68 in Bacillus subtilis), stabilize PRNA complexes with both P protein (PRNA•P protein) and pre-tRNA (PRNA•P protein•pre-tRNA). Additionally, these data indicate that the RNR motif enhances a metal-stabilized conformational change in RNase P that accompanies substrate binding and is essential for efficient catalysis. Stabilization of this conformational change contributes to both the decreased metal requirement and the enhanced substrate recognition of the RNase P holoenzyme, illuminating the role of the most highly conserved region of P protein in the RNase P reaction pathway.
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Identification of a novel class of farnesylation targets by structure-based modeling of binding specificity.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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Farnesylation is an important post-translational modification catalyzed by farnesyltransferase (FTase). Until recently it was believed that a C-terminal CaaX motif is required for farnesylation, but recent experiments have revealed larger substrate diversity. In this study, we propose a general structural modeling scheme to account for peptide binding specificity and recapitulate the experimentally derived selectivity profile of FTase in vitro. In addition to highly accurate recovery of known FTase targets, we also identify a range of novel potential targets in the human genome, including a new substrate class with an acidic C-terminal residue (CxxD/E). In vitro experiments verified farnesylation of 26/29 tested peptides, including both novel human targets, as well as peptides predicted to tightly bind FTase. This study extends the putative range of biological farnesylation substrates. Moreover, it suggests that the ability of a peptide to bind FTase is a main determinant for the farnesylation reaction. Finally, simple adaptation of our approach can contribute to more accurate and complete elucidation of peptide-mediated interactions and modifications in the cell.
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Transient-state kinetic analysis of transcriptional activator·DNA complexes interacting with a key coactivator.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2011
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Several lines of evidence suggest that the prototypical amphipathic transcriptional activators Gal4, Gcn4, and VP16 interact with the key coactivator Med15 (Gal11) during transcription initiation despite little sequence homology. Recent cross-linking data further reveal that at least two of the activators utilize the same binding surface within Med15 for transcriptional activation. To determine whether these three activators use a shared binding mechanism for Med15 recruitment, we characterized the thermodynamics and kinetics of Med15·activator·DNA complex formation by fluorescence titration and stopped-flow techniques. Combination of each activator·DNA complex with Med15 produced biphasic time courses. This is consistent with a minimum two-step binding mechanism composed of a bimolecular association step limited by diffusion, followed by a conformational change in the Med15·activator·DNA complex. Furthermore, the equilibrium constant for the conformational change (K(2)) correlates with the ability of an activator to stimulate transcription. VP16, the most potent of the activators, has the largest K(2) value, whereas Gcn4, the least potent, has the smallest value. This correlation is consistent with a model in which transcriptional activation is regulated at least in part by the rearrangement of the Med15·activator·DNA ternary complex. These results are the first detailed kinetic characterization of the transcriptional activation machinery and provide a framework for the future design of potent transcriptional activators.
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On the function of the internal cavity of histone deacetylase protein 8: R37 is a crucial residue for catalysis.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Biochemical studies reveal that a conserved arginine residue (R37) at the centre of the 14Å internal cavity of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 8 is important for catalysis and acetate affinity. Computational studies indicate that R37 forms multiple hydrogen bonding interactions with the backbone carbonyl oxygen atoms of two conserved glycine residues, G303 and G305, resulting in a closed form of the channel. One possible rationale for these data is that water or product (acetate) transit through the catalytically crucial internal channel of HDAC8 is regulated by a gating interaction between G139 and G303 tethered in position by the conserved R37.
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Structure of the metal-dependent deacetylase LpxC from Yersinia enterocolitica complexed with the potent inhibitor CHIR-090 .
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2010
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The first committed step of lipid A biosynthesis is catalyzed by UDP-(3-O-((R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl))-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase, a metal-dependent deacetylase also known as LpxC. Because lipid A is essential for bacterial viability, the inhibition of LpxC is an appealing therapeutic strategy for the treatment of Gram-negative bacterial infections. Here we report the 1.79 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of LpxC from Yersinia enterocolitica (YeLpxC) complexed with the potent hydroxamate inhibitor CHIR-090. This enzyme is a nearly identical orthologue of LpxC from Yersinia pestis (99.7% sequence identity), the pathogen that causes bubonic plague. Similar to the inhibition of LpxC from Escherichia coli, CHIR-090 inhibits YeLpxC via a two-step slow, tight-binding mechanism with an apparent K(i) of 0.54 ± 0.14 nM followed by conversion of the E·I to E·I* species with a rate constant of 0.11 ± 0.01 min(-1). The structure of the LpxC complex with CHIR-090 shows that the inhibitor hydroxamate group chelates the active site zinc ion, and the "tail" of the inhibitor binds in the hydrophobic tunnel in the active site. This hydrophobic tunnel is framed by a ??? subdomain that exhibits significant conformational flexibility as it accommodates inhibitor binding. CHIR-090 displays a 27 mm zone of inhibition against Y. enterocolitica in a Kirby-Bauer antibiotic assay, which is comparable to its reported activity against other Gram-negative species including E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study demonstrates that the inhibition of LpxC should be explored as a potential therapeutic and/or prophylatic response to infection by weaponized Yersinia species.
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Active site metal ion in UDP-3-O-((R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) switches between Fe(II) and Zn(II) depending on cellular conditions.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2010
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UDP-3-O-((R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) catalyzes the deacetylation of UDP-3-O-((R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl)-N-acetylglucosamine to form UDP-3-O-myristoylglucosamine and acetate in Gram-negative bacteria. This second, and committed, step in lipid A biosynthesis is a target for antibiotic development. LpxC was previously identified as a mononuclear Zn(II) metalloenzyme; however, LpxC is 6-8-fold more active with the oxygen-sensitive Fe(II) cofactor (Hernick, M., Gattis, S. G., Penner-Hahn, J. E., and Fierke, C. A. (2010) Biochemistry 49, 2246-2255). To analyze the native metal cofactor bound to LpxC, we developed a pulldown method to rapidly purify tagged LpxC under anaerobic conditions. The metal bound to LpxC purified from Escherichia coli grown in minimal medium is mainly Fe(II). However, the ratio of iron/zinc bound to LpxC varies with the metal content of the medium. Furthermore, the iron/zinc ratio bound to native LpxC, determined by activity assays, has a similar dependence on the growth conditions. LpxC has significantly higher affinity for Zn(II) compared with Fe(II) with K(D) values of 60 ± 20 pM and 110 ± 40 nM, respectively. However, in vivo concentrations of readily exchangeable iron are significantly higher than zinc, suggesting that Fe(II) is the thermodynamically favored metal cofactor for LpxC under cellular conditions. These data indicate that LpxC expressed in E. coli grown in standard medium predominantly exists as the Fe(II)-enzyme. However, the metal cofactor in LpxC can switch between iron and zinc in response to perturbations in available metal ions. This alteration may be important for regulating the LpxC activity upon changes in environmental conditions and may be a general mechanism of regulating the activity of metalloenzymes.
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Structures of metal-substituted human histone deacetylase 8 provide mechanistic inferences on biological function .
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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The metal-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) adopt an alpha/beta protein fold first identified in rat liver arginase. Despite insignificant overall amino acid sequence identity, these enzymes share a strictly conserved metal binding site with divergent metal specificity and stoichiometry. HDAC8, originally thought to be a Zn(2+)-metallohydrolase, exhibits increased activity with Co(2+) and Fe(2+) cofactors based on k(cat)/K(M) (Gantt, S. L., Gattis, S. G., and Fierke, C. A. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 6170-6178). Here, we report the first X-ray crystal structures of metallo-substituted HDAC8, Co(2+)-HDAC8, D101L Co(2+)-HDAC8, D101L Mn(2+)-HDAC8, and D101L Fe(2+)-HDAC8, each complexed with the inhibitor M344. Metal content of protein samples in solution is confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For the crystalline enzymes, peaks in Bijvoet difference Fourier maps calculated from X-ray diffraction data collected near the respective elemental absorption edges confirm metal substitution. Additional solution studies confirm incorporation of Cu(2+); Fe(3+) and Ni(2+) do not bind under conditions tested. The metal dependence of the substrate K(M) values and the K(i) values of hydroxamate inhibitors that chelate the active site metal are consistent with substrate-metal coordination in the precatalytic Michaelis complex that enhances catalysis. Additionally, although HDAC8 binds Zn(2+) nearly 10(6)-fold more tightly than Fe(2+), the affinities for both metal ions are comparable to the readily exchangeable metal concentrations estimated in living cells, suggesting that HDAC8 could bind either or both Fe(2+) or Zn(2+) in vivo.
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A divalent cation stabilizes the active conformation of the B. subtilis RNase P x pre-tRNA complex: a role for an inner-sphere metal ion in RNase P.
J. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2010
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Metal ions interact with RNA to enhance folding, stabilize structure, and, in some cases, facilitate catalysis. Assigning functional roles to specifically bound metal ions presents a major challenge in analyzing the catalytic mechanisms of ribozymes. Bacillus subtilis ribonuclease P (RNase P), composed of a catalytically active RNA subunit (PRNA) and a small protein subunit (P protein), catalyzes the 5-end maturation of precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs). Inner-sphere coordination of divalent metal ions to PRNA is essential for catalytic activity but not for the formation of the RNase P x pre-tRNA (enzyme-substrate, ES) complex. Previous studies have demonstrated that this ES complex undergoes an essential conformational change (to the ES* conformer) before the cleavage step. Here, we show that the ES* conformer is stabilized by a high-affinity divalent cation capable of inner-sphere coordination, such as Ca(II) or Mg(II). Additionally, a second, lower-affinity Mg(II) activates cleavage catalyzed by RNase P. Structural changes that occur upon binding Ca(II) to the ES complex were determined by time-resolved Förster resonance energy transfer measurements of the distances between donor-acceptor fluorophores introduced at specific locations on the P protein and pre-tRNA 5 leader. These data demonstrate that the 5 leader of pre-tRNA moves 4 to 6 A closer to the PRNA x P protein interface during the ES-to-ES* transition and suggest that the metal-dependent conformational change reorganizes the bound substrate in the active site to form a catalytically competent ES* complex.
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Activation of Escherichia coli UDP-3-O-[(R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase by Fe2+ yields a more efficient enzyme with altered ligand affinity.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
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The metal-dependent deacetylase UDP-3-O-[(R)-3-hydroxymyristoyl]-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase (LpxC) catalyzes the first committed step in lipid A biosynthesis, the hydrolysis of UDP-3-O-myristoyl-N-acetylglucosamine to form UDP-3-O-myristoylglucosamine and acetate. Consequently, LpxC is a target for the development of antibiotics, nearly all of which coordinate the active site metal ion. Here we examine the ability of Fe(2+) to serve as a cofactor for wild-type Escherichia coli LpxC and a mutant enzyme (EcC63A), in which one of the ligands for the inhibitory metal binding site has been removed. LpxC exhibits higher activity (6-8-fold) with a single bound Fe(2+) as the cofactor compared to Zn(2+)-LpxC; both metalloenzymes have a bell-shaped dependence on pH with similar pK(a) values, indicating that at least two ionizations are important for maximal activity. X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments suggest that the catalytic metal ion bound to Fe(2+)-EcLpxC is five-coordinate, suggesting that catalytic activity may correlate with coordination number. Furthermore, the ligand affinity of Fe(2+)-LpxC compared to the Zn(2+) enzyme is altered by up to 6-fold. In contrast to Zn(2+)-LpxC, the activity of Fe(2+)-LpxC is redox-sensitive, and a time-dependent decrease in activity is observed under aerobic conditions. The LpxC activity of crude E. coli cell lysates is also aerobically sensitive, consistent with the presence of Fe(2+)-LpxC. These data indicate that EcLpxC can use either Fe(2+) or Zn(2+) to activate catalysis in vitro and possibly in vivo, which may allow LpxC to function in E. coli grown under different environmental conditions.
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NMR and XAS reveal an inner-sphere metal binding site in the P4 helix of the metallo-ribozyme ribonuclease P.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2010
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Functionally critical metals interact with RNA through complex coordination schemes that are currently difficult to visualize at the atomic level under solution conditions. Here, we report a new approach that combines NMR and XAS to resolve and characterize metal binding in the most highly conserved P4 helix of ribonuclease P (RNase P), the ribonucleoprotein that catalyzes the divalent metal ion-dependent maturation of the 5 end of precursor tRNA. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy reveals that the Zn(2+) bound to a P4 helix mimic is six-coordinate, with an average Zn-O/N bond distance of 2.08 A. The EXAFS data also show intense outer-shell scattering indicating that the zinc ion has inner-shell interactions with one or more RNA ligands. NMR Mn(2+) paramagnetic line broadening experiments reveal strong metal localization at residues corresponding to G378 and G379 in B. subtilis RNase P. A new "metal cocktail" chemical shift perturbation strategy involving titrations with , Zn(2+), and confirm an inner-sphere metal interaction with residues G378 and G379. These studies present a unique picture of how metals coordinate to the putative RNase P active site in solution, and shed light on the environment of an essential metal ion in RNase P. Our experimental approach presents a general method for identifying and characterizing inner-sphere metal ion binding sites in RNA in solution.
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Activation and inhibition of histone deacetylase 8 by monovalent cations.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2009
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The metal-dependent histone deacetylases (HDACs) catalyze hydrolysis of acetyl groups from acetyllysine side chains and are targets of cancer therapeutics. Two bound monovalent cations (MVCs) of unknown function have been previously observed in crystal structures of HDAC8; site 1 is near the active site, whereas site 2 is located > 20 A from the catalytic metal ion. Here we demonstrate that one bound MVC activates catalytic activity (K(1/2) = 3.4 mM for K(+)), whereas the second, weaker-binding MVC (K(1/2) = 26 mM for K(+)) decreases catalytic activity by 11-fold. The weaker binding MVC also enhances the affinity of the HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid by 5-fold. The site 1 MVC is coordinated by the side chain of Asp-176 that also forms a hydrogen bond with His-142, one of two histidines important for catalytic activity. The D176A and H142A mutants each increase the K(1/2) for potassium inhibition by > or = 40-fold, demonstrating that the inhibitory cation binds to site 1. Furthermore, the MVC inhibition is mediated by His-142, suggesting that this residue is protonated for maximal HDAC8 activity. Therefore, His-142 functions either as an electrostatic catalyst or a general acid. The activating MVC binds in the distal site and causes a time-dependent increase in activity, suggesting that the site 2 MVC stabilizes an active conformation of the enzyme. Sodium binds more weakly to both sites and activates HDAC8 to a lesser extent than potassium. Therefore, it is likely that potassium is the predominant MVC bound to HDAC8 in vivo.
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Protein-precursor tRNA contact leads to sequence-specific recognition of 5 leaders by bacterial ribonuclease P.
J. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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Bacterial ribonuclease P (RNase P) catalyzes the cleavage of 5 leader sequences from precursor tRNAs (pre-tRNAs). Previously, all known substrate nucleotide specificities in this system are derived from RNA-RNA interactions with the RNase P RNA subunit. Here, we demonstrate that pre-tRNA binding affinities for Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli RNase P are enhanced by sequence-specific contacts between the fourth pre-tRNA nucleotide on the 5 side of the cleavage site (N(-4)) and the RNase P protein (P protein) subunit. B. subtilis RNase P has a higher affinity for pre-tRNA with adenosine at N(-4), and this binding preference is amplified at physiological divalent ion concentrations. Measurements of pre-tRNA-containing adenosine analogs at N(-4) indicate that specificity arises from a combination of hydrogen bonding to the N6 exocyclic amine of adenosine and steric exclusion of the N2 amine of guanosine. Mutagenesis of B. subtilis P protein indicates that F20 and Y34 contribute to selectivity at N(-4). The hydroxyl group of Y34 enhances selectivity, likely by forming a hydrogen bond with the N(-4) nucleotide. The sequence preference of E. coli RNase P is diminished, showing a weak preference for adenosine and cytosine at N(-4), consistent with the substitution of Leu for Y34 in the E. coli P protein. This is the first identification of a sequence-specific contact between P protein and pre-tRNA that contributes to molecular recognition of RNase P. Additionally, sequence analyses reveal that a greater-than-expected fraction of pre-tRNAs from both E. coli and B. subtilis contains a nucleotide at N(-4) that enhances RNase P affinity. This observation suggests that specificity at N(-4) contributes to substrate recognition in vivo. Furthermore, bioinformatic analyses suggest that sequence-specific contacts between the protein subunit and the leader sequences of pre-tRNAs may be common in bacterial RNase P and may lead to species-specific substrate recognition.
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Carbonic anhydrase II-based metal ion sensing: Advances and new perspectives.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2009
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Carbonic anhydrases are archetypical zinc metalloenzymes and as such, they have been developed as the recognition element of a family of fluorescent indicators (sensors) to detect metal ions, particularly Zn(2+) and Cu(2+). Subtle modification of the structure of human carbonic anhydrase II isozyme (CAII) alters the selectivity, sensitivity, and response time for these sensors. Sensors using CAII variants coupled with zinc-dependent fluorescent ligands demonstrate picomolar sensitivity, unmatched selectivity, ratiometric fluorescence signal, and near diffusion-controlled response times. Recently, these sensors have been applied to measuring the readily exchangeable concentrations of zinc in the cytosol and nucleus of mammalian tissue culture cells and concentrations of free Cu(2+) in seawater.
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Synthesis and screening of a CaaL peptide library versus FTase reveals a surprising number of substrates.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2009
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Proteins bearing a CaaL sequence are typically geranylgeranylated to enable their proper localization and function. We found that many of the dansyl-GCaaL peptides representing mammalian CaaL proteins can be farnesylated by FTase. This result may have important implications for prenylated protein biology.
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Mechanistic basis for differential inhibition of the F1Fo-ATPase by aurovertin.
Biopolymers
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2009
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The mitochondrial F(1)F(o)-ATPase performs the terminal step of oxidative phosphorylation. Small molecules that modulate this enzyme have been invaluable in helping decipher F(1)F(o)-ATPase structure, function, and mechanism. Aurovertin is an antibiotic that binds to the beta subunits in the F(1) domain and inhibits F(1)F(o)-ATPase-catalyzed ATP synthesis in preference to ATP hydrolysis. Despite extensive study and the existence of crystallographic data, the molecular basis of the differential inhibition and kinetic mechanism of inhibition of ATP synthesis by aurovertin has not been resolved. To address these questions, we conducted a series of experiments in both bovine heart mitochondria and E. coli membrane F(1)F(o)-ATPase. Aurovertin is a mixed, noncompetitive inhibitor of both ATP hydrolysis and synthesis with lower K(i) values for synthesis. At low substrate concentrations, inhibition is cooperative suggesting a stoichiometry of two aurovertin per F(1)F(o)-ATPase. Furthermore, aurovertin does not completely inhibit the ATP hydrolytic activity at saturating concentrations. Single-molecule experiments provide evidence that the residual rate of ATP hydrolysis seen in the presence of saturating concentrations of aurovertin results from a decrease in the binding change mechanism by hindering catalytic site interactions. The results from these studies should further the understanding of how the F(1)F(o)-ATPase catalyzes ATP synthesis and hydrolysis.
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Identification of novel peptide substrates for protein farnesyltransferase reveals two substrate classes with distinct sequence selectivities.
J. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
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Prenylation is a posttranslational modification essential for the proper localization and function of many proteins. Farnesylation, the attachment of a 15-carbon farnesyl group near the C-terminus of protein substrates, is catalyzed by protein farnesyltransferase (FTase). Farnesylation has received significant interest as a target for pharmaceutical development, and farnesyltransferase inhibitors are in clinical trials as cancer therapeutics. However, as the total complement of prenylated proteins is unknown, the FTase substrates responsible for farnesyltransferase inhibitor efficacy are not yet understood. Identifying novel prenylated proteins within the human proteome constitutes an important step towards understanding prenylation-dependent cellular processes. Based on sequence preferences for FTase derived from analysis of known farnesylated proteins, we selected and screened a library of small peptides representing the C-termini of 213 human proteins for activity with FTase. We identified 77 novel FTase substrates that exhibit multiple-turnover (MTO) reactivity within this library; our library also contained 85 peptides that can be farnesylated by FTase only under single-turnover (STO) conditions. Based on these results, a second library was designed that yielded an additional 29 novel MTO FTase substrates and 45 STO substrates. The two classes of substrates exhibit different specificity requirements. Efficient MTO reactivity correlates with the presence of a nonpolar amino acid at the a(2) position and a Phe, Met, or Gln at the terminal X residue, consistent with the proposed Ca(1)a(2)X sequence model. In contrast, the sequences of the STO substrates vary significantly more at both the a(2) and the X residues and are not well described by current farnesylation algorithms. These results improve the definition of prenyltransferase substrate specificity, test the efficacy of substrate algorithms, and provide valuable information about therapeutic targets. Finally, these data illuminate the potential for in vivo regulation of prenylation through modulation of STO versus MTO peptide reactivity with FTase.
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Context-dependent substrate recognition by protein farnesyltransferase.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Prenylation is a posttranslational modification whereby C-terminal lipidation leads to protein localization to membranes. A C-terminal "Ca(1)a(2)X" sequence has been proposed as the recognition motif for two prenylation enzymes, protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) and protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I. To define the parameters involved in recognition of the a(2) residue, we performed structure-activity analysis which indicates that FTase discriminates between peptide substrates based on both the hydrophobicity and steric volume of the side chain at the a(2) position. For nonpolar side chains, the dependence of the reactivity on side chain volume at this position forms a pyramidal pattern with a maximal activity near the steric volume of valine. This discrimination occurs at a step in the kinetic mechanism that is at or before the farnesylation step. Furthermore, a(2) selectivity is also affected by the identity of the adjacent X residue, leading to context-dependent substrate recognition. Context-dependent a(2) selectivity suggests that FTase recognizes the sequence downstream of the conserved cysteine as a set of two or three cooperative, interconnected recognition elements as opposed to three independent amino acids. These findings expand the pool of proposed FTase substrates in cells. A better understanding of the molecular recognition of substrates performed by FTase will aid in both designing new FTase inhibitors as therapeutic agents and characterizing proteins involved in prenylation-dependent cellular pathways.
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Pre-tRNA turnover catalyzed by the yeast nuclear RNase P holoenzyme is limited by product release.
RNA
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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Ribonuclease P (RNase P) is a ribonucleoprotein that catalyzes the 5 maturation of precursor transfer RNA in the presence of magnesium ions. The bacterial RNase P holoenzyme consists of one catalytically active RNA component and a single essential but catalytically inactive protein. In contrast, yeast nuclear RNase P is more complex with one RNA subunit and nine protein subunits. We have devised an affinity purification protocol to gently and rapidly purify intact yeast nuclear RNase P holoenzyme for transient kinetic studies. In pre-steady-state kinetic studies under saturating substrate concentrations, we observed an initial burst of tRNA formation followed by a slower, linear, steady-state turnover, with the burst amplitude equal to the concentration of the holoenzyme used in the reaction. These data indicate that the rate-limiting step in turnover occurs after pre-tRNA cleavage, such as mature tRNA release. Additionally, the steady-state rate constants demonstrate a large dependence on temperature that results in nonlinear Arrhenius plots, suggesting that a kinetically important conformational change occurs during catalysis. Finally, deletion of the 3 trailer in pre-tRNA has little or no effect on the steady-state kinetic rate constants. These data suggest that, despite marked differences in subunit composition, the minimal kinetic mechanism for cleavage of pre-tRNA catalyzed by yeast nuclear RNase P holoenzyme is similar to that of the bacterial RNase P holoenzyme.
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Recent advances in protein prenyltransferases: substrate identification, regulation, and disease interventions.
Curr Opin Chem Biol
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Protein post-translational modifications increase the functional diversity of the proteome by covalently adding chemical moieties onto proteins thereby changing their activation state, cellular localization, interacting partners, and life cycle. Lipidation is one such modification that enables membrane association of naturally cytosolic proteins. Protein prenyltransferases irreversibly install isoprenoid units of varying length via a thioether linkage onto proteins that exert their cellular activity at membranes. Substrates of prenyltransferases are involved in countless signaling pathways and processes within the cell. Identification of new prenylation substrates, prenylation pathway regulators, and dynamic trafficking of prenylated proteins are all avenues of intense, ongoing research that are challenging, exciting, and have the potential to significantly advance the field in the near future.
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Expansion of protein farnesyltransferase specificity using "tunable" active site interactions: development of bioengineered prenylation pathways.
J. Biol. Chem.
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Post-translational modifications play essential roles in regulating protein structure and function. Protein farnesyltransferase (FTase) catalyzes the biologically relevant lipidation of up to several hundred cellular proteins. Site-directed mutagenesis of FTase coupled with peptide selectivity measurements demonstrates that molecular recognition is determined by a combination of multiple interactions. Targeted randomization of these interactions yields FTase variants with altered and, in some cases, bio-orthogonal selectivity. We demonstrate that FTase specificity can be "tuned" using a small number of active site contacts that play essential roles in discriminating against non-substrates in the wild-type enzyme. This tunable selectivity extends in vivo, with FTase variants enabling the creation of bioengineered parallel prenylation pathways with altered substrate selectivity within a cell. Engineered FTase variants provide a novel avenue for probing both the selectivity of prenylation pathway enzymes and the effects of prenylation pathway modifications on the cellular function of a protein.
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Mitochondrial ribonuclease P structure provides insight into the evolution of catalytic strategies for precursor-tRNA 5 processing.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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Ribonuclease P (RNase P) catalyzes the maturation of the 5 end of tRNA precursors. Typically these enzymes are ribonucleoproteins with a conserved RNA component responsible for catalysis. However, protein-only RNase P (PRORP) enzymes process precursor tRNAs in human mitochondria and in all tRNA-using compartments of Arabidopsis thaliana. PRORP enzymes are nuclear encoded and conserved among many eukaryotes, having evolved recently as yeast mitochondrial genomes encode an RNase P RNA. Here we report the crystal structure of PRORP1 from A. thaliana at 1.75 Å resolution, revealing a prototypical metallonuclease domain tethered to a pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) domain by a structural zinc-binding domain. The metallonuclease domain is a unique high-resolution structure of a Nedd4-BP1, YacP Nucleases (NYN) domain that is a member of the PIN domain-like fold superfamily, including the FLAP nuclease family. The structural similarity between PRORP1 and the FLAP nuclease family suggests that they evolved from a common ancestor. Biochemical data reveal that conserved aspartate residues in PRORP1 are important for catalytic activity and metal binding and that the PPR domain also enhances activity, likely through an interaction with pre-tRNA. These results provide a foundation for understanding tRNA maturation in organelles. Furthermore, these studies allow for a molecular-level comparison of the catalytic strategies used by the only known naturally evolved protein and RNA-based catalysts that perform the same biological function, pre-tRNA maturation, thereby providing insight into the differences between the prebiotic RNA world and the present protein-dominated world.
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Farnesyl diphosphate analogues with aryl moieties are efficient alternate substrates for protein farnesyltransferase.
Biochemistry
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Farnesylation is an important post-translational modification essential for the proper localization and function of many proteins. Transfer of the farnesyl group from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to proteins is catalyzed by protein farnesyltransferase (FTase). We employed a library of FPP analogues with a range of aryl groups substituting for individual isoprene moieties to examine some of the structural and electronic properties of the transfer of an analogue to the peptide catalyzed by FTase. Analysis of steady-state kinetics for modification of peptide substrates revealed that the multiple-turnover activity depends on the analogue structure. Analogues in which the first isoprene is replaced with a benzyl group and an analogue in which each isoprene is replaced with an aryl group are good substrates. In sharp contrast with the steady-state reaction, the single-turnover rate constant for dansyl-GCVLS alkylation was found to be the same for all analogues, despite the increased chemical reactivity of the benzyl analogues and the increased steric bulk of other analogues. However, the single-turnover rate constant for alkylation does depend on the Ca(1)a(2)X peptide sequence. These results suggest that the isoprenoid transition-state conformation is preferred over the inactive E·FPP·Ca(1)a(2)X ternary complex conformation. Furthermore, these data suggest that the farnesyl binding site in the exit groove may be significantly more selective for the farnesyl diphosphate substrate than the active site binding pocket and therefore might be a useful site for the design of novel inhibitors.
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ZntR-mediated transcription of zntA responds to nanomolar intracellular free zinc.
J. Inorg. Biochem.
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In E. coli, ZitB and ZntA are important metal exporters that enhance cell viability under high environmental zinc. To understand their functions in maintaining zinc homeostasis, we applied a novel genetically-encoded fluorescent zinc sensor to monitor the intracellular free zinc changes in wild type, ?zitB and ?zntA E. coli cells upon sudden exposure to toxic levels of zinc ("zinc shock"). The intracellular readily exchangeable zinc concentration (or "free" zinc) increases transiently from picomolar to nanomolar levels, accelerating zinc-activated gene transcription. After zinc shock, the zitB mRNA level is constant while the zntA mRNA increases substantially in a zinc-dependent manner. In the ?zitB E. coli strain the free zinc concentration rises more rapidly after zinc shock compared to wild type cells while a prolonged accumulation of free zinc is observed in the ?zntA strain. Based on these results, we propose that ZitB functions as a constitutive, first-line defense against toxic zinc influx, while ZntA is up-regulated to efficiently lower the free zinc concentration. Furthermore, the ZntR-mediated transcription of zntA exhibits an apparent K(1/2) for zinc activation in the nanomolar range in vivo, significantly higher than the femtomolar affinity for zinc binding and transcription activation previously measured in vitro. A kinetically-controlled transcription model is sufficient to explain the observed regulation of intracellular free zinc concentration by ZntR and ZntA after zinc shock.
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Quantitative imaging of mitochondrial and cytosolic free zinc levels in an in vitro model of ischemia/reperfusion.
J. Bioenerg. Biomembr.
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The role of zinc ion in cytotoxicity following ischemic stroke, prolonged status epilepticus, and traumatic brain injury remains controversial, but likely is the result of mitochondrial dysfunction. We describe an excitation ratiometric fluorescence biosensor based on human carbonic anhydrase II variants expressed in the mitochondrial matrix, permitting free zinc levels to be quantitatively imaged therein. We observed an average mitochondrial matrix free zinc concentration of 0.2?pM in the PC12 rat pheochromacytoma cell culture line. Cytoplasmic and mitochondrial free zinc levels were imaged in a cellular oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) model of ischemia/reperfusion. We observed a significant increase in mitochondrial zinc 1 h following 3 h OGD, at a time point when cytosolic zinc levels were depressed. Following the increase, mitochondrial zinc levels returned to physiological levels, while cytosolic zinc increased gradually over a 24 h time period in viable cells. The increase in intramitochondrial zinc observed during reoxygenation after OGD may contribute to bioenergetic dysfunction and cell death that occurs with both in vitro and in vivo models of reperfusion.
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Improving upon nature: active site remodeling produces highly efficient aldolase activity toward hydrophobic electrophilic substrates.
Biochemistry
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The substrate specificity of enzymes is frequently narrow and constrained by multiple interactions, limiting the use of natural enzymes in biocatalytic applications. Aldolases have important synthetic applications, but the usefulness of these enzymes is hampered by their narrow reactivity profile with unnatural substrates. To explore the determinants of substrate selectivity and alter the specificity of Escherichia coli 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) aldolase, we employed structure-based mutagenesis coupled with library screening of mutant enzymes localized to the bacterial periplasm. We identified two active site mutations (T161S and S184L) that work additively to enhance the substrate specificity of this aldolase to include catalysis of retro-aldol cleavage of (4S)-2-keto-4-hydroxy-4-(2-pyridyl)butyrate (S-KHPB). These mutations improve the value of k(cat)/K(M)(S-KHPB) by >450-fold, resulting in a catalytic efficiency that is comparable to that of the wild-type enzyme with the natural substrate while retaining high stereoselectivity. Moreover, the value of k(cat)(S-KHPB) for this mutant enzyme, a parameter critical for biocatalytic applications, is 3-fold higher than the maximal value achieved by the natural aldolase with any substrate. This mutant also possesses high catalytic efficiency for the retro-aldol cleavage of the natural substrate, KDPG, and a >50-fold improved activity for cleavage of 2-keto-4-hydroxy-octonoate, a nonfunctionalized hydrophobic analogue. These data suggest a substrate binding mode that illuminates the origin of facial selectivity in aldol addition reactions catalyzed by KDPG and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonate aldolases. Furthermore, targeting mutations to the active site provides a marked improvement in substrate selectivity, demonstrating that structure-guided active site mutagenesis combined with selection techniques can efficiently identify proteins with characteristics that compare favorably to those of naturally occurring enzymes.
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Ligand Concentration Regulates the Pathways of Coupled Protein Folding and Binding.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
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Coupled ligand binding and conformational change plays a central role in biological regulation. Ligands often regulate protein function by modulating conformational dynamics, yet the order in which binding and conformational change occurs are often hotly debated. Here we show that the "conformational selection versus induced fit" on which this debate is based is a false dichotomy, because the mechanism depends on ligand concentration. Using the binding of pyrophosphate (PPi) to B. subtilis RNase P protein as a model, we show that coupled reactions are best understood as a change in flux between competing pathways with distinct orders of binding and conformational change. The degree of partitioning through each pathway depends strongly on PPi concentration, with ligand binding redistributing the conformational ensemble toward the folded state by both increasing folding rates and decreasing unfolding rates. These results indicate that ligand binding induces marked and varied changes in protein conformational dynamics, and that the order of binding and conformational change is ligand concentration dependent.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.