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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Impact of induction regimen and stem cell transplantation on outcomes in double-hit lymphoma: a multicenter retrospective analysis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Patients with double-hit lymphoma (DHL), which is characterized by rearrangements of MYC and either BCL2 or BCL6, face poor prognoses. We conducted a retrospective multicenter study of the impact of baseline clinical factors, induction therapy, and stem cell transplant (SCT) on the outcomes of 311 patients with previously untreated DHL. At median follow-up of 23 months, the median progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates among all patients were 10.9 and 21.9 months, respectively. Forty percent of patients remain disease-free and 49% remain alive at 2 years. Intensive induction was associated with improved PFS, but not OS, and SCT was not associated with improved OS among patients achieving first complete remission (P = .14). By multivariate analysis, advanced stage, central nervous system involvement, leukocytosis, and LDH >3 times the upper limit of normal were associated with higher risk of death. Correcting for these, intensive induction was associated with improved OS. We developed a novel risk score for DHL, which divides patients into high-, intermediate-, and low-risk groups. In conclusion, a subset of DHL patients may be cured, and some patients may benefit from intensive induction. Further investigations into the roles of SCT and novel agents are needed.
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Factors predicting survival in peripheral T-cell lymphoma in the USA: a population-based analysis of 8802 patients in the modern era.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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Current prognostic models for peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) have multiple limitations, and questions exist regarding applicability to current patients. We utilized the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-18 database to evaluate factors affecting overall survival (OS) of PTCL in the modern era and identified 8802 patients between 2000-2010. Most subtypes of PTCL increased in incidence during the study period. In univariate analyses, age >55 years, black race, advanced stage, absence of extra-nodal disease, omission of radiation therapy (RT) and high-risk histology each predicted inferior OS (P < 0·0001). Multivariate analysis (MVA) demonstrated that hepatosplenic, enteropathy-associated and extra-nodal Natural Killer/T cell histologies, each had hazard ratios >1·5 (P ? 0·0001) for death. Further, age ?55 years, black race and advanced stage maintained their significance in the MVA (P < 0·0001 each). Based on the significant factors, a prognostic model was constructed and subsequently validated in an independent cohort. The new model incorporated age, stage, histology and race, with an OS ranging from 9 months (highest risk group) to 120 months (lowest risk group). In summary, this is the largest study of PTCL patients in the modern era that provides risk stratification utilizing a new prognostic model that can be incorporated into future prospective clinical trials.
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MYC-associated and double-hit lymphomas: A review of pathobiology, prognosis, and therapeutic approaches.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Aberrant expression of the v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) proto-oncogene has known transformative potential in healthy human cells. Chromosomal MYC rearrangements and consequent MYC overexpression is the defining lesion in Burkitt lymphoma (BL), conferring a highly proliferative state. However, abnormalities of MYC are increasingly appreciated in non-BL histologies, including diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and B-cell lymphomas intermediate between BL and DLBCL, with a particularly aggressive clinical phenotype. Although there are conflicting data regarding prognostic implications of isolated MYC aberrancy in these non-BLs, the co-occurrence of MYC rearrangements and either the antiapoptotic gene B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 2 (BCL2) or the transcriptional repressor BCL6 leads to an entity termed double-hit B-cell lymphoma (DHL) (or triple-hit if all 3 abnormalities are observed) with a particularly poor prognosis and no established treatment paradigms. Notably, a distinct pattern of gene expression profiling has been noted when MYC is overexpressed in BL compared with other lymphomas, supporting the notion that, although MYC promotes target gene transcription, the target genes vary by disease subtype. The frequency of MYC activity depends on the method of detection and ranges from 5% to 10% using fluorescence in situ hybridization but up to 30% of DLBCL using immunohistochemistry. Standard therapies developed for DLBCL are less effective when the disease is driven by MYC, leading to lower response rates and response durations. An important clinical challenge is to pre-emptively identify MYC-associated lymphomas and to subsequently develop trials specifically for this group of patients. However, the design of such studies is complicated by variable definitions of MYC-associated lymphoid malignancies and the lack of effective therapies to date. The objective if the current review was to evaluate the implications of MYC aberrancy with respect to the B-cell lymphoma double-hit and triple-hit phenotypes and to consider the available data for clinical and practical management. Cancer 2014. © 2014 American Cancer Society.
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The impact of race, ethnicity, age and sex on clinical outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a comprehensive Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results analysis in the modern era.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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To analyze racial, ethnic, sex and age disparities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we examined population-based overall survival (OS) data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-13 (1992-2009) across various races/ethnicities over two consecutive 9-year periods: era 1 (1992-2000) and era 2 (2001-2009). We analyzed 28 590 patients (whites: 24 438, blacks: 1954, Hispanics: 1389 and Asians/Pacific Islanders [A/PI]: 809). A higher proportion of whites were aged > 80 years (22% vs. 17% [Hispanics], 16% [blacks], 16% [A/PI]; p < 0.001). Higher socioeconomic status (SES) was also identified for A/PI and whites compared with blacks and Hispanics (p < 0.001). OS for all patients improved at 5 years (66% vs. 60%, p < 0.0001) and was significant in all races/ethnicities except A/PI. Patients of higher SES had better outcomes than others independent of era, but both SES classes experienced relative improvement in their OS across eras. The OS of patients with CLL has improved in the modern era but racial/ethnic, gender and SES differences persist, warranting further investigation.
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The impact of race, age, and sex in follicular lymphoma: A comprehensive SEER analysis across consecutive treatment eras.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The impact of race/ethnicity and the additional factors of age, sex, and socioeconomic status (SES) on follicular lymphoma (FL) outcomes have not been comprehensively studied and are not well defined. We examined population-based FL data from >18,000 patients in SEER-13 (1992-2009) investigating race/ethnicity and the impact of relevant factors including sex, age, and SES. Further, we compared data over two consecutive periods: Era-1 (1992-2000, n = 8,355) and Era-2 (2001-2009, n = 10,475). We identified 18,830 FL patients (White: n = 15,116; Hispanic: n = 1,627; Asian/Pacific Islander (A/PI): n = 1,002; and Black: n = 846). Median ages (years) differed significantly by race/ethnicity: White: 62.1, Hispanic: 57.3, A/PI: 60.7, and Black: 56.8 (P < 0.01 each race versus White). Overall survival (OS) was superior in Era-2 versus Era-1 for all patients (5-year: 76.7% versus 67.4%, respectively, P < 0.001). Further, survival was significantly improved for all age groups <80 years, for males (P = 0.0019), and females (P < 0.001) across eras. Females had superior OS compared with males in Era-1 (P = 0.004), but not in Era-2. Additionally, all races, except A/PI, had improved 5-year OS rates from Era-1 to Era-2. Finally, OS improved across eras for lower and higher SES populations; however those with higher SES were superior to lower SES patients in both eras. In conclusion, and in the largest comprehensive evaluation of US-based FL patients to date, we show that despite improvements in OS for FL over time, critical disparities across races/ethnicities, sex, and age groups remain in the modern era and warrant further studies.
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A systematic review of comparative schedule-related toxicities with maintenance rituximab in follicular and mantle cell lymphomas.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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We conducted a systematic review of grade 3/4 adverse events (AEs) reported in prospective trials enrolling patients with follicular lymphoma (FL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) receiving maintenance rituximab (MR). Random-effects models were used to calculate summary estimates and 95% confidence intervals for the proportion of AEs occurring during MR. Differences by induction program, histology, setting and MR schedule were examined by stratified analyses and univariate random-effects meta-regression. Eleven trials met the search criteria, with nine sufficiently reporting AEs during the MR phase. Of 1009 patients receiving MR, the proportion experiencing cumulative grade 3/4 toxicity was 24% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 14-36%). Patients receiving MR every 6 months as four weekly infusions for 2 years had significantly less toxicity compared with those receiving MR every 2 months (10% vs. 28%; p = 0.035). Patients treated with rituximab alone during induction had fewer toxicities compared to those treated with rituximab plus chemotherapy induction (12% vs. 35%; p = 0.031). Myelosuppression and infections were the most common toxicities. Our literature analysis suggests that MR given every 6 months and rituximab alone as induction may be associated with fewer grade 3/4 AEs for patients with FL and MCL; however, assessing the true independent impact of induction regimens and schedule on toxicity will require prospective trials.
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Lenalidomide Monotherapy in Chemotherapy-Naive, Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Patients: Final Results of a Phase II Study.
Clin Genitourin Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
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We investigated the activity of lenalidomide, which has antiangiogenic, antineoplastic, and immunomodulatory properties, in chemotherapy-naive, castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients.
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Extramedullary chronic lymphocytic leukemia: Systematic analysis of cases reported between 1975 and 2012.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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The prognostic significance of extra-medullary chronic lymphocytic leukemia (EM-CLL) is unknown. We conducted a Medline database systematic search analyzing English language articles published between 1975 and 2012 identifying 192 cases. Patients with EM-CLL were more commonly treated than not (p<.001). Skin and central nervous system (CNS) were the most commonly reported sites of organ involvement. Survival after diagnosis of EM-CLL appeared to depend on the site of EM involvement. Prospective evaluation and further studies of EM-CLL are warranted.
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Role of Sorafenib in Overcoming Resistance of Chemotherapy-Failure Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer.
Clin Genitourin Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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Sorafenib promotes apoptosis through downstream pathways that can be deregulated in CRPC. We hypothesized that sorafenib could overcome chemotherapy resistance in CRPC.
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Diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the very elderly: challenges and solutions.
Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.)
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCL) is a disease of the elderly, but our current guidelines and treatment paradigms for this disease are based on studies that have mainly enrolled younger patients. Because the number of people living beyond the age of 80 increased by more than 250% between 1960 and 2000, and since it is expected that the population over the age of 75 will triple by 2030, understanding how these elderly patients should be treated is paramount to improving outcomes for this potentially curable lymphoma. In this review, we outline the scope of the problem; we define "the elderly" and identify challenges in assessing this patient population. We also summarize pivotal studies that have been conducted in these elderly patients and suggest an algorithm to aid clinicians in making treatment decisions when faced with DLBCL patients older than 80.
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A retrospective multicenter analysis of elderly Hodgkin lymphoma: outcomes and prognostic factors in the modern era.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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We investigated a recent (January 1999 to December 2009) cohort of 95 elderly Hodgkin lymphoma subjects. At diagnosis, median age was 67 years (range, 60-89 years), whereas 61% had significant comorbidity, 26% were unfit, 17% had a geriatric syndrome, and 13% had loss of activities of daily living. Overall response rate to therapy was 85%, whereas incidence of bleomycin lung toxicity was 32% (with associated mortality rate, 25%). With 66-month median follow-up, 2-year and 5-year overall survival were 73% and 58%, respectively (advanced-stage, 63% and 46%, respectively). Most International Prognostic Score factors were not prognostic on univariate analyses, whereas Cox multivariate regression identified 2 risk factors associated with inferior overall survival: (1) age more than 70 years (2.24; 95% CI, 1.16-4.33, P = .02) and (2) loss of activities of daily living (2.71; 95% CI, 1.07-6.84, P = .04). Furthermore, a novel survival model based on number of these risk factors (0, 1, or 2) showed differential 2-year OS of 83%, 70%, and 13%, respectively (P < .0001) and 5-year OS of 73%, 51%, and 0%, respectively (P < .0001).
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Analysis of very elderly (?80 years) non-hodgkin lymphoma: impact of functional status and co-morbidities on outcome.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2011
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Data on outcome, prognostic factors, and treatment for very elderly non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) is sparse. We conducted a multicentre retrospective analysis of NHL patients ?80?years (at diagnosis) treated between 1999 and 2009. Detailed characteristics were obtained including geriatric syndromes, activities of daily living (ADLs), and co-morbidities using the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale-Geriatrics (CIRS-G). We identified 303 patients: 170 aggressive NHL (84% B cell/16% T cell) and 133 indolent NHL (82% B cell/18% T cell). Median age was 84?years (80-95). A geriatric syndrome was present in 26% of patients, 18% had ?1 grade 4 CIRS-G, and 14% had loss of ADLs. At 49-month median follow-up, 4-year progression-free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for aggressive NHLs were 31% and 44% respectively (stage I/II: PFS 53% and OS 66%; stage III/IV: PFS 20% and OS 32%; P?
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Maintenance rituximab in follicular non-Hodgkin lymphoma: facts and controversies.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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The advent of rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD20, has arguably improved and changed the natural history of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and has become an essential component of front-line and relapsed disease treatment strategies. Given its tolerability and long half-life, rituximab has been investigated in the maintenance setting in follicular lymphoma. Several landmark studies have demonstrated improvement in progression-free survival in patients receiving maintenance rituximab compared to those observed. These favorable results were witnessed in front-line and in the relapsed setting using a variety of induction programs such as rituximab monotherapy or chemoimmunotherapy. Importantly, toxicities were predictable and manageable. Despite these encouraging results, many vital and practical questions remain unanswered. In this review, we critically analyze the data that led to the widespread use of maintenance rituximab in follicular lymphoma and attempt to answer the most important questions facing practicing oncologists when deciding on using this approach in their patients.
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Erlotinib eradicates brain metastases from epidermal growth factor receptor mutant non-small cell lung cancer.
Avicenna J Med
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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Erlotinib is active in patients with lung cancer; especially those who demonstrate a mutation in exons 18-21 in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Patients with lung cancer and brain metastases have poor prognosis as systemic chemotherapy is ineffective in treating the central nervous system (CNS) metastases due to its inability to cross the blood brain barrier. Herein, we report a case of a 61 year old female who presented with stage IV adenocarcinoma of the lung with bilateral cerebral and cerebellar CNS involvement. The patients tumor harbored a mutation in exon 19 in the EGFR gene. Treatment with erlotinib was started as soon as the molecular studies were available with remarkable and complete radiographic response in the CNS disease, and complete resolution of the previously detected metastases. The patient did not receive any other CNS intervention and radiation was not given due to the lack of CNS symptoms.
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A phase II pilot trial investigating the efficacy and activity of single agent granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor as maintenance approach in castration - resistant prostate cancer patients responding to chemotherapy.
Avicenna J Med
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2011
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To investigate the toxicity and efficacy of GM-CSF in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients who maximized their response to systemic chemotherapy.
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Classifying cytogenetics in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia in complete remission undergoing allogeneic transplantation: a Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research study.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Cytogenetics play a major role in determining the prognosis of patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). However, existing cytogenetics classifications were developed in chemotherapy-treated patients and might not be optimal for patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied 821 adult patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) who underwent HCT for AML in first or second complete remission between 1999 and 2004. We compared the ability of the 6 existing classifications to stratify patients by overall survival. We then defined a new scheme specifically applicable to patients undergoing HCT using this patient cohort. Under this scheme, inv(16) is favorable, a complex karyotype (4 or more abnormalities) is adverse, and all other classified abnormalities are intermediate in predicting survival after HCT (5-year overall survival, 64%, 18%, and 50%, respectively; P = .0001). This scheme stratifies patients into 3 groups with similar nonrelapse mortality, but significantly different incidences of relapse, overall and leukemia-free survival. It applies to patients regardless of disease status (first or second complete remission), donor type (matched related or unrelated), or conditioning intensity (myeloablative or reduced intensity). This transplantation-specific classification could be adopted for prognostication purposes and to stratify patients with AML and karyotypic abnormalities entering HCT clinical trials.
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Bortezomib (Velcade), rituximab, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone combination regimen is active as front-line therapy of low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2011
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To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of the combination of VRCD (velcade/rituximab/cyclophosphamide/dexamethasone) in chemotherapy-naïve low-grade non-Hodgkin lymphoma or patients with transplantation-ineligible mantle cells.
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The emerging role of ofatumumab in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Clin Med Insights Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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The treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has evolved over the past decade. Our better understanding of disease biology and risk stratification has allowed delivering more effective therapies. In fact, front-line chemoimmunotherapy has demonstrated improvement in overall survival when compared to chemotherapy in randomized studies. Yet, treatment of relapsed CLL remains challenging and few agents are effective in that setting. Ofatumumab (Ofa) is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeted against CD20 with demonstrable activity in rituximab-resistant CLL cell lines. This agent was recently approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory CLL patients who have failed fludarabine and alemtuzumab. In this review, we provide a historical perspective on approaches to CLL as front-line and in the relapsed setting. We further summarize novel anti-CD20 antibodies with specific emphasis on ofa. We review studies that led to ofatumumabs approval including pre-clinical data, trials using ofa in combination therapies, and adverse events/toxicities reported with this agent.
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Biologic agent activity in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a framework for future therapies.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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The previous decade has witnessed remarkable advances in our understanding and treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Chemoimmunotherapy has provided patients with unprecedented remission rates and has improved survival compared to chemotherapy alone. However, the availability of targeted therapies and monoclonal antibodies argues for exploring non-cytotoxic and biologic regimens for this disease. In this article, we review available targeted and non-chemotherapeutic agents for CLL, attempting to position these therapies in the treatment paradigm of CLL in the era of risk stratification as we move forward.
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Efficacy and safety of clofarabine in relapsed and/or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma, including rituximab-refractory patients.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Currently, no standard therapy exists for patients with relapsed and/or refractory non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) who are ineligible for transplantation or who have failed after bone marrow transplantation. The authors of this report investigated the safety and efficacy of clofarabine (CLO) in these patients.
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Erlotinib has moderate single-agent activity in chemotherapy-naïve castration-resistant prostate cancer: final results of a phase II trial.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2009
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To investigate the efficacy and toxicity of single-agent erlotinib in chemotherapy-naive castration-resistant prostate cancer.
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Autologous blood cell transplantation versus HLA-identical sibling transplantation for acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission: a registry study from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplantation Research.
Haematologica
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The optimal post-remission treatment for acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission remains uncertain. Previous comparisons of autologous versus allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation noted higher relapse, but lower treatment-related mortality though using bone marrow grafts, with treatment-related mortality of 12-20%. Recognizing lower treatment-related mortality using autologous peripheral blood grafts, in an analysis of registry data from the Center for International Blood and Transplant Research, we compared treatment-related mortality, relapse, leukemia-free survival, and overall survival for patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission (median ages 36-44, range 19-60) receiving myeloablative HLA-matched sibling donor grafts (bone marrow, n=475 or peripheral blood, n=428) versus autologous peripheral blood (n=230). The 5-year cumulative incidence of treatment-related mortality was 19% (95% confidence interval, 16-23%), 20% (17-24%) and 8% (5-12%) for allogeneic bone marrow, allogeneic peripheral blood and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplant recipients, respectively. The corresponding figures for 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse were 20% (17-24%), 26% (21-30%) and 45% (38-52%), respectively. At 5 years, leukemia-free survival and overall survival rates were similar: allogeneic bone marrow 61% (56-65%) and 64% (59-68%); allogeneic peripheral blood 54% (49-59%) and 59% (54-64%); autologous peripheral blood 47% (40-54%) and 54% (47-60%); P=0.13 and P=0.19, respectively. In multivariate analysis the incidence of treatment-related mortality was lower after autologous peripheral blood transplantation than after allogeneic bone marrow/peripheral blood transplants [relative risk 0.37 (0.20-0.69); P=0.001], but treatment failure (death or relapse) after autologous peripheral blood was significantly more likely [relative risk 1.32 (1.06-1.64); P=0.011]. The 5-year overall survival, however, was similar in patients who received autologous peripheral blood (n=230) [relative risk 1.23 (0.98-1.55); P=0.071] or allogeneic bone marrow/peripheral blood (n=903). In the absence of an HLA-matched sibling donor, autologous peripheral blood may provide acceptable alternative post-remission therapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission.
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Lymphangitic pulmonary metastases in castrate-resistant prostate adenocarcinoma.
Case Rep Med
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A 63-year-old man with castrate-resistant metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma with known osseous and pelvic nodal involvement presented with progressive dyspnea for one week. Complete cardiopulmonary evaluation revealed a restrictive lung defect that could not be attributed to any of his previous therapies. On presentation, physical examination revealed coarse breath sounds diffusely with hypoxemia. Computed tomography of the chest showed severe bilateral airspace opacities and ground-glass appearance most consistent with interstitial pneumonitis. The patient was intubated due to progressive hypoxemia and worsening respiratory status despite empiric antibiotics and high dose steroids. Subsequent emergent bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsies revealed atypical intralymphatic cells that stained positively for prostate-specific antigen and prostatic-specific acid phosphatase, confirming the diagnosis of intralymphatic pulmonary metastasis from prostate adenocarcinoma. Lymphangitic pulmonary metastasis from prostate adenocarcinoma is exceedingly rare, with few reported cases that are biopsy-proven. Herein, we describe a rare case of biopsy-proven lymphangitic pulmonary metastasis in the setting of castrate-resistant prostate adenocarcinoma and provide a comprehensive literature review.
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The role of IMiDs alone or in combination in prostate cancer.
Clin Genitourin Cancer
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Recent insights into mechanisms by which prostate cancer becomes castration resistant have allowed better and more rational therapeutic design. These novel therapies have complemented the modest success that chemotherapy has shown in recent years changing the landscape of this disease and leading to improved outcomes. Angiogenesis and immune deregulation are 2 pathways that have increasingly been shown to lead into castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Thalidmide and lenalidomide are immunomodulatory agents with antiangiogenesis properties that have shown activity in this setting with acceptable safety profile. In this review, we discuss briefly the different mechanisms that render prostate cancer castration resistant and elaborate on thalidomide and lenalidomide data in CRPC after reviewing their theoretic mechanisms of action. This timely review coincides with the identification of newer therapies against CRPC affirming our steady movement toward better disease control.
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Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: is there a place for autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant in first remission in the era of chemo-immunotherapy?
Leuk. Lymphoma
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While rituximab-based chemo-immunotherapy has improved response and long-term survival rates in diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCL), relapse and death from recurrent disease is still the eventual outcome in a significant proportion of patients, especially those with high-risk disease. Autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (AHSCT) in first remission, which was studied mainly before the advent of rituximab, has lost its appeal due to several small negative trials. However, definitive data do not exist to determine the role of AHSCT in first remission. In this review, we critically evaluate studies investigating AHSCT in DLBCL in first remission. Most available studies have shortcomings that limit the applicability of their findings. AHSCT in first remission may have a role in selected patients with high-risk DLBCL, but a carefully designed prospective study is required to appropriately evaluate this concept.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.