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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mucin inhibits Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by significantly enhancing twitching motility.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, type IV pili (TFP)-dependent twitching motility is required for development of surface-attached biofilm (SABF), yet excessive twitching motility is detrimental once SABF is established. In this study, we show that mucin significantly enhanced twitching motility and decreased SABF formation in strain PAO1 and other P. aeruginosa strains in a concentration-dependent manner. Mucin also disrupted partially established SABF. Our analyses revealed that mucin increased the amount of surface pilin and enhanced transcription of the pilin structural gene pilA. Mucin failed to enhance twitching motility in P. aeruginosa mutants defective in genes within the pilin biogenesis operons pilGHI/pilJK-chpA-E. Furthermore, mucin did not enhance twitching motility nor reduce biofilm development by chelating iron. We also examined the role of the virulence factor regulator Vfr in the effect of mucin. In the presence or absence of mucin, PAO?vfr produced a significantly reduced SABF. However, mucin partially complemented the twitching motility defect of PAO?vfr. These results suggest that mucin interferes with SABF formation at specific concentrations by enhancing TFP synthesis and twitching motility, that this effect, which is iron-independent, requires functional Vfr, and only part of the Vfr-dependent effect of mucin on SABF development occurs through twitching motility.
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Serum influences the expression of Pseudomonas aeruginosa quorum-sensing genes and QS-controlled virulence genes during early and late stages of growth.
Microbiologyopen
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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In response to diverse environmental stimuli at different infection sites, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a serious nosocomial pathogen, coordinates the production of different virulence factors through a complicated network of the hierarchical quorum-sensing (QS) systems including the las, rhl, and the 2-alkyl-4-quinolone-related QS systems. We recently showed that at early stages of growth serum alters the expression of numerous P. aeruginosa genes. In this study, we utilized transcriptional analysis and enzyme assays to examine the effect of serum on the QS and QS-controlled virulence factors during early and late phases of growth of the P. aeruginosa strain PAO1. At early phase, serum repressed the transcription of lasI, rhlI, and pqsA but not lasR or rhlR. However, at late phase, serum enhanced the expression of all QS genes. Serum produced a similar effect on the synthesis of the autoinducers 3OC12-HSL, C4-HSL, and HHQ/PQS. Additionally, serum repressed the expression of several QS-controlled genes in the early phase, but enhanced them in the late phase. Furthermore, serum influenced the expression of different QS-positive (vqsR, gacA, and vfr) as well as QS-negative (rpoN, qscR, mvaT, and rsmA) regulatory genes at either early or late phases of growth. However, with the exception of PAO?vfr, we detected comparable levels of lasI/lasR expression in PAO1 and PAO1 mutants defective in these regulatory genes. At late stationary phase, serum failed to enhance lasI/lasR expression in PAO?vfr. These results suggest that depending on the phase of growth, serum differentially influenced the expression of P. aeruginosa QS and QS-controlled virulence genes. In late phase, serum enhanced the expression of las genes through vfr.
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Serum albumin alters the expression of iron-controlled genes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which causes serious infections in immunocompromised patients, produces numerous virulence factors, including exotoxin A and the siderophore pyoverdine. As production of these virulence factors is influenced by the host environment, we examined the effect serum has on global transcription within P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 at different phases of growth in an iron-deficient medium. At early exponential phase, serum significantly enhanced expression of 138 genes, most of which are repressed by iron, including pvdS, regA and the pyoverdine synthesis genes. However, serum did not interfere with the repression of these genes by iron. Serum enhanced regA expression in a fur mutant of PAO1 but not in a pvdS mutant. The serum iron-binding protein apotransferrin, but not ferritin, enhanced regA and pvdS expression. However, in PAO1 grown in a chemically defined medium that contains no iron, serum but not apotransferrin enhanced pvdS and regA expression. While complement inactivation failed to eliminate this effect, albumin absorption reduced the effect of serum on pvdS and regA expression in the iron-deficient medium chelexed tryptic soy broth dialysate. Additionally, albumin absorption eliminated the effect of serum on pvdS and regA expression in the chemically defined medium. These results suggest that serum enhances the expression of P. aeruginosa iron-controlled genes by two mechanisms: one through apotransferrin and another one through albumin.
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An in vitro biofilm model to examine the effect of antibiotic ointments on biofilms produced by burn wound bacterial isolates.
Burns
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
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Topical treatment of burn wounds is essential as reduced blood supply in the burned tissues restricts the effect of systemic antibiotics. On the burn surface, microorganisms exist within a complex structure termed a biofilm, which enhances bacterial resistance to antimicrobial agents significantly. Since bacteria differ in their ability to develop biofilms, the susceptibility of these biofilms to topically applied antibiotics varies, making it essential to identify which topical antibiotics efficiently disrupt or prevent biofilms produced by these pathogens. Yet, a simple in vitro assay to compare the susceptibility of biofilms produced by burn wound isolates to different topical antibiotics has not been reported.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.