JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Synergize With Costimulation Blockade in the Inhibition of Immune Responses and the Induction of Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells.
Stem Cells Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy and costimulation blockade are two immunomodulatory strategies being developed concomitantly for the treatment of immunological diseases. Both of these strategies have the capacity to inhibit immune responses and induce regulatory T cells; however, their ability to synergize remains largely unexplored. In order to study this, MSCs from C57BL/6 (H2(b)) mice were infused together with fully major histocompatibility complex-mismatched Balb/c (H2(d)) allogeneic islets into the portal vein of diabetic C57BL/6 (H2(b)) mice, which were subsequently treated with costimulation blockade for the first 10 days after transplantation. Mice receiving both recipient-type MSCs, CTLA4Ig, and anti-CD40L demonstrated indefinite graft acceptance, just as did most of the recipients receiving MSCs and CTLA4Ig. Recipients of MSCs only rejected their grafts, and fewer than one half of the recipients treated with costimulation blockade alone achieved permanent engraftment. The livers of the recipients treated with MSCs plus costimulation blockade contained large numbers of islets surrounded by Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. These recipients showed reduced antidonor IgG levels and a glucose tolerance similar to that of naïve nondiabetic mice. Intrahepatic lymphocytes and splenocytes from these recipients displayed reduced proliferation and interferon-? production when re-exposed to donor antigen. MSCs in the presence of costimulation blockade prevented dendritic cell maturation, inhibited T cell proliferation, increased Foxp3(+) regulatory T cell numbers, and increased indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. These results indicate that MSC infusion and costimulation blockade have complementary immune-modulating effects that can be used for a broad number of applications in transplantation, autoimmunity, and regenerative medicine.
Related JoVE Video
Profiling of atherosclerotic lesions by gene and tissue microarrays reveals PCSK6 as a novel protease in unstable carotid atherosclerosis.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Carotid plaque instability is a major cause of ischemic stroke, but detailed knowledge about underlying molecular pathways is still lacking. Here, we evaluated large-scale transcriptomic and protein expression profiling in a biobank of carotid endarterectomies followed by characterization of identified candidates, as a platform for discovery of novel proteins differentially regulated in unstable carotid lesions.
Related JoVE Video
Mutation in the heparan sulfate biosynthesis enzyme EXT1 influences growth factor signaling and fibroblast interactions with the extracellular matrix.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heparan sulfate (HS) chains bind and modulate the signaling efficiency of many ligands, including members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) and platelet-derived growth factor families. We previously reported the structure of HS synthesized by embryonic fibroblasts from mice with a gene trap mutation of Ext1 that encodes a glycosyltransferase involved in HS chain elongation. The gene trap mutation results in low expression of Ext1, and, as a consequence, HS chain length is substantially reduced. In the present study, Ext1 mutant and wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts were analyzed for the functional consequences of the Ext1 mutation for growth factor signaling and interaction with the extracellular matrix. Here, we show that the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in response to FGF2 stimulation was markedly decreased in the Ext1 mutant fibroblasts, whereas neither PDGF-BB nor FGF10 signaling was significantly affected. Furthermore, Ext1 mutants displayed reduced ability to attach to collagen I and to contract collagen lattices, even though no differences in the expression of collagen-binding integrins were observed. Reintroduction of Ext1in the Ext1 mutant fibroblasts rescued HS chain length, FGF2 signaling, and the ability of the fibroblasts to contract collagen. These data suggest that the length of the HS chains is a critical determinant of HS-protein interactions and emphasize the essential role of EXT1 in providing specific binding sites for growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins.
Related JoVE Video
Fibroblast EXT1-levels influence tumor cell proliferation and migration in composite spheroids.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stromal fibroblasts are important determinants of tumor cell behavior. They act to condition the tumor microenvironment, influence tumor growth, support tumor angiogenesis and affect tumor metastasis. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans, present both on tumor and stromal cells, interact with a large number of ligands including growth factors, their receptors, and structural components of the extracellular matrix. Being ubiquitously expressed in the tumor microenvironment heparan sulfate proteoglycans are candidates for playing central roles in tumor-stroma interactions. The objective of this work was to investigate the role of heparan sulfate expressed by stromal fibroblasts in modulating the growth of tumor cells and in controlling the interstitial fluid pressure in a 3-D model.
Related JoVE Video
Antenatal imatinib treatment reduces pulmonary vascular remodeling in a rat model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The pathophysiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is constituted by pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension (PH). We previously reported successful treatment with imatinib of a patient with CDH. This study examines the effect of antenatal imatinib administration on the pulmonary vasculature in a rat model of CDH. Pregnant rats were given nitrofen to induce CDH. Controls were given olive oil. Half of the CDH fetuses and half of the controls were treated with imatinib antenatally E17-E21, rendering four groups: Control, Control+Imatinib, CDH, and CDH+Imatinib. Lung sections were obtained for morphometry and immunohistochemistry, and protein was purified for Western blot. Effects of nitrofen and imatinib on Ki-67, caspase-3, PDGF-B, and PDGF receptors were analyzed. Imatinib significantly reduced medial wall thickness in pulmonary arteries of rats with CDH. It also normalized lumen area and reduced the proportion of fully muscularized arteries. Imatinib also caused medial thinning in the control group. Cell proliferation was increased in CDH, and this proliferation was significantly reduced by imatinib. PDGF-B and PDGFR-? were upregulated in CDH, and imatinib treatment resulted in a downregulation. PDGFR-? remained unchanged in CDH but was significantly downregulated by imatinib. Antenatal imatinib treatment reduces development of medial wall thickness and restores lumen area in pulmonary arteries in nitrofen-induced CDH. The mechanism is reduced cell proliferation. Imatinib is an interesting candidate for antenatal therapy for PH in CDH, but potential side effects need to be investigated and more specific targeting of PDGF signaling is needed.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.