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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay as a strong predictor of lung cancer: extension of a lung cancer risk prediction model.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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There is an urgent need to improve lung cancer outcome by identifying and validating markers of risk. We previously reported that the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay (CBMN) is a strong predictor of lung cancer risk. Here, we validate our findings in an independent external lung cancer population and test discriminatory power improvement of the Spitz risk prediction model upon extension with this biomarker.
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Suppression of Akt-mTOR pathway-a novel component of oncogene induced DNA damage response barrier in breast tumorigenesis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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DNA damage has been thought to be directly associated with the neoplastic progression by enabling mutations in tumor suppressor genes and activating/and amplifying oncogenes ultimately resulting in genomic instability. DNA damage causes activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) that is an important cellular mechanism for maintaining genomic integrity in the face of genotoxic stress. While the cellular response to genotoxic stress has been extensively studied in cancer models, less is known about the cellular response to oncogenic stress in the premalignant context. In the present study, by using breast tissues samples from women at different risk levels for invasive breast cancer (normal, proliferative breast disease and ductal carcinoma in situ) we found that DNA damage is inversely correlated with risk of invasive breast cancer. Similarly, in MCF10A based in vitro model system where we recapitulated high DNA damage conditions as seen in patient samples by stably cloning in cyclin E, we found that high levels of oncogene induced DNA damage, by triggering inhibition of a major proliferative pathway (AKT), inhibits cell growth and causes cells to die through autophagy. These data suggest that AKT-mTOR pathway is a novel component of oncogene induced DNA damage response in immortalized 'normal-like' breast cells and its suppression may contribute to growth arrest and arrest of the breast tumorigenesis.
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Self-reported prior lung diseases as risk factors for non-small cell lung cancer in Mexican Americans.
J Immigr Minor Health
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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This study was conducted to assess the association between prior history of respiratory disease and lung cancer among Mexican Americans using data from a multi-racial/ethnic lung cancer case-control study. Cases (n = 204) were patients with previously untreated lung cancer. Healthy control participants (n = 325) were recruited from a large physician group practice. Demographics, cigarette use, and history of respiratory disease were collected. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate relative risk. Prior history of COPD (OR = 2.0; 95 % CI 1.2-3.3) and pneumonia (OR = 2.2; 95 % CI 1.3-3.6) were associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. These findings illustrate that prior COPD and pneumonia are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer among Mexican Americans. To our knowledge, this is one of largest case-control analyses assessing the role of respiratory disease and lung cancer risk specifically among Mexican-Americans.
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Associations of menthol use with motivation and confidence to quit smoking.
Am J Health Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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To examine associations of menthol cigarette use with motivation and confidence to quit smoking, and potential moderation by race, among adult current smokers (N = 1067; 85% White, 15% Black).
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Genetic variation in the PNPLA3 gene and hepatocellular carcinoma in USA: risk and prognosis prediction.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging epidemic with high prevalence in Western countries. Genome-wide association studies had reported that a variation in the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 3 (PNPLA3) gene is associated with high susceptibility to NAFLD. However, the relationship between this variation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been well established. We investigated the impact of PNPLA3 genetic variation (rs738409: C>G) on HCC risk and prognosis in the United States by conducting a case-control study that included 257 newly diagnosed and pathologically confirmed Caucasian patients with HCC (cases) and 494 healthy controls. Multivariate logistics and Cox regression models were used to control for the confounding effects of HCC risk and prognostic factors. We observed higher risk of HCC for subjects with a homozygous GG genotype than for those with CC or CG genotypes, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 3.21 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.68-6.41). We observed risk modification among individuals with diabetes mellitus (OR = 19.11; 95% CI, 5.13-71.20). The PNPLA3 GG genotype was significantly associated with underlying cirrhosis in HCC patients (OR = 2.48; 95% CI, 1.05-5.87). Moreover, GG allele represents an independent risk factor for death. The adjusted hazard ratio of the GG genotype was 2.11 (95% CI, 1.26-3.52) compared with CC and CG genotypes. PNPLA3 genetic variation (rs738409: C>G) may determine individual susceptibility to HCC development and poor prognosis. Further experimental investigations are necessary for thorough assessment of the hepatocarcinogenic role of PNPLA3.
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Clinical implications of positron emission tomography-negative residual computed tomography masses after chemotherapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Response to primary treatment in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is highly predictive of long-term outcome. We evaluated the value of computed tomography (CT) findings relative to positron emission tomography (PET) findings, after the completion of chemotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed records from 491 patients with DLBCL at M. D. Anderson in 2001-2007; 22 patients were excluded for uncertain pathology and 169 for having received consolidative radiation, leaving 300 patients for the present analysis (median age, 61 years; 53% men, 47% women; 27% stage I-II, 73% stage III-IV; 73% completed 6-8 cycles of doxorubicin-based therapy). Factors associated with outcome on univariate analysis were response according to PET/CT and CT (p < 0.0001 for overall survival [OS], disease-specific survival [DSS] and progression-free survival [PFS]); number of chemotherapy cycles received (p < 0.0001 OS, p < 0.0001 DSS, p < 0.002 PFS); the combined presence of Ki-67 > 50%, PET SUV ? 13 and bulky (> 5 cm) disease (p = 0.005 OS, p = 0.001 DSS, p = 0.001 PFS); and International Prognostic Index (IPI) score (p = 0.004 OS, p = 0.005 DSS, p = 0.004 PFS). On multivariate analysis, PET/CT-negative, CT residual mass (> 2 cm) significantly influenced OS, DSS and PFS (p < 0.0001). The presence of a residual mass >2 cm on CT, coupled with negative findings on PET/CT, has prognostic value in DLBCL.
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Cigarette experimentation in Mexican origin youth: psychosocial and genetic determinants.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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Established psychosocial risk factors increase the risk for experimentation among Mexican origin youth. Now, we comprehensively investigate the added contribution of select polymorphisms in candidate genetic pathways associated with sensation seeking, risk taking, and smoking phenotypes to predict experimentation.
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Variants in inflammation genes are implicated in risk of lung cancer in never smokers exposed to second-hand smoke.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Lung cancer in lifetime never smokers is distinct from that in smokers, but the role of separate or overlapping carcinogenic pathways has not been explored. We therefore evaluated a comprehensive panel of 11,737 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in inflammatory-pathway genes in a discovery phase (451 lung cancer cases, 508 controls from Texas). SNPs that were significant were evaluated in a second external population (303 cases, 311 controls from the Mayo Clinic). An intronic SNP in the ACVR1B gene, rs12809597, was replicated with significance and restricted to those reporting adult exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Another promising candidate was an SNP in NR4A1, although the replication OR did not achieve statistical significance. ACVR1B belongs to the TGFR-? superfamily, contributing to resolution of inflammation and initiation of airway remodeling. An inflammatory microenvironment (second-hand smoking, asthma, or hay fever) is necessary for risk from these gene variants to be expressed. These findings require further replication, followed by targeted resequencing, and functional validation.
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Gender differences in sociodemographic and behavioral influences of physical activity in Mexican-origin adolescents.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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Understanding the factors that contribute to physical activity (PA) in Mexican-origin adolescents is essential to the design of effective efforts to enhance PA participation in this population.
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A novel approach to exploring potential interactions among single-nucleotide polymorphisms of inflammation genes in gliomagenesis: an exploratory case-only study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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Despite extensive research on the topic, glioma etiology remains largely unknown. Exploration of potential interactions between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of immune genes is a promising new area of glioma research. The case-only study design is a powerful and efficient design for exploring possible multiplicative interactions between factors that are independent of one another. The purpose of our study was to use this exploratory design to identify potential pair wise SNP-SNP interactions from genes involved in several different immune-related pathways for investigation in future studies.
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The advantage of imputation of missing income data to evaluate the association between income and self-reported health status (SRH) in a Mexican American cohort study.
J Immigr Minor Health
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2011
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Missing data often occur in cross-sectional surveys and longitudinal and experimental studies. The purpose of this study was to compare the prediction of self-rated health (SRH), a robust predictor of morbidity and mortality among diverse populations, before and after imputation of the missing variable "yearly household income." We reviewed data from 4,162 participants of Mexican origin recruited from July 1, 2002, through December 31, 2005, and who were enrolled in a population-based cohort study. Missing yearly income data were imputed using three different single imputation methods and one multiple imputation under a Bayesian approach. Of 4,162 participants, 3,121 were randomly assigned to a training set (to derive the yearly income imputation methods and develop the health-outcome prediction models) and 1,041 to a testing set (to compare the areas under the curve (AUC) of the receiver-operating characteristic of the resulting health-outcome prediction models). The discriminatory powers of the SRH prediction models were good (range, 69-72%) and compared to the prediction model obtained after no imputation of missing yearly income, all other imputation methods improved the prediction of SRH (P < 0.05 for all comparisons) with the AUC for the model after multiple imputation being the highest (AUC = 0.731). Furthermore, given that yearly income was imputed using multiple imputation, the odds of SRH as good or better increased by 11% for each $5,000 increment in yearly income. This study showed that although imputation of missing data for a key predictor variable can improve a risk health-outcome prediction model, further work is needed to illuminate the risk factors associated with SRH.
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Estimating individual risk for lung cancer.
Semin Respir Crit Care Med
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Lung cancer risk prediction models hold the promise of improving patient care and streamlining research. The ultimate goal of these models is to inform clinicians as to which interventions their individual patients should receive to reduce lung cancer-associated morbidity and mortality. In this paper, we discuss the history and current state of lung cancer prediction models, focusing on three models: the Bach model, the Spitz model, and the Liverpool Lung Project (LLP) model. We also discuss the prospects for further development of improved prediction models for lung cancer risk. Although current models can identify those smokers at highest risk for lung cancer, these models are presently of limited use in the clinical setting. Nevertheless, lung cancer risk prediction models can be used during study enrollment to select more appropriate study subjects, and may eventually be useful in identifying patients for lung cancer screening or to receive chemoprevention.
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Cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and cancer risk assessment.
Mutagenesis
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2011
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Cancer risk assessment is a multidisciplinary process that goes beyond the scope of classical epidemiology to include the biological evaluation of individual differences to carcinogenic exposures. The inclusion of genetic biomarkers such as mutagen sensitivity or cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay end points into risk assessment models allows for a more comprehensive determination of cancer risk that includes known demographic (age and gender), lifestyle exposures (smoking and alcohol) and occupational or environmental exposures. The CBMN assay generates multiple correlated end points that, after applying data reduction methods, could be combined into a summary measure that incorporates information from each individual variable into a single (or possible multiple, uncorrelated) measure of risk. In this article, we highlight the use of the CBMN assay in radiosensitivity assessment. In addition, we demonstrate the potential use of the combined summary measures in cancer risk assessment as a result of chronic exposure to tobacco carcinogens. The simplicity, rapidity and sensitivity of the CBMN assay not only make it a valuable tool for screening but also the multiple end points simultaneously generated lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in the carcinogenic process that could in turn substantially improve risk predictions.
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Folate pathway polymorphisms predict deficits in attention and processing speed after childhood leukemia therapy.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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Neurocognitive impairment occurs in 20-40% of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) survivors, possibly mediated by folate depletion and homocysteine elevation following methotrexate treatment. We evaluated the relationship between folate pathway polymorphisms and neurocognitive impairment after childhood ALL chemotherapy.
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Earlier age of onset of BRCA mutation-related cancers in subsequent generations.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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Women who are diagnosed with a deleterious mutation in either breast cancer (BRCA) gene have a high risk of developing breast and ovarian cancers at young ages. In this study, the authors assessed age at diagnosis in 2 generations of families with known mutations to investigate for earlier onset in subsequent generations.
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Variants in folate pathway genes as modulators of genetic instability and lung cancer risk.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Genetic instability plays a crucial role in cancer development. The genetic stability of the cell as well as DNA methylation status could be modulated by folate levels. Several studies suggested associations between polymorphisms in folate genes and alterations in protein expression and variations in serum levels of the folate. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of folate pathway polymorphisms on modulating genetic instability and lung cancer risk. Genotyping of 5 SNPs in folate pathway genes and cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus cytome assay analysis (to determine the genetic instability at baseline and following NNK treatment) was conducted on 180 lung cancer cases and 180 age-, gender-, and smoking-matched controls. Our results showed that individually, folate pathway SNPs were not associated with cytogenetic damage or lung cancer risk. However, in a polygenic disease such as lung cancer, gene-gene interactions are expected to play an important role in determining the phenotypic variability of the diseases. We observed that interactions between MTHFR677, MTHFR1298, and SHMT polymorphisms may have a significant impact on genetic instability in lung cancer patients. With regard to cytogenetic alterations, our results showed that lymphocytes from lung cancer patients exposed to the tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone [NNK] had considerably increased frequency of cytogenetic damage in presence of MTHFR 677, MTHFR 1298, and SHMT allelic variants. These findings support the notion that significant interactions may potentially modulate the lung cancer susceptibility and alter the overall the repair abilities of lung cancer patients when exposed to tobacco carcinogens such as NNK.
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Policy implications of early onset breast cancer among Mexican-origin women.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Overall, Latinas are more likely to be diagnosed with a more advanced stage of breast cancer and are 20% more likely to die of breast cancer than non-Hispanic white women. It is estimated that from 2003 to 2006, $82.0 billion in direct medical care expenditures, in addition to 100,000 lives annually, could be saved by eliminating health disparities experienced by Latinos and increasing the use of up to 5 preventive services in the United States. An additional 3700 lives could be saved if 90% of women aged ?40 years were recently screened for breast cancer.
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Hodgkin disease risk: role of genetic polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions in inflammation pathway genes.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Inflammation is a critical component of cancer development. The clinical and pathological features of Hodgkin disease (HD) reflect an abnormal immunity that results from cytokines secreted by Reed-Sternberg cells and the surrounding tumor. Numerous studies have reported the association between genetic polymorphisms in cytokine genes and the susceptibility to different hematologic cancers. However, the effects of such SNPs on modulating HD risk have not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that gene-gene interactions between candidate genes in the anti- and pro-inflammatory pathways carrying suspicious polymorphisms may contribute to susceptibility to HD. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study on 200 HD cases and 220 controls to assess associations between HD risk and 38 functional SNPs in inflammatory genes. We evaluated potential gene-gene interactions using a multi-analytic strategy combining logistic regression, multi-factor dimensionality reduction, and classification and regression tree (CART) approaches. We observed that, in combination, allelic variants in the COX2, IL18, ILR4, and IL10 genes modify the risk for developing HD. Moreover, the cumulative genetic risk score (CGRS) revealed a significant trend where the risk for developing HD increases as the number of adverse alleles in the cytokine genes increase. These findings support the notion that epigenetic-interactions between these cytokines may influence pathogenesis of HD modulating the proliferation of regulatory T cells. In this way, the innate and adaptative immune responses may be altered and defy their usual functions in the host anti-tumor response. Our study is the first to report the association between polymorphisms in inflammation genes and HD susceptibility risk.
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Hodgkin lymphoma risk: role of genetic polymorphisms and gene-gene interactions in DNA repair pathways.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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DNA repair variants may play a potentially important role in an individuals susceptibility to developing cancer. Numerous studies have reported the association between genetic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA repair genes and different types of hematologic cancers. However, to date, the effects of such SNPs on modulating Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) risk have not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that gene-gene interaction between candidate genes in direct reversal, nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair (BER) and double strand break (DSB) pathways may contribute to susceptibility to HL. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a study on 200 HL cases and 220 controls to assess associations between HL risk and 21 functional SNPs in DNA repair genes. We evaluated potential gene-gene interactions and the association of multiple polymorphisms in a chromosome region using a multi-analytic strategy combining logistic regression, multi-factor dimensionality reduction and classification and regression tree approaches. We observed that, in combination, allelic variants in the XPC Ala499Val, NBN Glu185Gln, XRCC3 Thr241Me, XRCC1 Arg194Trp, and XRCC1 399Gln polymorphisms modify the risk for developing HL. Moreover, the cumulative genetic risk score revealed a significant trend where the risk for developing HL increases as the number of adverse alleles in BER and DSB genes increase. These findings suggest that DNA repair variants in BER and DSB pathways may play an important role in the development of HL.
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Genetic evidence linking lung cancer and COPD: a new perspective.
Appl Clin Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Epidemiological studies indicate that tobacco smoke exposure accounts for nearly 90% of cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and lung cancer. However, genetic factors may explain why 10%-30% of smokers develop these complications. This perspective reviews the evidence suggesting that COPD is closely linked to susceptibility to lung cancer and outlines the potential relevance of this observation. Epidemiological studies show that COPD is the single most important risk factor for lung cancer among smokers and predates lung cancer in up to 80% of cases. Genome-wide association studies of lung cancer, lung function, and COPD have identified a number of overlapping "susceptibility" loci. With stringent phenotyping, it has recently been shown that several of these overlapping loci are independently associated with both COPD and lung cancer. These loci implicate genes underlying pulmonary inflammation and apoptotic processes mediated by the bronchial epithelium, and link COPD with lung cancer at a molecular genetic level. It is currently possible to derive risk models for lung cancer that incorporate lung cancer-specific genetic variants, recently identified "COPD-related" genetic variants, and clinical variables. Early studies suggest that single nucleotide polymorphism-based risk stratification of smokers might help better target novel prevention and early diagnostic strategies in lung cancer.
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Familial aggregation of glioma: a pooled analysis.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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In genome-wide association studies, inherited risk of glioma has been demonstrated for rare familial syndromes and with common variants from 3-5 chromosomal regions. To assess the degree of familial aggregation of glioma, the authors performed a pooled analysis of data from 2 large glioma case-control studies in the United States (MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (1994-2006) and University of California, San Francisco (1991-2004)) and from the Swedish Cancer Registry (1958-2006) to measure excess cases of cancer among first-degree relatives of glioma probands. This analysis included 20,377 probands with glioma and 52,714 first-degree relatives. No overall increase was found in the expected number of cancers among family members; however, there were 77% more gliomas than expected. There were also significantly more sarcoma and melanoma cases than expected, which is supported by evidence in the literature, whereas there were significantly fewer-than-expected cases of leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and bladder, lung, pancreatic, prostate, and uterine cancers. This large pooled analysis provided sufficient numbers of related family members to examine the genetic mechanisms involved in the aggregation of glioma with other cancers in these families. However, misclassification due to unvalidated cancers among family members could account for the differences seen by study site.
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Genetically abnormal circulating cells in lung cancer patients: an antigen-independent fluorescence in situ hybridization-based case-control study.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2010
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We performed a study to determine if a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)-based assay using isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with DNA probes targeting specific sites on chromosomes known to have abnormalities in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases could detect circulating genetically abnormal cells (CACs).
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Gamma-radiation sensitivity and polymorphisms in RAD51L1 modulate glioma risk.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
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DNA strand breaks pose the greatest threat to genomic stability. Genetically determined mutagen sensitivity predisposes individuals to a variety of cancers, including glioma. However, polymorphisms in DNA strand break repair genes that may determine mutagen sensitivity are not well studied in cancer risk, especially in gliomas.
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Meta-analysis of the impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) on cancer risk and overall survival in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC).
Head Neck Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2010
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HPV is important in a subset of HNSCC. Our meta-analysis determined the clinical characteristics of HPV-related HNSCC.
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Rapid method for determination of DNA repair capacity in human peripheral blood lymphocytes amongst smokers.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2010
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DNA repair capacity is an important determinant of susceptibility to cancer. The hOGG1 enzyme is crucial for repairing the 8-oxoguanine lesion that occurs either as a byproduct of oxidative metabolism or as a result of exogenous sources such as exposure to cigarette smoke. It has been previously reported that smokers with low hOGG1 activity had significantly higher risk of developing lung cancer as compared to smokers with high hOGG1 activity.
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Polymorphisms of LIG4, BTBD2, HMGA2, and RTEL1 genes involved in the double-strand break repair pathway predict glioblastoma survival.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2010
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive type of glioma and has the poorest survival. However, a small percentage of patients with GBM survive well beyond the established median. Therefore, identifying the genetic variants that influence this small number of unusually long-term survivors may provide important insight into tumor biology and treatment.
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Assessing environmental and occupational risk factors for lung cancer in Mexican-Americans.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2010
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We investigated environmental and occupational exposures and smoking history (while controlling for demographics) in a population of Mexican-American lung cancer cases and controls from the Houston metropolitan area.
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Pooling dietary data using questionnaires with open-ended and predefined responses: implications for comparing mean intake or estimating odds ratios.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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In the current era of diet-gene analyses, large sample sizes are required to uncover the etiology of complex diseases. As such, consortia form and often combine available data. Food frequency questionnaires, which commonly use 2 different types of responses about the frequency of intake (predefined responses and open-ended responses), may be pooled to achieve the desired sample size. The common practice is to categorize open-ended responses into the predefined response categories. A problem arises when the predefined categories are noncontiguous: possible open-ended responses may fall in gaps between the predefined categories. Using simulated data modeled from frequency of intake among 1,664 controls in a lung cancer case-control study at The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center (Houston, Texas, 2000-2005), the authors describe the effect of different categories of open-ended responses that fall in between noncontiguous, predefined response sets on estimates of the mean difference in intake and the odds ratios. A significant inflation of false positives appears when comparing mean differences of intake, while the bias in estimating odds ratios may be acceptably small. Therefore, if pooling data cannot be restricted to the same type of response, inferences should focus on odds ratio estimation to minimize bias.
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A comprehensive haplotype analysis of the XPC genomic sequence reveals a cluster of genetic variants associated with sensitivity to tobacco-smoke mutagens.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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The impact of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the DNA repair gene XPC on DNA repair capacity (DRC) and genotoxicity has not been comprehensively determined. We constructed a comprehensive haplotype map encompassing all common XPC SNPs and evaluated the effect of Bayesian-inferred haplotypes on DNA damage associated with tobacco smoking, using chromosome aberrations (CA) as a biomarker. We also used the mutagen-sensitivity assay, in which mutagen-induced CA in cultured lymphocytes are determined, to evaluate the haplotype effects on DRC. We hypothesized that if certain XPC haplotypes have functional effects, a correlation between these haplotypes and baseline and/or mutagen-induced CA would exist. Using HapMap and single nucleotide polymorphism (dbSNP) databases, we identified 92 SNPs, of which 35 had minor allele frequencies >or= 0.05. Bayesian inference and subsequent phylogenetic analysis identified 21 unique haplotypes, which segregated into six distinct phylogenetically grouped haplotypes (PGHs A-F). A SNP tagging approach used identified 11 tagSNPs representing these 35 SNPs (r(2) = 0.80). We utilized these tagSNPs to genotype a population of smokers matched to nonsmokers (n = 123). Haplotypes for each individual were reconstituted and PGH designations were assigned. Relationships between XPC haplotypes and baseline and/or mutagen-induced CA were then evaluated. We observed significant interaction among smoking and PGH-C (p = 0.046) for baseline CA where baseline CA was 3.5 times higher in smokers compared to nonsmokers. Significant interactions among smoking and PGH-D (p = 0.023) and PGH-F (p = 0.007) for mutagen-induced CA frequencies were also observed. These data indicate that certain XPC haplotypes significantly alter CA and DRC in smokers and, thus, can contribute to cancer risk.
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Maternal current smoking: concordance between adolescent proxy and mothers self-report.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which adolescent reports on mothers smoking status and mothers self-reports on smoking are concordant with one another.
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Genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes as modulators of Hodgkin disease risk.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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Although the pathogenesis of Hodgkin disease (HD) remains unknown, the results of epidemiologic studies suggest that heritable factors are important in terms of susceptibility. Polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may contribute to individual susceptibility for development of different cancers. However, to the authors knowledge, few studies to date have investigated the role of such polymorphisms as risk factors for development of HD.
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Association of p73 G4C14-to-A4T14 polymorphism with human papillomavirus type 16 status in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in non-Hispanic whites.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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The tumor protein p73 interacts with the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) oncoproteins E6 and E7, and p73 variation may modify the interaction between p73 protein and HPV-16 oncogenic proteins and contribute to cellular malignant transformation.
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Genetic variants in the cell cycle control pathways contribute to early onset colorectal cancer in Lynch syndrome.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant syndrome of familial malignancies resulting from germ line mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes. Our goal was to take a pathway-based approach to investigate the influence of polymorphisms in cell cycle-related genes on age of onset for Lynch syndrome using a tree model.
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Association and interactions between DNA repair gene polymorphisms and adult glioma.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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It is generally accepted that glioma develops through accumulation of genetic alterations. We hypothesized that polymorphisms of candidate genes involved in the DNA repair pathways may contribute to susceptibility to glioma. To address this possibility, we conducted a study on 373 Caucasian glioma cases and 365 cancer-free Caucasian controls to assess associations between glioma risk and 18 functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA repair genes. We evaluated potential gene-gene and gene-environment interactions using a multianalytic strategy combining logistic regression, multifactor dimensionality reduction and classification and regression tree approaches. In the single-locus analysis, six single-nucleotide polymorphisms [ERCC1 3 untranslated region (UTR), XRCC1 R399Q, APEX1 E148D, PARP1 A762V, MGMT F84L, and LIG1 5UTR] showed a significant association with glioma risk. In the analysis of cumulative genetic risk of multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms, a significant gene-dosage effect was found for increased glioma risk with increasing numbers of adverse genotypes involving the aforementioned six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (P(trend) = 0.0004). Furthermore, the multifactor dimensionality reduction and classification and regression tree analyses identified MGMT F84L as the predominant risk factor for glioma and revealed strong interactions among ionizing radiation exposure, PARP1 A762V, MGMT F84L, and APEX1 E148D. Interestingly, the risk for glioma was dramatically increased in ionizing radiation exposure individuals who had the wild-type genotypes of MGMT F84L and PARP1 A762V (adjusted odds ratios, 5.95; 95% confidence intervals, 2.21-16.65). Taken together, these results suggest that polymorphisms in DNA repair genes may act individually or together to contribute to glioma risk.
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Use of the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay to detect gender differences and genetic instability in a lung cancer case-control study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
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Although tobacco exposure is the predominant risk factor for lung cancer, other environmental agents are established lung carcinogens. Measuring the genotoxic effect of environmental exposures remains equivocal, as increases in morbidity and mortality may be attributed to coexposures such as smoking.
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Hepatocellular carcinoma risk prediction model for the general population: the predictive power of transaminases.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
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Risk prediction models for hepatocellular carcinoma are available for individuals with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections who are at high risk but not for the general population with average or unknown risk. We developed five simple risk prediction models based on clinically available data from the general population.
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Risk of radiogenic second cancers following volumetric modulated arc therapy and proton arc therapy for prostate cancer.
Phys Med Biol
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Prostate cancer patients who undergo radiotherapy are at an increased risk to develop a radiogenic second cancer. Proton therapy has been shown to reduce the predicted risk of second cancer when compared to intensity modulated radiotherapy. However, it is unknown if this is also true for the rotational therapies proton arc therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). The objective of this study was to compare the predicted risk of cancer following proton arc therapy and VMAT for prostate cancer. Proton arc therapy and VMAT plans were created for three patients. Various risk models were combined with the dosimetric data (therapeutic and stray dose) to predict the excess relative risk (ERR) of cancer in the bladder and rectum. Ratios of ERR values (RRR) from proton arc therapy and VMAT were calculated. RRR values ranged from 0.74 to 0.99, and all RRR values were shown to be statistically less than 1, except for the value calculated with the linear-non-threshold risk model. We conclude that the predicted risk of cancer in the bladder or rectum following proton arc therapy for prostate cancer is either less than or approximately equal to the risk following VMAT, depending on which risk model is applied.
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Using haplotype analysis to elucidate significant associations between genes and Hodgkin lymphoma.
Leuk. Res.
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In this study, we estimated the association between the inferred haplotypes in the inflammation, DNA repair, and folate pathways, and developed risk models for Hodgkin lymphoma. The study population consisted of 200 Hodgkin lymphoma cases and 220 controls. A susceptible association was observed on the XPC gene with haplotype CT (rs2228001 and rs2228000), and a protective association was observed on the IL4R gene with haplotype TCA (rs1805012, rs1805015, and rs1801275). These results can provide the necessary tools to identify high-risk individuals after validation in large data sets.
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Comparison of therapeutic dosimetric data from passively scattered proton and photon craniospinal irradiations for medulloblastoma.
Radiat Oncol
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For many decades, the standard of care radiotherapy regimen for medulloblastoma has been photon (megavoltage x-rays) craniospinal irradiation (CSI). The late effects associated with CSI are well-documented in the literature and are in-part attributed to unwanted dose to healthy tissue. Recently, there is growing interest in using proton therapy for CSI in pediatric and adolescent patients to reduce this undesirable dose. Previous comparisons of dose to target and non-target organs from conventional photon CSI and passively scattered proton CSI have been limited to small populations (n???3) and have not considered the use of age-dependent target volumes in proton CSI.
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Genetic variants in the PI3K/PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway predict head and neck cancer patient second primary tumor/recurrence risk and response to retinoid chemoprevention.
Clin. Cancer Res.
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The development of second primary tumors (SPT) or recurrence alters prognosis for curatively treated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. The 13-cis-Retinoic acid (13-cRA) has been tested as a chemoprevention agent in clinical trials with mixed results. Therefore, we investigated whether genetic variants in the PI3K/PTEN/AKT/mTOR pathway could serve as biomarkers to identify which patients are at high risk of an SPT/recurrence, while also predicting response to 13-cRA chemoprevention.
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Multistage analysis of variants in the inflammation pathway and lung cancer risk in smokers.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
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Tobacco-induced lung cancer is characterized by a deregulated inflammatory microenvironment. Variants in multiple genes in inflammation pathways may contribute to risk of lung cancer.
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Genetic predisposition to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and/or lung cancer: important considerations when evaluating risk.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila)
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as a disease causing an airflow limitation that is not fully reversible. COPD is phenotypically complex and characterized by small-airway disease and/or emphysema that result from the interaction between host genetic susceptibility and environmental exposures. As in lung cancer, smoking exposure is the most important risk factor for the development of COPD, accounting for 80% to 90% of all cases. COPD affects an estimated 8% to 10% of the general adult population, 15% to 20% of the smoking population, and 50% to 80% of lung cancer patients (with substantial smoking histories). In prospective studies, COPD has been found to be an independent risk factor for lung cancer, conferring a three- to 10-fold increased risk of lung cancer when compared with smokers without COPD. These findings suggest that smokers have a host susceptibility to COPD alone, COPD and lung cancer (i.e., overlap), and lung cancer in the absence of COPD. This minireview focuses on important points that need to be addressed when studying genetic susceptibility factors for COPD and its complex relationship with susceptibility to lung cancer.
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Increased risk of lung cancer in individuals with a family history of the disease: a pooled analysis from the International Lung Cancer Consortium.
Eur. J. Cancer
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Familial aggregation of lung cancer exists after accounting for cigarette smoking. However, the extent to which family history affects risk by smoking status, histology, relative type and ethnicity is not well described. This pooled analysis included 24 case-control studies in the International Lung Cancer Consortium. Each study collected age of onset/interview, gender, race/ethnicity, cigarette smoking, histology and first-degree family history of lung cancer. Data from 24,380 lung cancer cases and 23,305 healthy controls were analysed. Unconditional logistic regression models and generalised estimating equations were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals.
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Comparison of attitudes regarding preimplantation genetic diagnosis among patients with hereditary cancer syndromes.
Fam. Cancer
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Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) allows couples to avoid having a child with an inherited condition, potentially reducing cancer burden in families with a hereditary cancer predisposition. This study investigated and compared awareness and acceptance of PGD among patients with different hereditary cancer syndromes. Questionnaires were mailed to 984 adults with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, or multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 or 2. Associations between clinical, demographic, and psychosocial factors and awareness and acceptance of PGD were examined. Of 370 respondents (38 % return rate), 28 % felt their syndrome impacted family planning, 24 % were aware of PGD, 72 % felt that PGD should be offered, 43 % would consider using PGD, and 29 % were uncertain. Family experience and syndrome-specific characteristics, such as disease severity, quality of life and availability of medical interventions as well as gender, family planning stage, and religiosity impact perceptions of the acceptability of PGD, though a high level of uncertainty exists. Hereditary cancer patients lack awareness of PGD despite feeling that PGD should be offered, highlighting the need for education on this topic. While we found attitudes about the acceptability of PGD to be generally similar to those reported in the literature and of genetics and ethics experts, we observed similarities and differences between syndromes that provide insight into why some hereditary cancer patients may find PGD more acceptable than others.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.