JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Hemoglobin A1c and the Progression of Coronary Artery Calcification Among Adults Without Diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Higher levels of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk among individuals without diabetes and may also be positively associated with coronary artery calcification (CAC). This study investigated the association of HbA1c with CAC progression in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study.
Related JoVE Video
The EARLY trials: a consortium of studies targeting weight control in young adults.
Transl Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Young adulthood has been identified as a high-risk period for the development of obesity but few interventions have been tested in this population. One way to escalate our learning about effective interventions is to test a number of interventions simultaneously as a consortium of research trials. This paper describes the Early Adult Reduction of weight through LifestYle intervention (EARLY) trials. Seven research sites were funded to conduct intervention trials, agreeing to test similar primary outcomes and cooperating to use a set of common measurement tools. The EARLY consortium was able to work cooperatively using an executive committee, a steering committee, workgroups and subcommittees to help direct the common work and implement a set of common protocol and measurement tools for seven independent but coordinated weight-related intervention trials. Using a consortium of studies to help young adults reach or maintain a healthy weight will result in increased efficiency and speed in understanding the most effective intervention strategies.
Related JoVE Video
A modified Mediterranean diet score is associated with a lower risk of incident metabolic syndrome over 25 years among young adults: the CARDIA (Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults) study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Mediterranean diet has been reported to be inversely associated with incident metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) among older adults; however, this association has not been studied in young African American and white adults. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association of a modified Mediterranean diet (mMedDiet) score with the 25-year incidence of the MetSyn in 4713 African American and white adults enrolled in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. A diet history questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake at baseline, year 7 and year 20 and a mMedDiet score was created. Cardiovascular risk factors were measured at multiple examinations over 25 years. The MetSyn was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis was use to evaluate associations for incident MetSyn across the mMedDiet score categories adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle factors and BMI. Higher mMedDiet scores represented adherence to a dietary pattern rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and fish, but poor in red and processed meat and snack foods. The incidence of MetSyn components (abdominal obesity, elevated TAG concentrations and low HDL-cholesterol concentrations) was lower in those with higher mMedDiet scores than in those with lower scores. Furthermore, the incidence of the MetSyn was lower across the five mMedDiet score categories; the hazard ratios and 95 % CI from category 1 to category 5 were 1·0; 0·94 (0·76, 1·15); 0·84 (0·68, 1·04); 0·73 (0·58, 0·92); and 0·72 (0·54, 0·96), respectively (P trend= 0·005). These findings suggest that the risk of developing the MetSyn is lower when consuming a diet rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and fish.
Related JoVE Video
Association of the degree of adiposity and duration of obesity with measures of cardiac structure and function: The CARDIA study.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Examine whether there are independent influences of a greater degree of adiposity and longer duration of obesity on cardiac structure and function.
Related JoVE Video
Food-group and nutrient-density intakes by Hispanic and Latino backgrounds in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hispanics are a heterogeneous group of individuals with a variation in dietary habits that is reflective of their cultural heritage and country of origin. It is important to identify differences in their dietary habits because it has been well established that nutrition contributes substantially to the burden of preventable diseases and early deaths in the United States.OBJECTIVE: We estimated the distribution of usual intakes (of both food groups and nutrients) by Hispanic and Latino backgrounds by using National Cancer Institute methodology.DESIGN: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is a population-based cohort study that recruited participants who were 18-74 y of age from 4 US cities in 2008-2011 (Miami, Bronx, Chicago, and San Diego). Participants who provided at least one 24-h dietary recall and completed a food propensity questionnaire (n = 13,285) were included in the analyses. Results were adjusted for age, sex, field center, weekend, sequencing, and typical amount of intake.RESULTS: Overall, Cubans (n = 2128) had higher intakes of total energy, macronutrients (including all subtypes of fat), and alcohol than those of other groups. Mexicans (n = 5371) had higher intakes of vitamin C, calcium, and fiber. Lowest intakes of total energy, macronutrients, folate, iron, and calcium were reported by Dominicans (n = 1217), whereas Puerto Ricans (n = 2176) had lowest intakes of vitamin C and fiber. Food-group servings reflected nutrient intakes, with Cubans having higher intakes of refined grains, vegetables, red meat, and fats and Dominicans having higher intakes of fruit and poultry, whereas Puerto Ricans had lowest intakes of fruit and vegetables. Central and South Americans (n = 1468 and 925, respectively) were characterized by being second in their reported intakes of fruit and poultry and the highest in fish intake in comparison with other groups.Conclusion: Variations in diet noted in this study, with additional analysis, may help explain diet-related differences in health outcomes observed in Hispanics and Latinos. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02060344.
Related JoVE Video
Forging a future of better cardiovascular health: addressing childhood obesity.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper describes ongoing National, Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-initiated childhood obesity research. It calls on clinicians, researchers, and cardiologists to work with other healthcare providers, community agencies, schools and caregivers to foster better cardiovascular health in children by intervening on multiple levels of influence on childhood obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Social relationships and longitudinal changes in body mass index and waist circumference: the coronary artery risk development in young adults study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few studies have examined longitudinal associations between close social relationships and weight change. Using data from 3,074 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study who were examined in 2000, 2005, and 2010 (at ages 33-45 years in 2000), we estimated separate logistic regression random-effects models to assess whether patterns of exposure to supportive and negative relationships were associated with 10% or greater increases in body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and waist circumference. Linear regression random-effects modeling was used to examine associations of social relationships with mean changes in BMI and waist circumference. Participants with persistently high supportive relationships were significantly less likely to increase their BMI values and waist circumference by 10% or greater compared with those with persistently low supportive relationships after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, baseline BMI/waist circumference, depressive symptoms, and health behaviors. Persistently high negative relationships were associated with higher likelihood of 10% or greater increases in waist circumference (odds ratio = 1.62, 95% confidence interval: 1.15, 2.29) and marginally higher BMI increases (odds ratio = 1.50, 95% confidence interval: 1.00, 2.24) compared with participants with persistently low negative relationships. Increasingly negative relationships were associated with increases in waist circumference only. These findings suggest that supportive relationships may minimize weight gain, and that adverse relationships may contribute to weight gain, particularly via central fat accumulation.
Related JoVE Video
Validity of predictive equations for 24-h urinary sodium excretion in adults aged 18-39 y.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Collecting a 24-h urine sample is recommended for monitoring the mean population sodium intake, but implementation can be difficult.
Related JoVE Video
Assessing U.S. sodium intake through dietary data and urine biomarkers.
Adv Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sodium intake is related to blood pressure, an established risk factor for heart disease and stroke. Reducing intake may save billions in United States health care dollars annually. Efforts targeting sodium reductions make accurate monitoring vital, yet limited information exists on the accuracy of the current data to assess sodium intake in the United States population. In this symposium, new findings were presented on the accuracy of estimating population 24-h urinary excretion of sodium from spot urine specimens or sodium intake from 24-h dietary recalls. Differences in accuracy by sex, BMI, and race were apparent as well as by timing of spot urine collections. Although some published equations appear promising for estimating group means, others are biased. Individual estimates of sodium intake were highly variable and adjustment for within-individual variation in intake is required for estimating population prevalence or percentiles. Estimates indicated United States sodium intake remains high.
Related JoVE Video
Association between duration of overall and abdominal obesity beginning in young adulthood and coronary artery calcification in middle age.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Younger individuals are experiencing a greater cumulative exposure to excess adiposity over their lifetime. However, few studies have determined the consequences of long-term obesity.
Related JoVE Video
Subclinical atherosclerotic calcification and cognitive functioning in middle-aged adults: the CARDIA study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cardiovascular risk factors in middle-age are associated with cognitive impairment and dementia in older age. Less is known about the burden of calcified subclinical atherosclerosis and cognition, especially in midlife. We examined the association of coronary artery and abdominal aortic calcified plaque (CAC and AAC, respectively) with cognitive functioning in middle-aged adults.
Related JoVE Video
Urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and chloride, but not iodine, varies by timing of collection in a 24-hour calibration study.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Because of the logistic complexity, excessive respondent burden, and high cost of conducting 24-h urine collections in a national survey, alternative strategies to monitor sodium intake at the population level need to be evaluated. We conducted a calibration study to assess the ability to characterize sodium intake from timed-spot urine samples calibrated to a 24-h urine collection. In this report, we described the overall design and basic results of the study. Adults aged 18-39 y were recruited to collect urine for a 24-h period, placing each void in a separate container. Four timed-spot specimens (morning, afternoon, evening, and overnight) and the 24-h collection were analyzed for sodium, potassium, chloride, creatinine, and iodine. Of 481 eligible persons, 407 (54% female, 48% black) completed a 24-h urine collection. A subsample (n = 133) collected a second 24-h urine 4-11 d later. Mean sodium excretion was 3.54 ± 1.51 g/d for males and 3.09 ± 1.26 g/d for females. Sensitivity analysis excluding those who did not meet the expected creatinine excretion criterion showed the same results. Day-to-day variability for sodium, potassium, chloride, and iodine was observed among those collecting two 24-h urine samples (CV = 16-29% for 24-h urine samples and 21-41% for timed-spot specimens). Among all race-gender groups, overnight specimens had larger volumes (P < 0.01) and lower sodium (P < 0.01 to P = 0.26), potassium (P < 0.01), and chloride (P < 0.01) concentrations compared with other timed-spot urine samples, although the differences were not always significant. Urine creatinine and iodine concentrations did not differ by the timing of collection. The observed day-to-day and diurnal variations in sodium excretion illustrate the importance of accounting for these factors when developing calibration equations from this study.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of participant and interventionist race concordance on weight loss outcomes.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have previously shown that racial composition of behavioral intervention groups does not affect achieved weight loss. However, it is unclear if the race of the interventionist affects intervention outcomes. The objective of this analysis is to estimate the impact of race concordance between participant and interventionist on weight change in the initial weight loss phase (phase I) of the Weight Loss Maintenance trial (WLM).
Related JoVE Video
Dietary sodium intake is associated with total fluid and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in US children and adolescents aged 2-18 y: NHANES 2005-2008.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increasing dietary sodium drives the thirst response. Because sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) are frequently consumed by children, sodium intake may drive greater consumption of SSBs and contribute to obesity risk.
Related JoVE Video
Greater weight loss with increasing age in the weight loss maintenance trial.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the effect of age on weight loss and weight loss maintenance in participants in the Weight Loss Maintenance trial (WLM).
Related JoVE Video
Cardiovascular health through young adulthood and cognitive functioning in midlife.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A study was undertaken to examine the association between overall cardiovascular health as recently defined by the American Heart Association in young adulthood to middle age and cognitive function in midlife. Overall ideal cardiovascular health incorporates 7 metrics, including the avoidance of overweight or obesity, a healthful diet, nonsmoking, and physical activity, total cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose at goal levels.
Related JoVE Video
Associations of retrospective and concurrent lipid levels with subclinical atherosclerosis prediction after 20 years of follow-up: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.
Ann Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Using data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, we sought to determine how well lipids measured at baseline and at 20 years predict the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis.
Related JoVE Video
The Neighborhood Energy Balance Equation: Does Neighborhood Food Retail Environment + Physical Activity Environment = Obesity? The CARDIA Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent obesity prevention initiatives focus on healthy neighborhood design, but most research examines neighborhood food retail and physical activity (PA) environments in isolation. We estimated joint, interactive, and cumulative impacts of neighborhood food retail and PA environment characteristics on body mass index (BMI) throughout early adulthood.
Related JoVE Video
Lifestyle factors and risk for new-onset diabetes: a population-based cohort study.
Ann. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiologic data on the combined influence of several lifestyle factors on diabetes risk are rare, particularly among older adults.
Related JoVE Video
Predictors of long-term weight loss in adults with modest initial weight loss, by sex and race.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Effective weight management interventions could reduce race-sex disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet little is known about factors associated with successful weight loss maintenance in race-sex subgroups. In the Weight Loss Maintenance trial (WLM), overweight/obese (BMI 25-45 kg/m(2)) adults who lost ?4 kg in a 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention (phase I) were randomized into one of three 30-month maintenance interventions (phase II). To investigate predictors in subgroups, randomized groups were combined for this analysis. Of 1,685 phase I participants, 1,032 (61%) entered phase II, including 12% black men (BM), 26% black women (BW), 25% white men (WM), and 37% white women (WW). Weight change over the 36-month study ranged from -2.3% (95% confidence interval = -3.1 to -1.5%) in BW to -4.5% (95% confidence interval = -5.7 to -4.0%) in WM, the result of differential weight loss during phase I. Within race, men lost significantly more weight than women, but within sex group, weight loss did not differ significantly between races. Although participants regained weight during phase II, regain did not differ by race-sex group, and mean weight at the end of the study was significantly lower than phase I entry weight for each subgroup. In regression models, phase I weight loss predicted overall 36-month weight loss in all race-sex groups. Healthy dietary pattern at entry, improvement in dietary pattern, or both were predictive in three of four race-sex groups. Few other variables other than initial weight loss and dietary pattern were predictive. Future research should identify additional modifiable influences on long-term maintenance after a modest weight loss.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Magnesium intake in relation to systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and the incidence of diabetes.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the long-term associations of magnesium intake with incidence of diabetes, systemic inflammation, and insulin resistance among young American adults.
Related JoVE Video
Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, caffeine, and tea consumption in young adulthood and atherosclerosis later in life: the CARDIA study.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the association of coffee, decaffeinated coffee, caffeine, and tea consumption in young adulthood with the presence and progression of coronary artery calcified (CAC) plaque and carotid intima-media thickness later in life.
Related JoVE Video
Measurement of weight in clinical trials: is one day enough?
J Obes
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background. Weight is typically measured on a single day in research studies. This practice assumes negligible day-to-day weight variability, although little evidence exists to support this assumption. We compared the precision of measuring weight on one versus two days among control participants in the Weight Loss Maintenance trial. Methods. Trained staff measured weight on two separate days at baseline, 12 months, and 30 months (2004-2007). We calculated the standard deviation (SD) of mean weight change from baseline to the 12- and 30-month visits using (a) the first and (b) both daily weights from each visit and conducted a variance components analysis (2009). Results. Of the 316 participants with follow-up measurements, mean (SD) age was 55.8 (8.5) years, BMI was 30.8 (4.5)?kg/m(2), 64% were women, 36% were black, and 50% were obese. At 12 months, the SD of mean weight change was 5.1?versus 5.0?kg using one versus two days of weight measurements (P = .76), while at 30 months the corresponding SDs were 6.3 and 6.3?kg (P = .98). We observed similar findings within subgroups of BMI, sex, and race. Day-to-day variability within individuals accounted for <1% of variability in weight. Conclusions. Measurement of weight on two separate days has no advantage over measurement on a single day in studies with well-standardized weight measurement protocols.
Related JoVE Video
Reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with reduced blood pressure: a prospective study among United States adults.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) has been associated with an elevated risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type II diabetes mellitus. However, the effects of SSB consumption on blood pressure (BP) are uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between changes in SSB consumption and changes in BP among adults.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence and predictors of weight-loss maintenance in a biracial cohort: results from the coronary artery risk development in young adults study.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few population-based studies have examined the behavioral and psychosocial predictors of long-term weight-loss maintenance.
Related JoVE Video
Early behavioral adherence predicts short and long-term weight loss in the POUNDS LOST study.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The primary aim of this study was to test the association of early (first 6 months) adherence related to diet, self-monitoring, and attendance with changes in adiposity and cardiovascular risk factors. This study used data from the 24-month POUNDS LOST trial that tested the efficacy of four dietary macronutrient compositions for short-and long-term weight loss. A computer tracking system was used to record data on eight indicator variables related to adherence. Using canonical correlations at the 6 and 24 month measurement periods, early behavioral adherence was associated with changes in percent weight loss and waist circumference at 6 months (R = 0.52) and 24 months (R = 0.37), but was not associated with cardiovascular disease risk factor levels. Early dietary adherence was associated with changes in insulin at 6 months (R = 0.19), but not at 24 months (R = 0.08, ns). Early dietary adherence was not associated with changes in adiposity.
Related JoVE Video
Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occur together more often than by chance alone, have become known as the metabolic syndrome. The risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), raised fasting glucose, and central obesity. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed by different organizations over the past decade. Most recently, these have come from the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The main difference concerns the measure for central obesity, with this being an obligatory component in the International Diabetes Federation definition, lower than in the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria, and ethnic specific. The present article represents the outcome of a meeting between several major organizations in an attempt to unify criteria. It was agreed that there should not be an obligatory component, but that waist measurement would continue to be a useful preliminary screening tool. Three abnormal findings out of 5 would qualify a person for the metabolic syndrome. A single set of cut points would be used for all components except waist circumference, for which further work is required. In the interim, national or regional cut points for waist circumference can be used.
Related JoVE Video
Adherence is a multi-dimensional construct in the POUNDS LOST trial.
J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Research on the conceptualization of adherence to treatment has not addressed a key question: Is adherence best defined as being a uni-dimensional or multi-dimensional behavioral construct? The primary aim of this study was to test which of these conceptual models best described adherence to a weight management program. This ancillary study was conducted as a part of the POUNDS LOST trial that tested the efficacy of four dietary macronutrient compositions for promoting weight loss. A sample of 811 overweight/obese adults was recruited across two clinical sites, and each participant was randomly assigned to one of four macronutrient prescriptions: (1) Low fat (20% of energy), average protein (15% of energy); (2) High fat (40%), average protein (15%); (3) Low fat (20%), high protein (25%); (4) High fat (40%), high protein (25%). Throughout the first 6 months of the study, a computer tracking system collected data on eight indicators of adherence. Computer tracking data from the initial 6 months of the intervention were analyzed using exploratory and confirmatory analyses. Two factors (accounting for 66% of the variance) were identified and confirmed: (1) behavioral adherence and (2) dietary adherence. Behavioral adherence did not differ across the four interventions, but prescription of a high fat diet (vs. a low fat diet) was found to be associated with higher levels of dietary adherence. The findings of this study indicated that adherence to a weight management program was best conceptualized as being multi-dimensional, with two dimensions: behavioral and dietary adherence.
Related JoVE Video
Polygenic association with total homocysteine in the post-folic acid fortification era: the CARDIA study.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Elevated plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) has been linked with many diseases. tHcy is associated with a variety of factors, including polymorphisms in genes involved in homocysteine metabolism. It is not clear whether US-mandated fortification of grain products with folic acid has affected the association of genetic variants with tHcy levels. We determined tHcy concentrations in sera from 997 Caucasians and 692 African Americans participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study before and after folic acid fortification. DNA was genotyped for variants present in four genes involved in homocysteine metabolism: cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) 844ins68, methionine synthase (MS) 2756A>G; methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) 66A>G and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T and 1298A>C. A greater number of African Americans were homozygous for the MS 2756GG, MTRR 66GG and CBS 844ins68 genotypes compared to Caucasians, while prevalence of MTHFR 677TT and 1298CC genotypes was substantially lower in African Americans compared to Caucasians. The overall variance in tHcy levels at y 0, 7 and 15 that can be explained by the combined presence of all five variants increased slightly over time in Caucasians (17%, y 0; 21%, y 7; and 26%, y 15) and in African Americans (13%, y 0; 17% y 7; and 18% y 15) largely due to decrease in tHcy variance.
Related JoVE Video
Reduction in consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with weight loss: the PREMIER trial.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Consumption of liquid calories from beverages has increased in parallel with the obesity epidemic in the US population, but their causal relation remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of weight-loss diets with different compositions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The possible advantage for weight loss of a diet that emphasizes protein, fat, or carbohydrates has not been established, and there are few studies that extend beyond 1 year.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical utility of genotyping the 677C>T variant of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase in humans is decreased in the post-folic acid fortification era.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Moderate hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with many diseases. Major factors affecting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations include folate concentrations and polymorphisms in the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. Because U.S.-mandated fortification of grain products with folic acid has improved folate and tHcy status in Americans, we investigated the effect of the MTHFR 677C>T variant before and after fortification. We determined tHcy and folate concentrations in sera from 844 Caucasian and 587 African American participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study before and after fortification and we genotyped the MTHFR 677C>T variant. MTHFR 677TT homozygotes had higher (P < 0.01) tHcy concentrations both before and after fortification compared with MTHFR 677CC homozygotes. However, the difference between these 2 genotypes decreased from 2.5 micromol/L before fortification to <0.7 micromol/L postfortification (P < 0.01). In addition, the prevalence of moderate hyperhomocysteinemia (tHcy > 13 micromol/L) in 677TT homozygotes decreased from 33% before fortification to 12% postfortification (P < 0.01). Using a cutoff value of 13 micromol/L to define moderate hyperhomocysteinemia, the sensitivity of the MTHFR 677TT genotype to predict elevations in homocysteine was low (approximately 30%) both before and after folic acid fortification. Increasing the cutoff from 13 to 19 micromol/L increased the sensitivity of the assay before fortification to 62% but decreased the sensitivity to 17% postfortification. We conclude that after folic acid fortification in the US, measurement of tHcy rather than genotyping of MTHFR 677TT should be used as the primary assay for the diagnosis and monitoring of moderate hyperhomocysteinemia.
Related JoVE Video
Ala54Thr polymorphism of the fatty acid binding protein 2 gene and saturated fat intake in relation to lipid levels and insulin resistance: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Thr54 allele of the intestinal fatty acid-binding protein Ala54Thr functional polymorphism (FABP2) is associated with increased fat oxidation and insulin resistance. We determined the cross-sectional associations of the FABP2 gene with lipid levels and insulin resistance in 2148 participants who completed the year-20 examination of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. No significant difference in total cholesterol, low-density or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol ratio, or homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was found between FABP2 genotypes. However, in the presence of a high-saturated fat diet (>/=53.2 g/d, the 90th percentile for the population), the AA/AG genotypes (carriers of the Thr54 allele) of FABP2 had statistically significantly higher levels of log(HOMA-IR) (P = .006) and a lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol ratio (P = .03), and borderline statistically significantly higher levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and log(triglycerides) (P values = .08, .07, and .05, respectively) compared with those with the GG genotype (Ala54 homozygotes). Lipid levels and log(HOMA-IR) did not vary by genotype with saturated fat intake less than 53.2 g/d. Limiting dietary saturated fat intake may be particularly important among carriers of the A allele of FABP2.
Related JoVE Video
Duration of abdominal obesity beginning in young adulthood and incident diabetes through middle age: the CARDIA study.
Diabetes Care
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine whether the duration of abdominal obesity determined prospectively using measured waist circumference (WC) is associated with the development of new-onset diabetes independent of the degree of abdominal adiposity.
Related JoVE Video
Weight loss history as a predictor of weight loss: results from Phase I of the weight loss maintenance trial.
J Behav Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Past studies have suggested that weight loss history is associated with subsequent weight loss. However, questions remain whether method and amount of weight lost in previous attempts impacts current weight loss efforts. This study utilized data from the Weight Loss Maintenance Trial to examine the association between weight loss history and weight loss outcomes in a diverse sample of high-risk individuals. Multivariate regression analysis was conducted to determine which specific aspects of weight loss history predict change in weight during a 6-month weight loss intervention. Greater weight loss was predicted by fewer previous weight loss attempts with assistance (p = 0.03), absence of previous dietary/herbal weight loss supplement use (p = 0.01), and greater maximum weight loss in previous attempts (p < 0.001). Future interventions may benefit from assessment of weight loss history and tailoring of interventions based on past weight loss behaviors and outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of diet composition and weight loss on resting energy expenditure in the POUNDS LOST study.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Weight loss reduces energy expenditure, but it is unclear whether dietary macronutrient composition affects this reduction. We hypothesized that energy expenditure might be modulated by macronutrient composition of the diet. The Prevention of Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS) LOST study, a prospective, randomized controlled trial in 811 overweight/obese people who were randomized in a 2 × 2 design to diets containing 20en% or 40en% fat and 15en% or 25en% protein (diets with 65%, 55%, 45%, and 35% carbohydrate) provided the data to test this hypothesis. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured at baseline, 6, and 24 months using a ventilated hood. REE declined at 6 months by 99.5 ± 8.0 kcal/day in men and 55.2 ± 10.6 kcal/day in women during the first 6 months. This decline was related to the weight loss, and there was no difference between the diets. REE had returned to baseline by 24 months, but body weight was still 60% below baseline. Measured REE at 6 months was significantly lower than the predicted (-18.2 ± 6.7 kcal/day) and was the result of significant reductions from baseline in the low-fat diets (65% or 55% carbohydrate), but not in the high fat diet groups. By 24 months the difference had reversed with measured REE being slightly but significantly higher than predicted (21.8 ± 10.1 kcal/day). In conclusion, we found that REE fell significantly after weight loss but was not related to diet composition. Adaptive thermogenesis was evident at 6 months, but not at 24 months.
Related JoVE Video
Folate intake and incidence of hypertension among American young adults: a 20-y follow-up study.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Laboratory studies suggest that folate intake may decrease blood pressure (BP) through increasing nitric oxide synthesis in endothelial cells and/or reducing plasma homocysteine concentrations. However, human studies, particularly longitudinal data, are limited.
Related JoVE Video
Healthy lifestyle through young adulthood and the presence of low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in (Young) Adults (CARDIA) study.
Circulation
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A low cardiovascular disease risk profile (untreated cholesterol <200 mg/dL, untreated blood pressure <120/<80 mm Hg, never smoking, and no history of diabetes mellitus or myocardial infarction) in middle age is associated with markedly better health outcomes in older age, but few middle-aged adults have this low risk profile. We examined whether adopting a healthy lifestyle throughout young adulthood is associated with the presence of the low cardiovascular disease risk profile in middle age.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.