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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Lysosomal sequestration (trapping) of lipophilic amine (cationic amphiphilic) drugs in immortalized human hepatocytes (Fa2N-4 cells).
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Lipophilic (logP > 1) and amphiphilic drugs (also known as cationic amphiphilic drugs) with ionizable amines (pKa > 6) can accumulate in lysosomes, a process known as lysosomal trapping. This process contributes to presystemic extraction by lysosome-rich organs (such as liver and lung), which, together with the binding of lipophilic amines to phospholipids, contributes to the large volume of distribution characteristic of numerous cardiovascular and central nervous system drugs. Accumulation of lipophilic amines in lysosomes has been implicated as a cause of phospholipidosis. Furthermore, elevated levels of lipophilic amines in lysosomes can lead to high organ-to-blood ratios of drugs that can be mistaken for active drug transport. In the present study, we describe an in vitro fluorescence-based method (using the lysosome-specific probe LysoTracker Red) to identify lysosomotropic agents in immortalized hepatocytes (Fa2N-4 cells). A diverse set of compounds with various physicochemical properties were tested, such as acids, bases, and zwitterions. In addition, the partitioning of the nonlysosomotropic atorvastatin (an anion) and the lysosomotropics propranolol and imipramine (cations) were quantified in Fa2N-4 cells in the presence or absence of various lysosomotropic or nonlysosomotropic agents and inhibitors of lysosomal sequestration (NH4Cl, nigericin, and monensin). Cellular partitioning of propranolol and imipramine was markedly reduced (by at least 40%) by NH4Cl, nigericin, or monensin. Lysosomotropic drugs also inhibited the partitioning of propranolol by at least 50%, with imipramine partitioning affected to a lesser degree. This study demonstrates the usefulness of immortalized hepatocytes (Fa2N-4 cells) for determining the lysosomal sequestration of lipophilic amines.
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Dose-response of berberine on hepatic cytochromes P450 mRNA expression and activities in mice.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the root and bark of plants such as goldenseal, Berberis, and Chinese goldthread. Berberine-containing crude drugs have been used as an antimicrobial remedy against gastrointestinal infections for thousands of years. It is also widely used in Asian countries for diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia therapy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.