Tumor suppressor p53 plays a central role in tumor suppression. To ensure its proper function, the levels and activity of p53 are under a tight regulation in cells. MicroRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that play an important role in regulation of gene expression. Recently, microRNA-339-5p has been reported to be frequently down-regulated in colorectal cancer, and furthermore, its down-regulation is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients, which strongly suggests a tumor suppressive function of microRNA-339-5p in colorectal cancer. In this study, we found that microRNA-339-5p directly represses the expression of MDM2, a key negative regulator of p53, through binding to MDM2 3'-UTR in colorectal cancer cells. Through the down-regulation of MDM2, microRNA-339-5p increases p53 protein levels and functions, including p53 transcriptional activity and p53-mediated apoptosis and senescence in response to stress. Furthermore, microRNA-339-5p inhibits the migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells and the growth of colorectal xenograft tumors in a largely p53-dependent manner. Our results highlighted an important role of microRNA-339-5p in suppression of colorectal tumorigenesis, and also revealed that regulating the p53 function is an important mechanism for microRNA-339-5p in tumor suppression.
Cancer cells display enhanced glycolysis to meet their energetic and biosynthetic demands even under normal oxygen concentrations. Recent studies have revealed that tumor suppressor p53 represses glycolysis under normoxia as a novel mechanism for tumor suppression. As a common microenvironmental stress for tumors, hypoxia drives the metabolic switch from the oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, which is crucial for survival and proliferation of cancer cells under hypoxia. The p53's role and mechanism in regulating glycolysis under hypoxia is poorly understood. Here, we found that p53 represses hypoxia-stimulated glycolysis in cancer cells through RRAD, a newly-identified p53 target. RRAD expression is frequently decreased in lung cancer. Ectopic expression of RRAD greatly reduces glycolysis whereas knockdown of RRAD promotes glycolysis in lung cancer cells. Furthermore, RRAD represses glycolysis mainly through inhibition of GLUT1 translocation to the plasma membrane. Under hypoxic conditions, p53 induces RRAD, which in turn inhibits the translocation of GLUT1 and represses glycolysis in lung cancer cells. Blocking RRAD by siRNA greatly abolishes p53's function in repressing glycolysis under hypoxia. Taken together, our results revealed an important role and mechanism of p53 in antagonizing the stimulating effect of hypoxia on glycolysis, which contributes to p53's function in tumor suppression.
Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) has been recently identified as a p53 target gene, which mediates the role of p53 in maternal implantation under normal physiological conditions. Here we report that LIF is a negative regulator of p53; LIF downregulates p53 protein levels and function in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. The downregulation of p53 by LIF is mediated by the activation of Stat3, which transcriptionally induces inhibitor of DNA-binding 1 (ID1). ID1 upregulates MDM2, a key negative regulator of p53, and promotes p53 protein degradation. LIF is overexpressed in a large percentage of CRCs. LIF overexpression promotes cellular resistance towards chemotherapeutic agents in cultured CRC cells and colorectal xenograft tumours in a largely p53-dependent manner. Overexpression of LIF is associated with a poor prognosis in CRC patients. Taken together, LIF is a novel negative regulator of p53, overexpression of LIF is an important mechanism for the attenuation of p53, which promotes chemoresistance in CRCs.
The tumor suppressor p53 and its signaling pathway play a critical role in tumor prevention. As a direct p53 target gene, the role of glutaminase 2 (GLS2) in tumorigenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that GLS2 expression is significantly decreased in majority of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Restoration of GLS2 expression in HCC cells inhibits the anchorage-independent growth of cells and reduces the growth of HCC xenograft tumors. Interestingly, we found that GLS2 negatively regulates the PI3K/AKT signaling, which is frequently activated in HCC. Blocking the PI3K/AKT signaling in HCC cells largely abolishes the inhibitory effect of GLS2 on the anchorage-independent cell growth and xenograft tumor growth. The GLS2 promoter is hypermethylated in majority of HCC samples. CpG methylation of GLS2 promoter inhibits GLS2 transcription, whereas reducing the methylation of GLS2 promoter induces GLS2 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GLS2 plays an important role in tumor suppression in HCC, and the negative regulation of PI3K/AKT signaling contributes greatly to this function of GLS2. Furthermore, hypermethylation of GLS2 promoter is an important mechanism contributing to the decreased GLS2 expression in HCC.
TiO2/MgO/Au composite thin films with different MgO spacer layer thicknesses (0-41 nm) were fabricated on c-sapphire substrates by sputtering and pulsed laser deposition. Through optimizing the thickness of MgO spacer layer, which can effectively prevent nonradiative Förster resonant energy transfer and charge transfer between Au and TiO2, defect-related yellow-green light emission of TiO2 thin film was greatly enhanced - 12 times. The enhancement mechanism is attributed to the efficient increase of luminescence efficiency of deep levels in TiO2 induced by resonant coupling between localized surface plasmons in Au nanoparticles and electron-hole pairs in defect-related levels of TiO2.
Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a multi-functional cytokine protein. The role of LIF in tumorigenesis is not well-understood. Here, we found that LIF promotes tumorigenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. LIF promotes cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells in vitro, and the growth of xenograft breast tumors in vivo. LIF also promotes invasion and migration of breast cancer cells in vitro and metastasis of breast cancer in vivo. We found that LIF activates the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway to promote tumorigenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. Inhibiting the AKT activity can largely block the activation of the mTOR pathway by LIF, suggesting that LIF activates the mTOR pathway through AKT. Inhibiting the AKT activity as well as inhibiting the mTOR activity largely block the promoting effect of LIF on tumorigenesis and metastasis. Furthermore, overexpression of LIF is significantly associated with a poorer relapse free survival in breast cancer patients. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that LIF plays an important role in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of breast cancer, and could be an important prognostic marker for breast cancer.
Tumor suppressor p53 plays a pivotal role in tumor suppression. p53 is the most frequently mutated gene in cancer. As a transcription factor, p53 mainly exerts its role in tumor suppression through transcriptional regulation of its downstream target genes. Thus, p53 and its target genes form a complex p53 signaling pathway to regulate a wide variety of biological processes to prevent tumorigenesis. Recent studies have revealed that in addition to apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence, p53s functions in the regulation of energy metabolism and anti-oxidant defense contribute significantly to its role in tumor suppression. Studies further show that many tumor-associated mutant p53 proteins not only lose tumor suppressive functions of wild-type p53, but also gain new oncogenic activities that are independent of wild-type p53, including promoting tumor cell proliferation, survival, metabolic changes, angiogenesis, and metastasis, which are defined as mutant p53 gain-of-function. The frequent loss of wild-type p53 function and the gain-of-function of mutant p53 in human tumors make p53 an extremely attractive target for cancer therapy. Different strategies and many small-molecule drugs are being developed for the p53-based tumor therapy. Here, we review the mechanisms of p53 in tumor suppression and gain-of-function mutant p53 in tumor development, as well as the recent advances in the development of the p53-based tumor therapy.
Tumor-suppressor p53 plays a key role in tumor prevention. As a transcription factor, p53 transcriptionally regulates its target genes to regulate different biological processes in response to stress, including apoptosis, cell cycle arrest or senescence, to exert its function in tumor suppression. Recent studies have revealed that metabolic regulation is a novel function of p53. Metabolic changes have been regarded as a hallmark of tumors and a key contributor to tumor development. p53 regulates many different aspects of metabolism, including glycolysis, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, pentose phosphate pathway, fatty acid synthesis and oxidation, to maintain the homeostasis of cellular metabolism, which contributes to the role of p53 in tumor suppression. p53 is frequently mutated in human tumors. In addition to loss of tumor suppressive function, tumor-associated mutant p53 proteins often gain new tumorigenic activities, termed gain-of-function of mutant p53. Recent studies have shown that mutant p53 mediates metabolic changes in tumors as a novel gain-of-function to promote tumor development. Here we review the functions and mechanisms of wild-type and mutant p53 in metabolic regulation, and discuss their potential roles in tumorigenesis.
The tumour suppressor p53 is frequently mutated in tumours. Mutant p53 (Mutp53) proteins often gain new activities in promoting tumorigenesis, defined as gain-of-function (GOF). Mutp53 can accumulate to high levels in tumours, which promotes mutp53 GOF in tumorigenesis. The mechanism of mutp53 accumulation is poorly understood. Here we find that MDM2 isoforms promote mutp53 accumulation in tumours. MDM2 isoform B (MDM2-B), the MDM2 isoform most frequently over-expressed in human tumours, interacts with full-length MDM2 to inhibit MDM2-mediated mutp53 degradation, promoting mutp53 accumulation and GOF in tumorigenesis. Furthermore, MDM2-B overexpression correlates with mutp53 accumulation in human tumours. In mutp53 knock-in mice, a MDM2 isoform similar to human MDM2-B is overexpressed in the majority of tumours, which promotes mutp53 accumulation and tumorigenesis. Thus, overexpression of MDM2 isoforms promotes mutp53 accumulation in tumours, contributing to mutp53 GOF in tumorigenesis. This may be an important mechanism by which MDM2 isoforms promote tumorigenesis.
Localized surface plasmon (LSP) enhanced ultraviolet (UV) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were fabricated by embedding a ZnO nanorod array/p-GaN film heterostructure into a Ag-nanoparticles/PMMA composite. By optimizing the concentration of Ag nanoparticles in PMMA, two distinct changes in electroluminescence (EL) spectra were observed: (1) the UV EL component from ZnO excitons was selectively enhanced more than 13-fold and the entire spectral lineshape was changed and (2) the spatial uniformity of the output photon intensity was improved and the linewidth of an angular distribution curve was increased by ?2 times. These observations can be attributed to near-field optical coupling between Ag LSPs and ZnO excitons. Time-resolved luminescence measurements and a model calculation reveal that the optical coupling results in the increase of the spontaneous emission rate and internal quantum efficiency of Ag-nanoparticles-decorated ZnO nanorod arrays. Moreover, the LSP-exciton interaction allows the devices EL to be coupled out of the nanorod waveguide and to be isotropically scattered into every direction, thus broadening the angular distribution of the EL intensity.
The title compounds are a class of structurally simple analogues of quaternary benzo[c]phenanthridine alkaloids (QBAs). In order to develop novel QBA-like antifungal drugs, in this study, 24 of the title compounds with various substituents on the N-phenyl ring were evaluated for bioactivity against seven phytopathogenic fungi using the mycelial growth rate method and their SAR discussed. Almost all the compounds showed definite activities in vitro against each of the test fungi at 50 ?g/mL and a broad antifungal spectrum. In most cases, the mono-halogenated compounds 2-12 exhibited excellent activities superior to the QBAs sanguinarine and chelerythrine. Compound 8 possessed the strongest activities on each of the fungi with EC?? values of 8.88-19.88 µg/mL and a significant concentration-dependent relationship. The SAR is as follows: the N-phenyl group is a high sensitive structural moiety for the activity and the characteristics and position of substituents intensively influence the activity. Generally, electron-withdrawing substituents remarkably enhance the activity while electron-donating substituents cause a decrease of the activity. In most cases, ortha- and para-halogenated isomers were more active than the corresponding m-halogenated isomers. Thus, the title compounds emerged as promising lead compounds for the development of novel biomimetic antifungal agrochemicals. Compounds 8 and 2 should have great potential as new broad spectrum antifungal agents for plant protection.
Tumour cells primarily utilize aerobic glycolysis for energy production, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect. Its mechanism is not well understood. The tumour suppressor gene p53 is frequently mutated in tumours. Many tumour-associated mutant p53 (mutp53) proteins not only lose tumour suppressive function but also gain new oncogenic functions that are independent of wild-type p53, defined as mutp53 gain of function (GOF). Here we show that tumour-associated mutp53 stimulates the Warburg effect in cultured cells and mutp53 knockin mice as a new mutp53 GOF. Mutp53 stimulates the Warburg effect through promoting GLUT1 translocation to the plasma membrane, which is mediated by activated RhoA and its downstream effector ROCK. Inhibition of RhoA/ROCK/GLUT1 signalling largely abolishes mutp53 GOF in stimulating the Warburg effect. Furthermore, inhibition of glycolysis in tumour cells greatly compromises mutp53 GOF in promoting tumorigenesis. Thus, our results reveal a new mutp53 GOF and a mechanism for controlling the Warburg effect.
Pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment for disabling, medication-refractory generalized dystonia. Patients typically regress to their preoperative baseline when stimulation is discontinued.
Transgenic animals are powerful tools to study gene function invivo. Here we characterize several transgenic zebrafish lines that express green fluorescent protein (GFP) under the control of the LCR(RH2)-RH2-1 or LCR(RH2)-RH2-2 green opsin regulatory elements. Using confocal immunomicroscopy, stereo-fluorescence microscopy, and Western blotting, we show that the Tg(LCR(RH2)-RH2-1:GFP)(pt112) and Tg(LCR(RH2)-RH2-2:GFP)(pt115) transgenic zebrafish lines express GFP in the pineal gland and certain types of photoreceptors. In addition, some of these lines also express GFP in the hatching gland, optic tectum, or olfactory bulb. Some of the expression patterns differ significantly from previously published similar transgenic fish lines, making them useful tools for studying the development of the corresponding tissues and organs. In addition, the variations of GFP expression among different lines corroborate the notion that transgenic expression is often subjected to position effect, thus emphasizing the need for careful verification of expression patterns when transgenic animal models are utilized for research.
p63 and p73, two p53 family members, play crucial roles in development and tumor suppression. p63 and p73 have multiple isoforms, which have similar or distinct biological functions. Transactivation (TA) isoforms of p63 and p73 have high similarity with p53 and often have biological functions similar to p53. p53 plays an important role in nucleotide excision repair (NER) through transcriptional regulation of target genes involved in NER, including DDB2, XPC and GADD45. To investigate whether TAp63 and TAp73 play a similar role in NER, Saos2 cells with inducible expression of specific isoforms of TAp63 and TAp73, including TAp63?/?/? and TAp73?/?/? isoforms, were employed. Overexpression of TAp63? significantly enhances NER of ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage, including cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and 6-4 photoproducts, and enhances cell survival after UV irradiation in Soas2 cells. The enhancement of NER of UV-induced DNA damage by TAp63? was also confirmed in H1299 cells with overexpression of TAp63?. Consistently, knockdown of endogenous TAp63 decreases NER of UV-induced DNA damage in H1299 cells. TAp63?/? and TAp73?/?/? isoforms do not have a clear effect on NER in Saos2 or H1299 cells. TAp63? overexpression clearly induces the expression of DDB2, XPC and GADD45 at both RNA and protein levels. Furthermore, luciferase reporter assays show that TAp63? transcriptionally activates DDB2, XPC and GADD45 genes through the regulation of the p53 binding elements in these genes. These results demonstrate that TAp63? enhances NER to remove UV-induced DNA damage and maintain genomic stability through transcriptional induction of a set of NER proteins, which provides an additional important mechanism that contributes to the function of TAp63 in tumor suppression.
Regulation of energy metabolism is a novel function of p53 in tumor suppression. Parkin (PARK2), a Parkinson disease-associated gene, is a potential tumor suppressor whose expression is frequently diminished in tumors. Here Parkin was identified as a p53 target gene that is an important mediator of p53s function in regulating energy metabolism. The human and mouse Parkin genes contain functional p53 responsive elements, and p53 increases the transcription of Parkin in both humans and mice. Parkin contributes to the function of p53 in glucose metabolism; Parkin deficiency activates glycolysis and reduces mitochondrial respiration, leading to the Warburg effect. Restoration of Parkin expression reverses the Warburg effect in cells. Thus, Parkin deficiency is a novel mechanism for the Warburg effect in tumors. Parkin also contributes to the function of p53 in antioxidant defense. Furthermore, Parkin deficiency sensitizes mice to ?-irradiation-induced tumorigenesis, which provides further direct evidence to support a role of Parkin in tumor suppression. Our results suggest that as a novel component in the p53 pathway, Parkin contributes to the functions of p53 in regulating energy metabolism, especially the Warburg effect, and antioxidant defense, and thus the function of p53 in tumor suppression.
Tumor suppressor p53 is crucial for embryonic implantation through transcriptional up-regulation of uterine leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). This article reports that p53 and estrogen receptor ? were activated in endometrial tissues during implantation to coordinately regulate LIF production. By using human p53 knockin (Hupki) mice carrying a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 72 (arginine/proline), the arginine allele was demonstrated to produce higher uterine LIF levels during implantation than the proline allele. In humans, the diversity of haplotypes of the p53 gene has decreased during evolution, because the arginine allele, existing in only a subset of haplotypes, is under positive selection. This observation is consistent with previous results showing that the proline allele is enriched in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). Studies with p63- and p73-knockout mice have demonstrated the involvement of p63 and p73 in female reproduction and their roles in egg formation and apoptosis (p63) and spindle checkpoint (p73) in female mice. Here, the role of p63 and p73 in human reproduction was investigated. Selected alleles of SNPs in p63 and p73 genes were enriched in IVF patients. These findings demonstrate that the p53 family members are involved in several steps to regulate female reproduction in mice and humans.
Tumor suppressor p53 plays a central role in tumor prevention. As a transcription factor, p53 mainly exerts its function through transcription regulation of its target genes to initiate various cellular responses. To maintain its proper function, p53 is tightly regulated by a wide variety of regulators in cells. Thus, p53, its regulators and regulated genes form a complex p53 network which is composed of hundreds of genes and their products. microRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenously expressed, small non-coding RNA molecules which play a key role in regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs interact with p53 and its network at multiple levels. p53 regulates the transcription expression and the maturation of a group of miRNAs. On the other hand, miRNAs can regulate the activity and function of p53 through direct repression of p53 or its regulators in cells. These findings have demonstrated that miRNAs are important components in the p53 network, and also added another layer of complexity to the p53 network.
Whereas cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence are traditionally thought of as the major functions of the tumor suppressor p53, recent studies revealed two unique functions for this protein: p53 regulates cellular energy metabolism and antioxidant defense mechanisms. Here, we identify glutaminase 2 (GLS2) as a previously uncharacterized p53 target gene to mediate these two functions of the p53 protein. GLS2 encodes a mitochondrial glutaminase catalyzing the hydrolysis of glutamine to glutamate. p53 increases the GLS2 expression under both nonstressed and stressed conditions. GLS2 regulates cellular energy metabolism by increasing production of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate, which in turn results in enhanced mitochondrial respiration and ATP generation. Furthermore, GLS2 regulates antioxidant defense function in cells by increasing reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and decreasing ROS levels, which in turn protects cells from oxidative stress (e.g., H(2)O(2))-induced apoptosis. Consistent with these functions of GLS2, the activation of p53 increases the levels of glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate, mitochondrial respiration rate, and GSH levels and decreases reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in cells. Furthermore, GLS2 expression is lost or greatly decreased in hepatocellular carcinomas and the overexpression of GLS2 greatly reduced tumor cell colony formation. These results demonstrated that as a unique p53 target gene, GLS2 is a mediator of p53s role in energy metabolism and antioxidant defense, which can contribute to its role in tumor suppression.
To analyze the forensic pathological characteristics of sudden death caused by pulmonary thromboembolism and the chronological transformation of thrombus and explore the assessment method of the causal relationship between previous trauma and the following fatal PTE episode.
Tumor suppressor p53 plays a central role in tumor prevention. p53 protein levels and activity are under a tight and complex regulation in cells to maintain the proper function of p53. MicroRNAs play a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Here we report the regulation of p53 through miR-504. miR-504 acts as a negative regulator of human p53 through its direct binding to two sites in the p53 3 untranslated region. Overexpression of miR-504 decreases p53 protein levels and functions in cells, including p53 transcriptional activity, p53-mediated apoptosis, and cell-cycle arrest in response to stress, and furthermore promotes tumorigenecity of cells in vivo. These results demonstrate the direct negative regulation of p53 by miR-504 as a mechanism for p53 regulation in cells, which highlights the importance of microRNAs in tumorigenesis.
Although policies mandating annual influenza vaccination among health care workers (HCWs) are recommended, little is known about which HCWs support mandatory vaccination. We surveyed non-physician, non-nursing HCWs to identify beliefs associated with supporting mandatory HCW vaccination. Although similarities were identified, some beliefs and concerns associated with supporting mandatory vaccination differed among HCW groups. Policy makers should understand these differences and address beliefs and concerns of all HCW groups when attempting to implement a mandatory influenza vaccination policy.
IN THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF THE TITLE COMPOUND [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 6,7-dimeth-oxy-12-methyl-16,18-dioxa-12-aza-tetra-cyclo-[22.214.171.124(4,9).0(15,19)]henicosa-1(21),4,6,8,14,19-hexaen-3-ol], C(21)H(25)NO(5), the benzene rings exhibits a dihedral angle of 14.95?(4)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by pairs of O-H?O hydrogen bonding into inversion dimers. These dimers are further connected by C-H?O inter-actions.
Epidemiological studies strongly suggest that chronic psychological stress promotes tumorigenesis. However, its direct link in vivo and the underlying mechanisms that cause this remain unclear. This study provides direct evidence that chronic stress promotes tumorigenesis in vivo; chronic restraint, a well-established mouse model to induce chronic stress, greatly promotes ionizing radiation (IR)-induced tumorigenesis in p53(+/-) mice. The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a central role in tumor prevention. Loss or attenuation of p53 function contriubutes greatly to tumorigenesis. We found that chronic restraint decreases the levels and function of p53 in mice, and furthermore, promotes the growth of human xenograft tumors in a largely p53-dependent manner. Our results show that glucocorticoids elevated during chronic restraint mediate the effect of chronic restraint on p53 through the induction of serum- and glucocorticoid-induced protein kinase (SGK1), which in turn increases MDM2 activity and decreases p53 function. Taken together, this study demonstrates that chronic stress promotes tumorigenesis in mice, and the attenuation of p53 function is an important part of the underlying mechanism, which can be mediated by glucocortcoids elevated during chronic restraint.
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