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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The influence of retinoic Acid and thalidomide on the radiosensitivity of u343 glioblastoma cells.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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13-cis-retinoic acid (RA) and thalidomide have shown a synergistic anti-proliferative effect on U343 glioblastoma (GBM) cells. In the present study, we test if their combined treatment might enhance the radiosensitivity of these cells.
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A method for the efficient cellular uptake and retention of small modified gold nanoparticles for the radiosensitization of cells.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Gold nanoparticles (GNP) enhance the absorbance of photons thereby increasing emission of Auger-/photoelectrons in the nm-?m range. Yet, a major disadvantage is their diameter-dependent cellular uptake with an optimum of ~50 nm which may not offer optimal radiosensitization. A method was developed to enhance the uptake of small GNP. GNP (10nm) were linked to DNA and transferred into HeLa cells by transient transfection (GNP-DT). Treatment of cells with GNP-DT resulted in a strong perinuclear focal accumulation, whereas this was dimmer and sparser for GNP-T (lacking DNA) and close to background levels in GNP-treated cells. Only GNP-DT showed a significant radiosensitizing effect (p=0.005) on clonogenic survival using clinically relevant megavolt x-rays. Our novel method markedly increases the uptake/retention and alters the localization of small GNP in cells compared to unmodified GNP. This work finally enables studying the radiosensitizing effects of differentially sized GNP.
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Radioprotection of normal tissue cells.
Strahlenther Onkol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Improvements of radiotherapy in combination with surgery and systemic therapy have resulted in increased survival rates of tumor patients. However, radiation-induced normal tissue toxicity is still dose limiting. Several strategies have been pursued with the goal to develop substances which may prevent or reduce damage to normal tissue. Drugs applied before radiotherapy are called radioprotectors; those given after radiotherapy to reduce long-term effects are radiomitigators. Despite more than 50 years of research, until now only two substances, amifostine and palifermin, have overcome all obstacles of clinical approval and are applied during radiotherapy of head and neck cancer or total body irradiation, respectively. However, better understanding of the cellular pathways involved in radiation response has allowed the development of several highly promising drugs functioning as scavengers of reactive oxygen species or targeting specific molecules involved in regulation of cell death pathways or cell cycle arrest. The present review describes the major targets for radioprotectors or radiomitigators currently tested in clinical trials.
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Second cancer risk after 3D-CRT, IMRT and VMAT for breast cancer.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Second cancer risk after breast conserving therapy is becoming more important due to improved long term survival rates. In this study, we estimate the risks for developing a solid second cancer after radiotherapy of breast cancer using the concept of organ equivalent dose (OED).
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The biological effect of large single doses: a possible role for non-targeted effects in cell inactivation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Novel radiotherapy techniques increasingly use very large dose fractions. It has been argued that the biological effect of large dose fractions may differ from that of conventional fraction sizes. The purpose was to study the biological effect of large single doses.
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Estimation of intracranial failure risk following hippocampal-sparing whole brain radiotherapy.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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To estimate the risk of undertreatment in hippocampal-sparing whole brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT).
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Mitogenic signalling in the absence of epidermal growth factor receptor activation in a human glioblastoma cell line.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification and overexpression are commonly present in glioblastoma, and confer advantages of growth, invasiveness and radio/chemotherapy-resistance for tumour cells. Here, we assessed the role of EGFR activation for downstream mitogenic signalling in the commonly used glioblastoma cell line U251. Despite the high expression level, activation of EGFR under standard culture conditions was low. Intact EGFR function was verified by the rapid phosphorylation of EGFR and downstream mitogen-activated protein(MAP) kinase ERK1/2 upon addition of exogenous EGF to serum-starved cells. By contrast, addition of fetal bovine serum (FBS) activated downstream ERK1/2 via the MAP kinase kinase without phosphorylating EGFR. A phosphoreceptor tyrosine kinase array showed FBS-induced activation of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R),and the IGF-1R inhibitor AG1024 inhibited FBS-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, implying IGF-1R as the major driver of FBS-associated mitogenic signalling in the absence of exogenous EGF. These findings have important implications for in vitro drug testing in glioblastoma. Moreover, activation of ERK1/2 was also strongly influenced by growth state and cell density of U251 cultures. Re-seeding exponentially growing cultures at high cell density induced p27/CDKN1B expression and suppressed P-ERK1/2 indicating a certain regulation of proliferation by contact inhibition. Strikingly, highly activated ERK1/2 signalling and cell cycle progression occurred when cells were released from plateau phase regardless of high seeding density. This phenomenon might implicate a proliferation response in the early recurrence observed after clinical therapy in glioblastoma patients. However, whether it will recapitulate in vivo remains to be demonstrated.
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Comparison of genetic variation of breast cancer susceptibility genes in Chinese and German populations.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified several genetic risk factors for breast cancer, however, most of them were validated among women of European ancestry. This study examined single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to breast cancer in Chinese (984 cases and 2206 controls) and German (311 cases and 960 controls) populations. Eighteen SNPs significantly associated with breast cancer, previously identified in GWAS were genotyped. Twelve SNPs passed quality control and were subjected to statistical analysis. Seven SNPs were confirmed to be significantly associated with breast cancer in the Chinese population, reflecting three independent loci (ESR1, FGFR2, TOX3) and five of these were also confirmed in the German population. The strongest association was identified for rs2046210 in the Chinese (odds ratio (OR)=1.42, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.28-1.59, P=1.9 × 10(-10)) and rs3803662 in the German population (OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.17-1.74, P=4.01 × 10(-4)), located upstream of the ESR1 and TOX3 gene, respectively. For the first time, rs3757318 at 6q25.1, located next to the gene encoding estrogen receptor ? (ESR1) was found to be strongly associated with breast cancer (OR=1.33, 95% CI=1.18-1.49, P=1.94 × 10(-6)) in the Chinese population. The frequency of this variant was markedly lower in the German population and the association was not significant. Despite the genetic differences, essentially the same risk loci were identified in the Chinese and the German populations. Our study suggested the existence of common genetic factors as well as disease susceptibility differences for breast cancer in both populations and highlighted the importance of performing comparison analyses for disease susceptibility within ethnic populations.
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Overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase does not increase clonogenic cell survival despite effect on apoptosis in irradiated lymphoblastoid cells.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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Gene therapy-mediated overexpression of superoxide dismutases (SOD) appears to be a promising strategy for modulating radiosensitivity based on detoxification of superoxide radicals and suppression of apoptosis. Using recombinant lentiviral-based vectors, the effects of SOD overexpression on both were tested in human lymphoblastoid cells (TK6) that are sensitive to radiation-induced apoptosis. TK6 cells were transduced with vectors containing CuZnSOD, MnSOD or inverted MnSOD (MSODi) cDNA. Gene transfer efficiency, SOD activity, superoxide-radical resistance, apoptosis and clonogenic survival were determined. A six- to eightfold increase in SOD activity was observed after transduction, rendering MnSOD-overexpressing TK6 cells significantly more resistant to paraquat-induced superoxide radical production than controls. Although significant differences in sensitivity to apoptosis were observed for MnSOD, no differences in clonogenic survival after irradiation were detected between any groups. Our data show that efficient cellular SOD overexpression, an increased superoxide radical detoxifying ability and, for MnSOD, decreased apoptosis did not result in increased clonogenic survival after irradiation. This strengthens the hypothesis of differences in the radiation-modulating effects of SOD on normal and malignant cells (protective and nonprotective, respectively), thereby showing its potential to increase the therapeutic index in future clinical SOD-based radioprotection approaches.
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Can the risk of secondary cancer induction after breast conserving therapy be reduced using intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with low-energy x-rays?
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Radiation induced secondary cancers are a rare but severe late effect after breast conserving therapy. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is increasingly used during breast conserving surgery. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate secondary cancer risks after IORT compared to other modalities of breast radiotherapy (APBI - accelerated partial breast irradiation, EBRT - external beam radiotherapy).
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Inter-individual and inter-cell type variation in residual DNA damage after in vivo irradiation of human skin.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
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The aim of this study was to compare inter-individual and inter-cell type variation in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair following in vivo irradiation of human skin.
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Distinct role of endocytosis for Smad and non-Smad TGF-? signaling regulation in hepatocytes.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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In injured liver, TGF-? affects all hepatic cell types and participates in wound healing and fibrogenesis. TGF-? downstream signaling is highly complex and cell type dependent, involving Smad and non-Smad signaling cascades thus requiring tight regulation. Endocytosis has gained relevance as important mechanism to control signaling initiation and termination. In this study, we investigated endocytic mechanisms for TGF-? mediated Smad and non-Smad signaling in hepatocytes.
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SNAI2 as a novel radioprotector of normal tissue by gene transfer using a lentiviral bicistronic SIN vector.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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Tumor radiotherapy with large-field irradiation results in an increase of p53-dependent apoptosis of the radiosensitive hematopoietic stem cells. Proapoptotic PUMA is a transcriptional target of p53. Thus suppression of PUMA expression by gene therapy with the transcription repressor SNAI2 as transgene might be a potential approach for normal tissue protection during radiotherapy. SNAI2 cDNA was cloned in a lentiviral SIN vector in a bicistronic expression cassette followed by a floxed IRES-EMCV linker and EGFP as selection gene. Wild-type p53 TK6 cells were used as the cellular model system. We could demonstrate the significant radioprotective effect of SNAI2 overexpression in a cytotoxicity assay after irradiation with 0-5 Gy compared with untransduced or control vector (inverse oriented SNAI2 cDNA)-transduced cells. Additionally, TK6-SNAI2 compared to TK6-SNAI2inv cells showed a survival advantage in a clonogenic assay after irradiation with 0-3 Gy. Determination of the proportion of sub-G(1) cells in TK6-SNAI2 cells revealed an approximately 50% reduction in apoptosis compared with both control entities. In this study using a bicistronic lentiviral vector, we were able to provide proof of principle that lentiviral overexpression of SNAI2 might be used for radioprotective gene therapy to widen the therapeutic range in radiotherapy.
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Radiobiological comparison of hypofractionated accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) and single-dose intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with 50-kV X-rays.
Strahlenther Onkol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) of the tumor bed in early breast cancer is presently performed with a single dose of 50-kV X-rays from a miniaturized X-ray machine using spherical applicators. The purpose was to model the biological effect of hypofractionated accelerated partial-breast irradiation (APBI) with ten fractions.
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Overexpression of caveolin-1 in lymphoblastoid TK6 cells enhances proliferation after irradiation with clinically relevant doses.
Strahlenther Onkol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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The transmembrane protein caveolin-1 (CAV1) is an essential component of caveolae, small membrane invaginations involved in vesicle formation. CAV1 plays a role in signal transduction, tumor suppression and oncogene transformation. Previous studies with CAV1 knockout mice and CAV1 knockdown in pancreatic tumor cells implicated CAV1 in mediating radioresistance. The aim of this work was to test the effect of CAV1 overexpression after irradiation in human cells lacking endogenous CAV1 expression.
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Normal-tissue radioprotection by overexpression of the copper-zinc and manganese superoxide dismutase genes.
Strahlenther Onkol
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2009
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Protection of normal tissue against radiation-induced damage may increase the therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy. A promising strategy for testing this approach is gene therapy-mediated overexpression of the copper-zinc (CuZnSOD) or manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) using recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV2) vectors. The purpose of this study was to test the modulating effects of the SOD genes on human primary lung fibroblasts (HPLF) after irradiation.
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Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) vs. serial tomotherapy, step-and-shoot IMRT and 3D-conformal RT for treatment of prostate cancer.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2009
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Volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), a complex treatment strategy for intensity-modulated radiation therapy, may increase treatment efficiency and has recently been established clinically. This analysis compares VMAT against established IMRT and 3D-conformal radiation therapy (3D-CRT) delivery techniques.
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Relative Biologic Effectiveness (RBE) of 50 kV X-rays measured in a phantom for intraoperative tumor-bed irradiation.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
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Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) with low-energy x-rays is used to treat the tumor bed during breast-conserving surgery. The purpose was to determine the relative biologic effectiveness (RBE) of 50-kV x-rays for inactivation of cells irradiated in a tumor-bed phantom.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.